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Title: Doping properties of cadmium-rich arsenic-doped CdTe single crystals: Evidence of metastable AX behavior

Cd-rich composition and group-V element doping are of interest for simultaneously maximizing the hole concentration and minority carrier lifetime in CdTe, but the critical details concerning point defects are not yet fully established. Herein, we report on the properties of arsenic doped CdTe single crystals grown from Cd solvent by the travelling heater method. The photoluminescence spectra and activation energy of 74 +/- 2 meV derived from the temperature-dependent Hall effect are consistent with AsTe as the dominant acceptor. Doping in the 10^16 to 10^17/cm^3 range is achieved for measured As concentrations between 10^16 and 10^20/cm^3 with the highest doping efficiency of 40% occurring near 10^17 As/cm^3. We observe persistent photoconductivity, a hallmark of light-induced metastable configuration changes consistent with AX behavior. Additionally, quenching experiments reveal at least two mechanisms of increased p-type doping in the dark, one decaying over 2-3 weeks and the other persisting for at least 2 months. These results provide essential insights for the application of As-doped CdTe in thin film solar cells.
Authors:
 [1] ; ORCiD logo [2] ;  [3]
  1. Kyoto Univ. (Japan); Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States)
  2. National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)
  3. Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States)
Publication Date:
Report Number(s):
NREL/JA-5900-70421
Journal ID: ISSN 0003-6951; TRN: US1800453
Grant/Contract Number:
AC36-08GO28308
Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Applied Physics Letters
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 111; Journal Issue: 23; Journal ID: ISSN 0003-6951
Publisher:
American Institute of Physics (AIP)
Research Org:
National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)
Sponsoring Org:
USDOE Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Solar Energy Technologies Office (EE-4S)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
14 SOLAR ENERGY; 71 CLASSICAL AND QUANTUM MECHANICS, GENERAL PHYSICS; transition; electron densities of states; activation energies; photoconductivity
OSTI Identifier:
1413669

Nagaoka, Akira, Kuciauskas, Darius, and Scarpulla, Michael A. Doping properties of cadmium-rich arsenic-doped CdTe single crystals: Evidence of metastable AX behavior. United States: N. p., Web. doi:10.1063/1.4999011.
Nagaoka, Akira, Kuciauskas, Darius, & Scarpulla, Michael A. Doping properties of cadmium-rich arsenic-doped CdTe single crystals: Evidence of metastable AX behavior. United States. doi:10.1063/1.4999011.
Nagaoka, Akira, Kuciauskas, Darius, and Scarpulla, Michael A. 2017. "Doping properties of cadmium-rich arsenic-doped CdTe single crystals: Evidence of metastable AX behavior". United States. doi:10.1063/1.4999011.
@article{osti_1413669,
title = {Doping properties of cadmium-rich arsenic-doped CdTe single crystals: Evidence of metastable AX behavior},
author = {Nagaoka, Akira and Kuciauskas, Darius and Scarpulla, Michael A.},
abstractNote = {Cd-rich composition and group-V element doping are of interest for simultaneously maximizing the hole concentration and minority carrier lifetime in CdTe, but the critical details concerning point defects are not yet fully established. Herein, we report on the properties of arsenic doped CdTe single crystals grown from Cd solvent by the travelling heater method. The photoluminescence spectra and activation energy of 74 +/- 2 meV derived from the temperature-dependent Hall effect are consistent with AsTe as the dominant acceptor. Doping in the 10^16 to 10^17/cm^3 range is achieved for measured As concentrations between 10^16 and 10^20/cm^3 with the highest doping efficiency of 40% occurring near 10^17 As/cm^3. We observe persistent photoconductivity, a hallmark of light-induced metastable configuration changes consistent with AX behavior. Additionally, quenching experiments reveal at least two mechanisms of increased p-type doping in the dark, one decaying over 2-3 weeks and the other persisting for at least 2 months. These results provide essential insights for the application of As-doped CdTe in thin film solar cells.},
doi = {10.1063/1.4999011},
journal = {Applied Physics Letters},
number = 23,
volume = 111,
place = {United States},
year = {2017},
month = {12}
}

Works referenced in this record:

Strategies to increase CdTe solar-cell voltage
journal, May 2007

Dependence of the Minority-Carrier Lifetime on the Stoichiometry of CdTe Using Time-Resolved Photoluminescence and First-Principles Calculations
journal, August 2013

Research strategies toward improving thin-film CdTe photovoltaic devices beyond 20% conversion efficiency
journal, December 2013