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Title: Eliminating the non-Gaussian spectral response of X-ray absorbers for transition-edge sensors

Abstract

Transition-edge sensors (TESs) as microcalorimeters for high-energy-resolution X-ray spectroscopy are often fabricated with an absorber made of materials with high Z (for X-ray stopping power) and low heat capacity (for high resolving power). Bismuth represents one of the most compelling options. TESs with evaporated bismuth absorbers have shown spectra with undesirable and unexplained low-energy tails. We have developed TESs with electroplated bismuth absorbers over a gold layer that are not afflicted by this problem and that retain the other positive aspects of this material. To better understand these phenomena, we have studied a series of TESs with gold, gold/evaporated bismuth, and gold/electroplated bismuth absorbers, fabricated on the same die with identical thermal coupling. Lastly, we show that the bismuth morphology is linked to the spectral response of X-ray TES microcalorimeters.

Authors:
 [1];  [2];  [2];  [2];  [2];  [2]; ORCiD logo [2]; ORCiD logo [1];  [2]; ORCiD logo [3];  [3];  [3];  [4];  [3]; ORCiD logo [4];  [3]; ORCiD logo [3];  [4]
  1. Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (United States)
  2. Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)
  3. National Inst. of Standards and Technology (NIST), Boulder, CO (United States)
  4. National Inst. of Standards and Technology (NIST), Boulder, CO (United States); Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC), Basic Energy Sciences (BES) (SC-22). Scientific User Facilities Division
OSTI Identifier:
1412693
Alternate Identifier(s):
OSTI ID: 1408056
Grant/Contract Number:  
[AC02-06CH11357]
Resource Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Applied Physics Letters
Additional Journal Information:
[ Journal Volume: 111; Journal Issue: 19]; Journal ID: ISSN 0003-6951
Publisher:
American Institute of Physics (AIP)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
37 INORGANIC, ORGANIC, PHYSICAL, AND ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY; 36 MATERIALS SCIENCE

Citation Formats

Divan, Ralu, Gades, Lisa M., Kenesei, Peter, Madden, Timothy J., Miceli, Antonino, Park, Jun-Sang, Patel, Umeshkumar M., Quaranta, Orlando, Sharma, Hemant, Bennett, Douglas A., Doriese, William B., Fowler, Joseph W., Gard, Johnathon D., Hays-Wehle, James P., Morgan, Kelsey M., Schmidt, Daniel R., Swetz, Daniel S., and Ullom, Joel N. Eliminating the non-Gaussian spectral response of X-ray absorbers for transition-edge sensors. United States: N. p., 2017. Web. doi:10.1063/1.5001198.
Divan, Ralu, Gades, Lisa M., Kenesei, Peter, Madden, Timothy J., Miceli, Antonino, Park, Jun-Sang, Patel, Umeshkumar M., Quaranta, Orlando, Sharma, Hemant, Bennett, Douglas A., Doriese, William B., Fowler, Joseph W., Gard, Johnathon D., Hays-Wehle, James P., Morgan, Kelsey M., Schmidt, Daniel R., Swetz, Daniel S., & Ullom, Joel N. Eliminating the non-Gaussian spectral response of X-ray absorbers for transition-edge sensors. United States. doi:10.1063/1.5001198.
Divan, Ralu, Gades, Lisa M., Kenesei, Peter, Madden, Timothy J., Miceli, Antonino, Park, Jun-Sang, Patel, Umeshkumar M., Quaranta, Orlando, Sharma, Hemant, Bennett, Douglas A., Doriese, William B., Fowler, Joseph W., Gard, Johnathon D., Hays-Wehle, James P., Morgan, Kelsey M., Schmidt, Daniel R., Swetz, Daniel S., and Ullom, Joel N. Wed . "Eliminating the non-Gaussian spectral response of X-ray absorbers for transition-edge sensors". United States. doi:10.1063/1.5001198. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1412693.
@article{osti_1412693,
title = {Eliminating the non-Gaussian spectral response of X-ray absorbers for transition-edge sensors},
author = {Divan, Ralu and Gades, Lisa M. and Kenesei, Peter and Madden, Timothy J. and Miceli, Antonino and Park, Jun-Sang and Patel, Umeshkumar M. and Quaranta, Orlando and Sharma, Hemant and Bennett, Douglas A. and Doriese, William B. and Fowler, Joseph W. and Gard, Johnathon D. and Hays-Wehle, James P. and Morgan, Kelsey M. and Schmidt, Daniel R. and Swetz, Daniel S. and Ullom, Joel N.},
abstractNote = {Transition-edge sensors (TESs) as microcalorimeters for high-energy-resolution X-ray spectroscopy are often fabricated with an absorber made of materials with high Z (for X-ray stopping power) and low heat capacity (for high resolving power). Bismuth represents one of the most compelling options. TESs with evaporated bismuth absorbers have shown spectra with undesirable and unexplained low-energy tails. We have developed TESs with electroplated bismuth absorbers over a gold layer that are not afflicted by this problem and that retain the other positive aspects of this material. To better understand these phenomena, we have studied a series of TESs with gold, gold/evaporated bismuth, and gold/electroplated bismuth absorbers, fabricated on the same die with identical thermal coupling. Lastly, we show that the bismuth morphology is linked to the spectral response of X-ray TES microcalorimeters.},
doi = {10.1063/1.5001198},
journal = {Applied Physics Letters},
number = [19],
volume = [111],
place = {United States},
year = {2017},
month = {11}
}

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