skip to main content
DOE PAGES title logo U.S. Department of Energy
Office of Scientific and Technical Information

Title: iPTF15dtg: a double-peaked Type Ic supernova from a massive progenitor

Abstract

Type Ic supernovae (SNe Ic) arise from the core-collapse of H- (and He-) poor stars, which could either be single Wolf-Rayet (WR) stars or lower-mass stars stripped of their envelope by a companion. Their light curves are radioactively powered and usually show a fast rise to peak (~10-15 d), without any early (in the first few days) emission bumps (with the exception of broad-lined SNe Ic) as sometimes seen for other types of stripped-envelope SNe (e.g., Type IIb SN 1993J and Type Ib SN 2008D). Here, we have studied iPTF15dtg, a spectroscopically normal SN Ic with an early excess in the optical light curves followed by a long (~30 d) rise to the main peak. It is the first spectroscopically-normal double-peaked SN Ic to be observed. Our aim is to determine the properties of this explosion and of its progenitor star. Methods. Optical photometry and spectroscopy of iPTF15dtg was obtained with multiple telescopes. The resulting light curves and spectral sequence are analyzed and modeled with hydrodynamical and analytical models, with particular focus on the early emission. iPTF15dtg is a slow rising SN Ic, similar to SN 2011bm. Hydrodynamical modeling of the bolometric properties reveals a large ejecta mass (~10 M)more » and strong 56Ni mixing. The luminous early emission can be reproduced if we account for the presence of an extended (≳500 R), low-mass (≳0.045 M) envelope around the progenitor star. Alternative scenarios for the early peak, such as the interaction with a companion, a shock-breakout (SBO) cooling tail from the progenitor surface, or a magnetar-driven SBO are not favored. In conclusion, the large ejecta mass and the presence of H- and He-free extended material around the star suggest that the progenitor of iPTF15dtg was a massive (≳35 M) WR star that experienced strong mass loss.« less

Authors:
 [1];  [1];  [1];  [2];  [3];  [1];  [4];  [5];  [1];  [6];  [3]; ORCiD logo [7]
  1. Stockholm Univ. (Sweden). Oskar Klein Centre, Dept. of Astronomy
  2. Texas Tech Univ., Lubbock, TX (United States). Dept. of Physics
  3. Weizmann Inst. of Science, Rehovot (Israel). Dept. of Particle Physics & Astrophysics
  4. California Inst. of Technology (CalTech), Pasadena, CA (United States). Dept. of Astronomy
  5. California Inst. of Technology (CalTech), La Canada Flintridge, CA (United States). Jet Propulsion Lab.
  6. California Inst. of Technology (CalTech), Pasadena, CA (United States). Cahill Center for Astrophysics
  7. Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) Program; National Science Foundation (NSF); Knut and Alice Wallenberg Foundation
OSTI Identifier:
1412870
Report Number(s):
LA-UR-17-27746
Journal ID: ISSN 0004-6361; TRN: US1800385
Grant/Contract Number:  
AC52-06NA25396
Resource Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Astronomy and Astrophysics
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 592; Journal ID: ISSN 0004-6361
Publisher:
EDP Sciences
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
79 ASTRONOMY AND ASTROPHYSICS; Astronomy and Astrophysics; supernovae general

Citation Formats

Taddia, Francesco, Fremling, C., Sollerman, J., Corsi, A., Gal-Yam, A., Karamehmetoglu, E., Lunnan, R., Bue, B., Ergon, M., Kasliwal, M., Vreeswijk, P. M., and Wozniak, Przemyslaw R. iPTF15dtg: a double-peaked Type Ic supernova from a massive progenitor. United States: N. p., 2016. Web. doi:10.1051/0004-6361/201628703.
Taddia, Francesco, Fremling, C., Sollerman, J., Corsi, A., Gal-Yam, A., Karamehmetoglu, E., Lunnan, R., Bue, B., Ergon, M., Kasliwal, M., Vreeswijk, P. M., & Wozniak, Przemyslaw R. iPTF15dtg: a double-peaked Type Ic supernova from a massive progenitor. United States. doi:10.1051/0004-6361/201628703.
Taddia, Francesco, Fremling, C., Sollerman, J., Corsi, A., Gal-Yam, A., Karamehmetoglu, E., Lunnan, R., Bue, B., Ergon, M., Kasliwal, M., Vreeswijk, P. M., and Wozniak, Przemyslaw R. Thu . "iPTF15dtg: a double-peaked Type Ic supernova from a massive progenitor". United States. doi:10.1051/0004-6361/201628703. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1412870.
@article{osti_1412870,
title = {iPTF15dtg: a double-peaked Type Ic supernova from a massive progenitor},
author = {Taddia, Francesco and Fremling, C. and Sollerman, J. and Corsi, A. and Gal-Yam, A. and Karamehmetoglu, E. and Lunnan, R. and Bue, B. and Ergon, M. and Kasliwal, M. and Vreeswijk, P. M. and Wozniak, Przemyslaw R.},
abstractNote = {Type Ic supernovae (SNe Ic) arise from the core-collapse of H- (and He-) poor stars, which could either be single Wolf-Rayet (WR) stars or lower-mass stars stripped of their envelope by a companion. Their light curves are radioactively powered and usually show a fast rise to peak (~10-15 d), without any early (in the first few days) emission bumps (with the exception of broad-lined SNe Ic) as sometimes seen for other types of stripped-envelope SNe (e.g., Type IIb SN 1993J and Type Ib SN 2008D). Here, we have studied iPTF15dtg, a spectroscopically normal SN Ic with an early excess in the optical light curves followed by a long (~30 d) rise to the main peak. It is the first spectroscopically-normal double-peaked SN Ic to be observed. Our aim is to determine the properties of this explosion and of its progenitor star. Methods. Optical photometry and spectroscopy of iPTF15dtg was obtained with multiple telescopes. The resulting light curves and spectral sequence are analyzed and modeled with hydrodynamical and analytical models, with particular focus on the early emission. iPTF15dtg is a slow rising SN Ic, similar to SN 2011bm. Hydrodynamical modeling of the bolometric properties reveals a large ejecta mass (~10 M⊙) and strong 56Ni mixing. The luminous early emission can be reproduced if we account for the presence of an extended (≳500 R⊙), low-mass (≳0.045 M⊙) envelope around the progenitor star. Alternative scenarios for the early peak, such as the interaction with a companion, a shock-breakout (SBO) cooling tail from the progenitor surface, or a magnetar-driven SBO are not favored. In conclusion, the large ejecta mass and the presence of H- and He-free extended material around the star suggest that the progenitor of iPTF15dtg was a massive (≳35 M⊙) WR star that experienced strong mass loss.},
doi = {10.1051/0004-6361/201628703},
journal = {Astronomy and Astrophysics},
number = ,
volume = 592,
place = {United States},
year = {2016},
month = {8}
}

Journal Article:
Free Publicly Available Full Text
Publisher's Version of Record

Citation Metrics:
Cited by: 15 works
Citation information provided by
Web of Science

Save / Share:

Works referenced in this record:

The Tenth data Release of the Sloan Digital sky Survey: First Spectroscopic data from the Sdss-Iii Apache Point Observatory Galactic Evolution Experiment
journal, March 2014

  • Ahn, Christopher P.; Alexandroff, Rachael; Allende Prieto, Carlos
  • The Astrophysical Journal Supplement Series, Vol. 211, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1088/0067-0049/211/2/17

Analysis of late-time light curves of Type IIb, Ib and Ic supernovae
journal, April 2015

  • Wheeler, J. Craig; Johnson, V.; Clocchiatti, A.
  • Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Vol. 450, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1093/mnras/stv650

Hydrogen-Poor Superluminous Supernovae and Long-Duration Gamma-Ray Bursts have Similar host Galaxies
journal, May 2014


The Metamorphosis of Supernova SN 2008D/XRF 080109: A Link Between Supernovae and GRBs/Hypernovae
journal, August 2008


XRF 100316D/SN 2010bh AND THE NATURE OF GAMMA-RAY BURST SUPERNOVAE
journal, September 2011


Optical Spectra of Supernovae
journal, September 1997


An extremely luminous X-ray outburst at the birth of a supernova
journal, May 2008

  • Soderberg, A. M.; Berger, E.; Page, K. L.
  • Nature, Vol. 453, Issue 7194
  • DOI: 10.1038/nature06997

GRB hosts through cosmic time: VLT/X-Shooter emission-line spectroscopy of 96
journal, September 2015


A giant outburst two years before the core-collapse of a massive star
journal, June 2007

  • Pastorello, A.; Smartt, S. J.; Mattila, S.
  • Nature, Vol. 447, Issue 7146
  • DOI: 10.1038/nature05825

The Type I[CLC]c[/CLC] Supernova 1994I in M51: Detection of Helium and Spectral Evolution
journal, September 1995

  • Filippenko,, Alexei V.; Barth,, Aaron J.; Matheson,, Thomas
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 450, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1086/309659

EVIDENCE FOR A COMPACT WOLF-RAYET PROGENITOR FOR THE TYPE Ic SUPERNOVA PTF 10vgv
journal, February 2012


The Expanded very Large Array: a new Telescope for new Science
journal, August 2011


Nebular emission-line profiles of Type Ib/c supernovae - probing the ejecta asphericity
journal, August 2009


The broad-lined Type Ic supernova 2003jd★: The broad-lined Type Ic supernova 2003jd
journal, December 2007


THE ULTIMATE LIGHT CURVE OF SN 1998bw/GRB 980425
journal, April 2011

  • Clocchiatti, Alejandro; Suntzeff, Nicholas B.; Covarrubias, Ricardo
  • The Astronomical Journal, Vol. 141, Issue 5
  • DOI: 10.1088/0004-6256/141/5/163

Supernova Light Curves Powered by Young Magnetars
journal, June 2010


Double-Peaked Oxygen Lines Are Not Rare in Nebular Spectra of Core-Collapse Supernovae
journal, September 2008

  • Modjaz, M.; Kirshner, R. P.; Blondin, S.
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 687, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1086/593135

SUPER-LUMINOUS TYPE Ic SUPERNOVAE: CATCHING A MAGNETAR BY THE TAIL
journal, June 2013


Core-Collapse Supernovae from the Palomar Transient Factory: Indications for a Different Population in Dwarf Galaxies
journal, September 2010


The Sloan Digital Sky Survey Photometric System
journal, April 1996

  • Fukugita, M.; Ichikawa, T.; Gunn, J. E.
  • The Astronomical Journal, Vol. 111
  • DOI: 10.1086/117915

Using Double-Peaked Supernova Light Curves to Study Extended Material
journal, August 2015


GRB 060218: A Relativistic Supernova Shock Breakout
journal, September 2007

  • Waxman, E.; Meszaros, P.; Campana, S.
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 667, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1086/520715

The properties of the ‘standard’ Type Ic supernova 1994I from spectral models: Properties of SN 1994I from spectral models
journal, June 2006


Are Low-Luminosity Gamma-Ray Bursts Generated by Relativistic Jets?
journal, September 2011


The Early Uv/Optical Emission from Core-Collapse Supernovae
journal, January 2011


Dust in the Wind: the role of Recent mass loss in long Gamma-Ray Bursts
journal, May 2015


Sn 2010mb: Direct Evidence for a Supernova Interacting with a Large Amount of Hydrogen-Free Circumstellar Material
journal, March 2014


The Keck Low-Resolution Imaging Spectrometer
journal, April 1995

  • Oke, J. B.; Cohen, J. G.; Carr, M.
  • Publications of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific, Vol. 107
  • DOI: 10.1086/133562

THE DOUBLE-PEAKED SN 2013ge: A TYPE Ib/c SN WITH AN ASYMMETRIC MASS EJECTION OR AN EXTENDED PROGENITOR ENVELOPE
journal, April 2016


Supernova 2006aj and the associated X-Ray Flash 060218
journal, July 2006


EARLY ULTRAVIOLET/OPTICAL EMISSION OF THE TYPE Ib SN 2008D
journal, April 2013


Evolutionary Models for Type Ib/c Supernova Progenitors
journal, January 2015

  • Yoon, Sung-Chul
  • Publications of the Astronomical Society of Australia, Vol. 32
  • DOI: 10.1017/pasa.2015.16

SN 2009jf: a slow-evolving stripped-envelope core-collapse supernova★: SN 2009jf
journal, August 2011


PTF12os and iPTF13bvn: Two stripped-envelope supernovae from low-mass progenitors in NGC 5806⋆
journal, September 2016


SN 2006oz: rise of a super-luminous supernova observed by the SDSS-II SN Survey
journal, May 2012


Early-time light curves of Type Ib/c supernovae from the SDSS-II Supernova Survey
journal, January 2015


A neutron-star-driven X-ray flash associated with supernova SN 2006aj
journal, August 2006

  • Mazzali, Paolo A.; Deng, Jinsong; Nomoto, Ken'ichi
  • Nature, Vol. 442, Issue 7106
  • DOI: 10.1038/nature05081

Modules for Experiments in Stellar Astrophysics (Mesa)
journal, December 2010

  • Paxton, Bill; Bildsten, Lars; Dotter, Aaron
  • The Astrophysical Journal Supplement Series, Vol. 192, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1088/0067-0049/192/1/3

The Supernova–Gamma-Ray Burst Connection
journal, September 2006


Seeing the Collision of a Supernova with its Companion star
journal, December 2009


Early Spectroscopic Identification of sn 2008d
journal, January 2009


Seeing double: the frequency and detectability of double-peaked superluminous supernova light curves
journal, January 2016

  • Nicholl, M.; Smartt, S. J.
  • Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society: Letters, Vol. 457, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1093/mnrasl/slv210

Progenitors of Core-Collapse Supernovae
journal, September 2009


LSQ14bdq: A TYPE Ic SUPER-LUMINOUS SUPERNOVA WITH A DOUBLE-PEAKED LIGHT CURVE
journal, July 2015


A MULTI-WAVELENGTH INVESTIGATION OF THE RADIO-LOUD SUPERNOVA PTF11qcj AND ITS CIRCUMSTELLAR ENVIRONMENT
journal, January 2014


UBVRI photometry of SN 1993J in M81: The first 120 days
journal, March 1994

  • Richmond, Michael W.; Treffers, Richard R.; Filippenko, Alexei V.
  • The Astronomical Journal, Vol. 107
  • DOI: 10.1086/116915

On the diversity of superluminous supernovae: ejected mass as the dominant factor
journal, August 2015

  • Nicholl, M.; Smartt, S. J.; Jerkstrand, A.
  • Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Vol. 452, Issue 4
  • DOI: 10.1093/mnras/stv1522

A SPECTROSCOPICALLY NORMAL TYPE Ic SUPERNOVA FROM A VERY MASSIVE PROGENITOR
journal, March 2012

  • Valenti, Stefano; Taubenberger, Stefan; Pastorello, Andrea
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 749, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1088/2041-8205/749/2/L28

Optical and near-infrared observations of SN 2011dh – The first 100 days
journal, February 2014


The Automated Palomar 60 Inch Telescope
journal, October 2006

  • Cenko, S. Bradley; Fox, Derek B.; Moon, Dae‐Sik
  • Publications of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific, Vol. 118, Issue 848
  • DOI: 10.1086/508366

What can we Learn from the Rising Light Curves of Radioactively Powered Supernovae?
journal, May 2013


A Wolf–Rayet-like progenitor of SN 2013cu from spectral observations of a stellar wind
journal, May 2014

  • Gal-Yam, Avishay; Arcavi, I.; Ofek, E. O.
  • Nature, Vol. 509, Issue 7501
  • DOI: 10.1038/nature13304

Optical Photometry of the Type I[CLC]a[/CLC] Supernova 1999[CLC]ee[/CLC] and the Type I[CLC]b[/CLC]/[CLC]c[/CLC] Supernova 1999[CLC]ex[/CLC] in IC 5179
journal, October 2002

  • Stritzinger, Maximilian; Hamuy, Mario; Suntzeff, Nicholas B.
  • The Astronomical Journal, Vol. 124, Issue 4
  • DOI: 10.1086/342544

Metallicity at the explosion sites of interacting transients
journal, August 2015


ULTRAVIOLET LIGHT CURVES OF SUPERNOVAE WITH THE SWIFT ULTRAVIOLET/OPTICAL TELESCOPE
journal, April 2009


Optical Spectra of 73 Stripped-Envelope Core-Collapse Supernovae
journal, March 2014


Jet or shock breakout? The low-luminosity GRB 060218
journal, May 2016

  • Irwin, Christopher M.; Chevalier, Roger A.
  • Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Vol. 460, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1093/mnras/stw1058

SN 2004aw: confirming diversity of Type Ic supernovae
journal, September 2006


A new method for estimating the bolometric properties of Ibc supernovae
journal, July 2013

  • Cano, Zach
  • Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Vol. 434, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1093/mnras/stt1048

[O iii]/[N ii] as an abundance indicator at high redshift
journal, March 2004


Using Colors to Improve Photometric Metallicity Estimates for Galaxies
journal, September 2013


WISeREP—An Interactive Supernova Data Repository
journal, July 2012

  • Yaron, Ofer; Gal-Yam, Avishay
  • Publications of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific, Vol. 124, Issue 917
  • DOI: 10.1086/666656

A trio of gamma-ray burst supernovae:: GRB 120729A, GRB 130215A/SN 2013ez, and GRB 130831A/SN 2013fu⋆
journal, August 2014


The bolometric light curves and physical parameters of stripped-envelope supernovae
journal, February 2016

  • Prentice, S. J.; Mazzali, P. A.; Pian, E.
  • Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Vol. 458, Issue 3
  • DOI: 10.1093/mnras/stw299

Self-similar solutions for the interaction of stellar ejecta with an external medium
journal, July 1982

  • Chevalier, R. A.
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 258
  • DOI: 10.1086/160126

A metallicity study of 1987A-like supernova host galaxies
journal, October 2013


A SPECTROSCOPIC STUDY OF TYPE Ibc SUPERNOVA HOST GALAXIES FROM UNTARGETED SURVEYS
journal, October 2012


Luminous Supernovae
journal, August 2012


Inferring supernova IIb/Ib/Ic ejecta properties from light curves and spectra: correlations from radiative-transfer models
journal, February 2016

  • Dessart, Luc; Hillier, D. John; Woosley, Stan
  • Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Vol. 458, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1093/mnras/stw418

Measuring Reddening with Sloan Digital sky Survey Stellar Spectra and Recalibrating sfd
journal, August 2011


Multi-Color Optical and Near-Infrared Light Curves of 64 Stripped-Envelope Core-Collapse Supernovae
journal, July 2014

  • Bianco, F. B.; Modjaz, M.; Hicken, M.
  • The Astrophysical Journal Supplement Series, Vol. 213, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1088/0067-0049/213/2/19

Magnetar-Driven Shock Breakout and Double-Peaked Supernova Light Curves
journal, April 2016


Radio emission from the unusual supernova 1998bw and its association with the γ-ray burst of 25 April 1998
journal, October 1998

  • Kulkarni, S. R.; Frail, D. A.; Wieringa, M. H.
  • Nature, Vol. 395, Issue 6703
  • DOI: 10.1038/27139

Bolometric light curves and explosion parameters of 38 stripped-envelope core-collapse supernovae
journal, January 2016

  • Lyman, J. D.; Bersier, D.; James, P. A.
  • Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Vol. 457, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1093/mnras/stv2983

The Unique Type Ib Supernova 2005bf at Nebular Phases: A Possible Birth Event of a Strongly Magnetized Neutron Star
journal, September 2007

  • Maeda, K.; Tanaka, M.; Nomoto, K.
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 666, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1086/520054

The Carbon-rich Type Ic SN 2007gr: The Photospheric Phase
journal, January 2008

  • Valenti, S.; Elias-Rosa, N.; Taubenberger, S.
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 673, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1086/527672

Asphericity in Supernova Explosions from Late-Time Spectroscopy
journal, February 2008


Bolometric corrections for optical light curves of core-collapse supernovae
journal, December 2013

  • Lyman, J. D.; Bersier, D.; James, P. A.
  • Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Vol. 437, Issue 4
  • DOI: 10.1093/mnras/stt2187

Hydrogen-poor superluminous stellar explosions
journal, June 2011

  • Quimby, R. M.; Kulkarni, S. R.; Kasliwal, M. M.
  • Nature, Vol. 474, Issue 7352
  • DOI: 10.1038/nature10095

Supernovae with two Peaks in the Optical Light Curve and the Signature of Progenitors with Low-Mass Extended Envelopes
journal, June 2014


UBVRI Photometry of the Type IC SN 1994I in M51
journal, January 1996

  • Richmond, M. W.; van Dyk, S. D.; Ho, W.
  • The Astronomical Journal, Vol. 111
  • DOI: 10.1086/117785

THE FIRST SYSTEMATIC STUDY OF TYPE Ibc SUPERNOVA MULTI-BAND LIGHT CURVES
journal, October 2011

  • Drout, Maria R.; Soderberg, Alicia M.; Gal-Yam, Avishay
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 741, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1088/0004-637X/741/2/97

FIVE-YEAR WILKINSON MICROWAVE ANISOTROPY PROBE OBSERVATIONS: COSMOLOGICAL INTERPRETATION
journal, February 2009

  • Komatsu, E.; Dunkley, J.; Nolta, M. R.
  • The Astrophysical Journal Supplement Series, Vol. 180, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1088/0067-0049/180/2/330

SN 2005bf: A Possible Transition Event between Type Ib/c Supernovae and Gamma‐Ray Bursts
journal, April 2006

  • Folatelli, Gaston; Contreras, Carlos; Phillips, M. M.
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 641, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1086/500531

Extensive optical and near-infrared observations of the nearby, narrow-lined type Ic SN 2007gr: days 5 to 415
journal, September 2009


SN 2011dh: DISCOVERY OF A TYPE IIb SUPERNOVA FROM A COMPACT PROGENITOR IN THE NEARBY GALAXY M51
journal, November 2011


Light Curves of Core-Collapse Supernovae with Substantial mass loss Using the new Open-Source Supernova Explosion code (Snec)
journal, November 2015

  • Morozova, Viktoriya; Piro, Anthony L.; Renzo, Mathieu
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 814, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1088/0004-637X/814/1/63

The death of massive stars - II. Observational constraints on the progenitors of Type Ibc supernovae
journal, October 2013

  • Eldridge, J. J.; Fraser, M.; Smartt, S. J.
  • Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Vol. 436, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1093/mnras/stt1612

The association of GRB 060218 with a supernova and the evolution of the shock wave
journal, August 2006

  • Campana, S.; Mangano, V.; Blustin, A. J.
  • Nature, Vol. 442, Issue 7106
  • DOI: 10.1038/nature04892

    Works referencing / citing this record:

    PTF11mnb: First analog of supernova 2005bf: Long-rising, double-peaked supernova Ic from a massive progenitor⋆
    journal, January 2018


    Oxygen and helium in stripped-envelope supernovae
    journal, October 2018


    PTF11mnb: First analog of supernova 2005bf: Long-rising, double-peaked supernova Ic from a massive progenitor⋆
    journal, January 2018


    Oxygen and helium in stripped-envelope supernovae
    journal, October 2018