skip to main content
DOE PAGES title logo U.S. Department of Energy
Office of Scientific and Technical Information

Title: Epi-Two-Dimensional Fluid Flow: A New Topological Paradigm for Dimensionality

Authors:
;
Publication Date:
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE
OSTI Identifier:
1412630
Grant/Contract Number:  
15K13532; 17H01177; FG02-04ER-54742
Resource Type:
Publisher's Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Physical Review Letters
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Name: Physical Review Letters Journal Volume: 119 Journal Issue: 24; Journal ID: ISSN 0031-9007
Publisher:
American Physical Society
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English

Citation Formats

Yoshida, Z., and Morrison, P. J. Epi-Two-Dimensional Fluid Flow: A New Topological Paradigm for Dimensionality. United States: N. p., 2017. Web. doi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.119.244501.
Yoshida, Z., & Morrison, P. J. Epi-Two-Dimensional Fluid Flow: A New Topological Paradigm for Dimensionality. United States. doi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.119.244501.
Yoshida, Z., and Morrison, P. J. Mon . "Epi-Two-Dimensional Fluid Flow: A New Topological Paradigm for Dimensionality". United States. doi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.119.244501.
@article{osti_1412630,
title = {Epi-Two-Dimensional Fluid Flow: A New Topological Paradigm for Dimensionality},
author = {Yoshida, Z. and Morrison, P. J.},
abstractNote = {},
doi = {10.1103/PhysRevLett.119.244501},
journal = {Physical Review Letters},
number = 24,
volume = 119,
place = {United States},
year = {2017},
month = {12}
}

Journal Article:
Free Publicly Available Full Text
Publisher's Version of Record
DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.119.244501

Citation Metrics:
Cited by: 2 works
Citation information provided by
Web of Science

Save / Share:

Works referenced in this record:

Noncanonical Hamiltonian Density Formulation of Hydrodynamics and Ideal Magnetohydrodynamics
journal, September 1980


Coadjoint orbits, vortices, and Clebsch variables for incompressible fluids
journal, May 1983


Magnetic relaxation and the Taylor conjecture
journal, December 2015


Poisson brackets for fluids and plasmas
conference, January 1982

  • Morrison, Philip J.
  • AIP Conference Proceedings Volume 88
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.33633

Chaotic streamlines in the ABC flows
journal, June 1986


Perfect fluid theory and its extensions
journal, October 2004


Hamiltonian description of the ideal fluid
journal, April 1998


A Unified View of Topological Invariants of Fluid Flows
journal, January 2008


Global Existence and Uniqueness of Weak Solutions of Three-Dimensional Euler Equations with Helical Symmetry in the Absence of Vorticity Stretching
journal, January 2009

  • Ettinger, Boris; Titi, Edriss S.
  • SIAM Journal on Mathematical Analysis, Vol. 41, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1137/08071572X

Coherent Vortex Extraction in 3D Turbulent Flows Using Orthogonal Wavelets
journal, July 2001


Creation and dynamics of knotted vortices
journal, March 2013

  • Kleckner, Dustin; Irvine, William T. M.
  • Nature Physics, Vol. 9, Issue 4
  • DOI: 10.1038/nphys2560

A hierarchy of noncanonical Hamiltonian systems: circulation laws in an extended phase space
journal, May 2014


Direct observation of the intermittency of intense vorticity filaments in turbulence
journal, August 1991


Reconnexion of vortex and magnetic tubes subject to an imposed strain: An approach by perturbation expansion
journal, April 2005


Self-organization processes in continuous media
journal, January 1985


Gauge symmetries and Noether charges in Clebsch-parameterized magnetohydrodynamics
journal, November 2015


Fluid element relabeling symmetry
journal, August 1996


Chiral Charge-Density Waves
journal, October 2010


<span class="fa fa-external-link" aria-hidden="true"></span></a> <small class="text-muted" style="text-transform:uppercase; font-size:0.75rem;"><br/> <span class="type">journal</span>, <span class="date" data-date="1993-01-01">January 1993</span></small> </h2> <ul class="small references-list" style="list-style-type:none; margin-top: 0.5em; padding-left: 0; line-height:1.8em;"> <li> <span style="color:#5C7B2D;"> Constantin, Peter; Fefferman, Charles</span> </li> <li> Indiana University Mathematics Journal, Vol. 42, Issue 3</li> <li> <span class="text-muted related-url">DOI: <a href="https://doi.org/10.1512/iumj.1993.42.42034" class="text-muted" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer">10.1512/iumj.1993.42.42034<span class="fa fa-external-link" aria-hidden="true"></span></a></span> </li> </ul> <hr/> </div><div> <h2 class="title" style="margin-bottom:0;" data-apporder=""> <a href="https://doi.org/10.1063/1.3256125" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer" class="name">Clebsch parameterization: Basic properties and remarks on its applications<span class="fa fa-external-link" aria-hidden="true"></span></a> <small class="text-muted" style="text-transform:uppercase; font-size:0.75rem;"><br/> <span class="type">journal</span>, <span class="date" data-date="2009-11-01">November 2009</span></small> </h2> <ul class="small references-list" style="list-style-type:none; margin-top: 0.5em; padding-left: 0; line-height:1.8em;"> <li> <span style="color:#5C7B2D;"> Yoshida, Z.</span> </li> <li> Journal of Mathematical Physics, Vol. 50, Issue 11</li> <li> <span class="text-muted related-url">DOI: <a href="https://doi.org/10.1063/1.3256125" class="text-muted" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer">10.1063/1.3256125<span class="fa fa-external-link" aria-hidden="true"></span></a></span> </li> </ul> <hr/> </div><div> <h2 class="title" style="margin-bottom:0;" data-apporder=""> <a href="https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.44.6.489" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer" class="name">A Theorem on Force-Free Magnetic Fields<span class="fa fa-external-link" aria-hidden="true"></span></a> <small class="text-muted" style="text-transform:uppercase; font-size:0.75rem;"><br/> <span class="type">journal</span>, <span class="date" data-date="1958-06-01">June 1958</span></small> </h2> <ul class="small references-list" style="list-style-type:none; margin-top: 0.5em; padding-left: 0; line-height:1.8em;"> <li> <span style="color:#5C7B2D;"> Woltjer, L.</span> </li> <li> Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Vol. 44, Issue 6</li> <li> <span class="text-muted related-url">DOI: <a href="https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.44.6.489" class="text-muted" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer">10.1073/pnas.44.6.489<span class="fa fa-external-link" aria-hidden="true"></span></a></span> </li> </ul> <hr/> </div><div> <h2 class="title" style="margin-bottom:0;" data-apporder=""> <a href="https://doi.org/10.1017/jfm.2014.233" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer" class="name">Reconnection of skewed vortices<span class="fa fa-external-link" aria-hidden="true"></span></a> <small class="text-muted" style="text-transform:uppercase; font-size:0.75rem;"><br/> <span class="type">journal</span>, <span class="date" data-date="2014-06-20">June 2014</span></small> </h2> <ul class="small references-list" style="list-style-type:none; margin-top: 0.5em; padding-left: 0; line-height:1.8em;"> <li> <span style="color:#5C7B2D;"> Kimura, Y.; Moffatt, H. K.</span> </li> <li> Journal of Fluid Mechanics, Vol. 751</li> <li> <span class="text-muted related-url">DOI: <a href="https://doi.org/10.1017/jfm.2014.233" class="text-muted" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer">10.1017/jfm.2014.233<span class="fa fa-external-link" aria-hidden="true"></span></a></span> </li> </ul> <hr/> </div><div> <h2 class="title" style="margin-bottom:0;" data-apporder=""> <a href="https://doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevLett.110.143603" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer" class="name">Transfer of Light Helicity to Nanostructures<span class="fa fa-external-link" aria-hidden="true"></span></a> <small class="text-muted" style="text-transform:uppercase; font-size:0.75rem;"><br/> <span class="type">journal</span>, <span class="date" data-date="2013-04-01">April 2013</span></small> </h2> <ul class="small references-list" style="list-style-type:none; margin-top: 0.5em; padding-left: 0; line-height:1.8em;"> <li> <span style="color:#5C7B2D;"> Toyoda, Kohei; Takahashi, Fuyuto; Takizawa, Shun</span> </li> <li> Physical Review Letters, Vol. 110, Issue 14</li> <li> <span class="text-muted related-url">DOI: <a href="https://doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevLett.110.143603" class="text-muted" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer">10.1103/PhysRevLett.110.143603<span class="fa fa-external-link" aria-hidden="true"></span></a></span> </li> </ul> <hr/> </div><div> <h2 class="title" style="margin-bottom:0;" data-apporder=""> <a href="https://doi.org/10.1088/1751-8113/49/5/055501" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer" class="name">Quantum spirals<span class="fa fa-external-link" aria-hidden="true"></span></a> <small class="text-muted" style="text-transform:uppercase; font-size:0.75rem;"><br/> <span class="type">journal</span>, <span class="date" data-date="2015-12-30">December 2015</span></small> </h2> <ul class="small references-list" style="list-style-type:none; margin-top: 0.5em; padding-left: 0; line-height:1.8em;"> <li> <span style="color:#5C7B2D;"> Yoshida, Z.; Mahajan, S. M.</span> </li> <li> Journal of Physics A: Mathematical and Theoretical, Vol. 49, Issue 5</li> <li> <span class="text-muted related-url">DOI: <a href="https://doi.org/10.1088/1751-8113/49/5/055501" class="text-muted" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer">10.1088/1751-8113/49/5/055501<span class="fa fa-external-link" aria-hidden="true"></span></a></span> </li> </ul> <hr/> </div></div> <div class="pagination-container small"> <a class="pure-button prev page" href="#" rel="prev"><span class="fa fa-angle-left"></span></a><ul class="pagination d-inline-block" style="padding-left:.2em;"></ul><a class="pure-button next page" href="#" rel="next"><span class="fa fa-angle-right"></span></a> </div> </div> </div> <div class="col-sm-3 order-sm-3"> <ul class="nav nav-stacked"> <li class="active"><a href="" class="reference-type-filter tab-nav" data-tab="biblio-references" data-filter="type" data-pattern="*"><span class="fa fa-angle-right"></span> All References</a></li> <li class="small" style="margin-left:.75em; text-transform:capitalize;"><a href="" class="reference-type-filter tab-nav" data-tab="biblio-references" data-filter="type" data-pattern="conference"><span class="fa fa-angle-right"></span> conference<small class="text-muted"> (1)</small></a></li> <li class="small" style="margin-left:.75em; text-transform:capitalize;"><a href="" class="reference-type-filter tab-nav" data-tab="biblio-references" data-filter="type" data-pattern="journal"><span class="fa fa-angle-right"></span> journal<small class="text-muted"> (23)</small></a></li> </ul> <div style="margin-top:2em;"> <form class="pure-form small text-muted reference-search"> <label for="reference-search-text" class="sr-only">Search</label> <input class="search form-control pure-input-1" id="reference-search-text" placeholder="Search" style="margin-bottom:10px;" /> <fieldset> <div style="margin-left:1em; font-weight:normal; line-height: 1.6em;"><input type="radio" class="sort" name="references-sort" data-sort="name" style="position:relative;top:2px;" id="reference-search-sort-name"><label for="reference-search-sort-name" style="margin-left: .3em;">Sort by title</label></div> <div style="margin-left:1em; font-weight:normal; line-height: 1.6em;"><input type="radio" class="sort" name="references-sort" data-sort="date" data-order="desc" style="position:relative;top:2px;" id="reference-search-sort-date"><label for="reference-search-sort-date" style="margin-left: .3em;">Sort by date</label></div> </fieldset> <div class="text-left" style="margin-left:1em;"> <a href="" class="filter-clear clearfix" title="Clear filter / sort" style="font-weight:normal; float:none;">[ × clear filter / sort ]</a> </div> </form> </div> </div> </div> </section> <section id="biblio-related" class="tab-content tab-content-sec " data-tab="biblio"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-9 order-sm-9"> <section id="biblio-similar" class="tab-content tab-content-sec active" data-tab="related"> <div class="padding"> <p class="lead text-muted" style="font-size: 18px; margin-top:0px;">Similar Records in DOE PAGES and OSTI.GOV collections:</p> <aside> <ul class="item-list" itemscope itemtype="http://schema.org/ItemList" style="padding-left:0; list-style-type: none;"> <li> <div class="article item document" itemprop="itemListElement" itemscope itemtype="http://schema.org/WebPage"><meta itemprop="position" content="0" /><div class="item-info"> <h2 class="title" itemprop="name headline"><a href="/biblio/1541257-epi-two-dimensional-fluid-flow-new-topological-paradigm-dimensionality" itemprop="url">Epi-Two-Dimensional Fluid Flow: A New Topological Paradigm for Dimensionality</a></h2> <div class="metadata"> <small class="text-muted" style="text-transform:uppercase;display:block;line-height:2.5em;">Journal Article</small><span class="authors"> <span class="author">Yoshida, Z.</span> ; <span class="author">Morrison, P. J.</span> <span class="text-muted pubdata"> - Physical Review Letters</span> </span> </div> <div class="abstract">Not provided.</div><div class="metadata-links small clearfix text-muted" style="margin-top:15px;"> <div class="pure-menu pure-menu-horizontal pull-right" style="width:unset;"> <ul class="pure-menu-list"> <li class="pure-menu-item"><span class="item-info-ftlink">DOI: <a class="misc doi-link " href="https://doi.org/10.1103/physrevlett.119.244501" target="_blank" rel="noopener" title="Link to document DOI" data-ostiid="1541257" data-product-type="Journal Article" data-product-subtype="AC" >10.1103/physrevlett.119.244501</a></span></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="clearfix"></div> </div> </li> <li> <div class="article item document" itemprop="itemListElement" itemscope itemtype="http://schema.org/WebPage"><meta itemprop="position" content="1" /><div class="item-info"> <h2 class="title" itemprop="name headline"><a href="/pages/biblio/1535301-beatification-flattening-poisson-bracket-two-dimensional-fluid-plasma-theories" itemprop="url">Beatification: Flattening the Poisson bracket for two-dimensional fluid and plasma theories</a></h2> <div class="metadata"> <small class="text-muted" style="text-transform:uppercase;display:block;line-height:2.5em;">Journal Article</small><span class="authors"> <span class="author">Viscondi, Thiago F.</span> ; <span class="author">Caldas, Iberê L.</span> ; <span class="author">Morrison, Philip J.</span> <span class="text-muted pubdata"> - Physics of Plasmas</span> </span> </div> <div class="abstract">A perturbative method called <em>beatification</em> is presented for a class of two-dimensional fluid and plasma theories. The Hamiltonian systems considered, namely, the Euler, Vlasov-Poisson, Hasegawa-Mima, and modified Hasegawa-Mima equations, are naturally described in terms of noncanonical variables. The beatification procedure amounts to finding the correct transformation that removes the explicit variable dependence from a noncanonical Poisson bracket and replaces it with a fixed dependence on a chosen state in the phase space. As such, beatification is a major step toward casting the Hamiltonian system in its canonical form, thus enabling or facilitating the use of analytical and numerical techniques that<a href='#' onclick='$(this).hide().next().show().next().show();return false;' style='margin-left:10px;'>more »</a><span style='display:none;'> require or favor a representation in terms of canonical, or beatified, Hamiltonian variables.</span><a href='#' onclick='$(this).hide().prev().hide().prev().show();return false;' style='margin-left:10px;display:none;'>« less</a></div><div class="metadata-links small clearfix text-muted" style="margin-top:15px;"> <span class="fa fa-book text-muted" aria-hidden="true"></span> Cited by 1<div class="pure-menu pure-menu-horizontal pull-right" style="width:unset;"> <ul class="pure-menu-list"> <li class="pure-menu-item"><span class="item-info-ftlink">DOI: <a class="misc doi-link " href="https://doi.org/10.1063/1.4977451" target="_blank" rel="noopener" title="Link to document DOI" data-ostiid="1535301" data-product-type="Journal Article" data-product-subtype="AM" >10.1063/1.4977451</a></span></li> <li class="pure-menu-item"><span class="item-info-ftlink"><a class="misc fulltext-link " href="/pages/servlets/purl/1535301" title="Link to document media" target="_blank" rel="noopener" data-ostiid="1535301" data-product-type="Journal Article" data-product-subtype="AM" >Full Text Available</a></span></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="clearfix"></div> </div> </li> <li> <div class="article item document" itemprop="itemListElement" itemscope itemtype="http://schema.org/WebPage"><meta itemprop="position" content="2" /><div class="item-info"> <h2 class="title" itemprop="name headline"><a href="/pages/biblio/1535317-plasma-turbulence-equatorial-electrojet-two-dimensional-hamiltonian-fluid-model" itemprop="url">Plasma turbulence in the equatorial electrojet: A two-dimensional Hamiltonian fluid model</a></h2> <div class="metadata"> <small class="text-muted" style="text-transform:uppercase;display:block;line-height:2.5em;">Journal Article</small><span class="authors"> <span class="author">Hassan, Ehab</span> ; <span class="author">Keramidas Charidakos, I.</span> ; <span class="author">Morrison, P. J.</span> ; <span class="author">...</span> <span class="text-muted pubdata"> - Physics of Plasmas</span> </span> </div> <div class="abstract">A nonlinear unified fluid model that describes the Equatorial Electrojet, including the Farley-Buneman and gradient-drift plasma instabilities, is defined and shown to be a noncanonical Hamiltonian system. Two geometric constants of motion for the model are obtained and shown to be Casimir invariants. Here, a reformulation of the model shows the roles of the density-gradient scale-length ( <em>L<sub>n</sub></em>) and the cross-field drift-velocity (<a href='#' onclick='$(this).hide().next().show().next().show();return false;' style='margin-left:10px;'>more »</a><span style='display:none;'> $$υ_E$$) in controlling the dynamics of unstable modes in the growing, transition, and saturation phases of a simulation.</span><a href='#' onclick='$(this).hide().prev().hide().prev().show();return false;' style='margin-left:10px;display:none;'>« less</a></div><div class="metadata-links small clearfix text-muted" style="margin-top:15px;"> <div class="pure-menu pure-menu-horizontal pull-right" style="width:unset;"> <ul class="pure-menu-list"> <li class="pure-menu-item"><span class="item-info-ftlink">DOI: <a class="misc doi-link " href="https://doi.org/10.1063/1.4989709" target="_blank" rel="noopener" title="Link to document DOI" data-ostiid="1535317" data-product-type="Journal Article" data-product-subtype="AM" >10.1063/1.4989709</a></span></li> <li class="pure-menu-item"><span class="item-info-ftlink"><a class="misc fulltext-link " href="/pages/servlets/purl/1535317" title="Link to document media" target="_blank" rel="noopener" data-ostiid="1535317" data-product-type="Journal Article" data-product-subtype="AM" >Full Text Available</a></span></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="clearfix"></div> </div> </li> <li> <div class="article item document" itemprop="itemListElement" itemscope itemtype="http://schema.org/WebPage"><meta itemprop="position" content="5" /><div class="item-info"> <h2 class="title" itemprop="name headline"><a href="/pages/biblio/1524537-nonlinear-neoclassical-two-fluid-theory-response-tokamak-plasma-resonant-error-field" itemprop="url">Nonlinear neoclassical two-fluid theory of response of tokamak plasma to resonant error-field</a></h2> <div class="metadata"> <small class="text-muted" style="text-transform:uppercase;display:block;line-height:2.5em;">Journal Article</small><span class="authors"> <span class="author">Fitzpatrick, Richard</span> <span class="text-muted pubdata"> - Physics of Plasmas</span> </span> </div> <div class="abstract">A nonlinear, neoclassical, two-fluid theory of the interaction of a single-helicity magnetic island chain with a resonant error-field in a quasi-cylindrical, low-β, tokamak plasma is presented. In particular, the analysis of Fitzpatrick [Phys. Plasmas 25, 042503 (2018)] is generalized to take explicit time dependence into account. Aside from the ability to more accurately treat time-varying problems, the main physical effect that is introduced into the theory by the incorporation of explicit time dependence is ion inertia. The formalism developed in the paper is used to analyze two time-varying problems. First, the interaction of a pre-existing magnetic island chain with a<a href='#' onclick='$(this).hide().next().show().next().show();return false;' style='margin-left:10px;'>more »</a><span style='display:none;'> resonant error-field. Second, an error-field-maintained magnetic island chain. The latter problem is of direct relevance to experiments in which deliberately applied, multi-harmonic, resonant magnetic perturbations are used to suppress edge localized modes (ELMs) in tokamak plasmas. Indeed, the predictions of the theory are strikingly similar to data recently obtained from ELM suppression experiments in the DIII-D tokamak [R. Nazikian et al., Nucl. Fusion 58, 106010 (2018)].</span><a href='#' onclick='$(this).hide().prev().hide().prev().show();return false;' style='margin-left:10px;display:none;'>« less</a></div><div class="metadata-links small clearfix text-muted" style="margin-top:15px;"> <span class="fa fa-book text-muted" aria-hidden="true"></span> Cited by 2<div class="pure-menu pure-menu-horizontal pull-right" style="width:unset;"> <ul class="pure-menu-list"> <li class="pure-menu-item"><span class="item-info-ftlink">DOI: <a class="misc doi-link " href="https://doi.org/10.1063/1.5043203" target="_blank" rel="noopener" title="Link to document DOI" data-ostiid="1524537" data-product-type="Journal Article" data-product-subtype="AM" >10.1063/1.5043203</a></span></li> <li class="pure-menu-item"><span class="item-info-ftlink"><a class="misc fulltext-link " href="/pages/servlets/purl/1524537" title="Link to document media" target="_blank" rel="noopener" data-ostiid="1524537" data-product-type="Journal Article" data-product-subtype="AM" >Full Text Available</a></span></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="clearfix"></div> </div> </li> <li> <div class="article item document" itemprop="itemListElement" itemscope itemtype="http://schema.org/WebPage"><meta itemprop="position" content="6" /><div class="item-info"> <h2 class="title" itemprop="name headline"><a href="/pages/biblio/1535287-explicit-high-order-noncanonical-symplectic-algorithms-ideal-two-fluid-systems" itemprop="url">Explicit high-order noncanonical symplectic algorithms for ideal two-fluid systems</a></h2> <div class="metadata"> <small class="text-muted" style="text-transform:uppercase;display:block;line-height:2.5em;">Journal Article</small><span class="authors"> <span class="author">Xiao, Jianyuan</span> ; <span class="author">Qin, Hong</span> ; <span class="author">Morrison, Philip J.</span> ; <span class="author">...</span> <span class="text-muted pubdata"> - Physics of Plasmas</span> </span> </div> <div class="abstract">Here, an explicit high-order noncanonical symplectic algorithm for ideal two-fluid systems is developed. The fluid is discretized as particles in the Lagrangian description, while the electromagnetic fields and internal energy are treated as discrete differential form fields on a fixed mesh. With the assistance of Whitney interpolating forms, this scheme preserves the gauge symmetry of the electromagnetic field, and the pressure field is naturally derived from the discrete internal energy. The whole system is solved using the Hamiltonian splitting method discovered by He <em>et al.</em> [Phys. Plasmas 22, 124503 (2015)], which was been successfully adopted in constructing symplectic particle-in-cell schemes.<a href='#' onclick='$(this).hide().next().show().next().show();return false;' style='margin-left:10px;'>more »</a><span style='display:none;'> Because of its structure preserving and explicit nature, this algorithm is especially suitable for large-scale simulations for physics problems that are multi-scale and require long-term fidelity and accuracy. The algorithm is verified via two tests: studies of the dispersion relation of waves in a two-fluid plasma system and the oscillating two-stream instability.</span><a href='#' onclick='$(this).hide().prev().hide().prev().show();return false;' style='margin-left:10px;display:none;'>« less</a></div><div class="metadata-links small clearfix text-muted" style="margin-top:15px;"> <span class="fa fa-book text-muted" aria-hidden="true"></span> Cited by 5<div class="pure-menu pure-menu-horizontal pull-right" style="width:unset;"> <ul class="pure-menu-list"> <li class="pure-menu-item"><span class="item-info-ftlink">DOI: <a class="misc doi-link " href="https://doi.org/10.1063/1.4967276" target="_blank" rel="noopener" title="Link to document DOI" data-ostiid="1535287" data-product-type="Journal Article" data-product-subtype="AM" >10.1063/1.4967276</a></span></li> <li class="pure-menu-item"><span class="item-info-ftlink"><a class="misc fulltext-link " href="/pages/servlets/purl/1535287" title="Link to document media" target="_blank" rel="noopener" data-ostiid="1535287" data-product-type="Journal Article" data-product-subtype="AM" >Full Text Available</a></span></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="clearfix"></div> </div> </li> </ul> </aside> </div> </section> </div> <div class="col-sm-3 order-sm-3"> <ul class="nav nav-stacked"> <li class="active"><a class="tab-nav disabled" data-tab="related" style="color: #636c72 !important; opacity: 1;"><span class="fa fa-angle-right"></span> Similar Records</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </section> </div></div> </div> </div> </section> <footer class="" style="background-color:#f9f9f9; /* padding-top: 0.5rem; */"> <div class="footer-minor"> <div class="container"> <hr class="footer-separator" /> <div class="text-center" style="margin-top:1.25rem;"> <div class="pure-menu pure-menu-horizontal"> <ul class="pure-menu-list" id="footer-org-menu"> <li class="pure-menu-item"> <a href="https://energy.gov" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer"> <img src="data:image/gif;base64,R0lGODlhAQABAIAAAP///wAAACH5BAEAAAAALAAAAAABAAEAAAICRAEAOw==" class="sprite sprite-footer-us-doe-min" alt="U.S. Department of Energy" /> </a> </li> <li class="pure-menu-item"> <a href="https://www.energy.gov/science/office-science" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer"> <img src="data:image/gif;base64,R0lGODlhAQABAIAAAP///wAAACH5BAEAAAAALAAAAAABAAEAAAICRAEAOw==" class="sprite sprite-footer-office-of-science-min" alt="Office of Science" /> </a> </li> <li class="pure-menu-item"> <a href="/"> <img src="data:image/gif;base64,R0lGODlhAQABAIAAAP///wAAACH5BAEAAAAALAAAAAABAAEAAAICRAEAOw==" class="sprite sprite-footer-osti-min" alt="Office of Scientific and Technical Information" /> </a> </li> </ul> </div> </div> <div class="text-center small" style="margin-top:0.5em;margin-bottom:2.0rem;"> <div class="pure-menu pure-menu-horizontal"> <ul class="pure-menu-list"> <li class="pure-menu-item"><a href="/disclaim" class="pure-menu-link"><span class="fa fa-institution"></span> Website Policies <span class="hidden-xs">/ Important Links</span></a></li> <li class="pure-menu-item"><a href="/pages/contact" class="pure-menu-link"><span class="fa fa-comments-o"></span> Contact Us</a></li> <li class="d-block d-md-none"></li> <li class="pure-menu-item"><a href="https://www.facebook.com/ostigov" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer" class="pure-menu-link social"><span class="fa fa-facebook" style=""></span></a></li> <li class="pure-menu-item"><a href="https://twitter.com/OSTIgov" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer" class="pure-menu-link social"><span class="fa fa-twitter" style=""></span></a></li> <li class="pure-menu-item"><a href="https://www.youtube.com/user/ostigov" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer" class="pure-menu-link social"><span class="fa fa-youtube-play" style=""></span></a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> </div> </footer> <link href="/pages/css/pages.fonts.200423.1532.css" rel="stylesheet"> <script src="/pages/js/pages.200423.1532.js"></script><noscript></noscript> <script defer src="/pages/js/pages.biblio.200423.1532.js"></script><noscript></noscript> <script defer src="/pages/js/lity.js"></script><noscript></noscript><script async type="text/javascript" src="/pages/js/Universal-Federated-Analytics-Min.js?agency=DOE" id="_fed_an_ua_tag"></script><noscript></noscript></body> <!-- DOE PAGES v.200423.1532 --> </html>