skip to main content
DOE PAGES title logo U.S. Department of Energy
Office of Scientific and Technical Information

Title: Constraining the Magmatic System at Mount St. Helens (2004-2008) Using Bayesian Inversion With Physics-Based Models Including Gas Escape and Crystallization

Abstract

Physics-based models of volcanic eruptions track conduit processes as functions of depth and time. When used in inversions, these models permit integration of diverse geological and geophysical data sets to constrain important parameters of magmatic systems. We develop a 1-D steady state conduit model for effusive eruptions including equilibrium crystallization and gas transport through the conduit and compare with the quasi-steady dome growth phase of Mount St. Helens in 2005. Viscosity increase resulting from pressure-dependent crystallization leads to a natural transition from viscous flow to frictional sliding on the conduit margin. Erupted mass flux depends strongly on wall rock and magma permeabilities due to their impact on magma density. Including both lateral and vertical gas transport reveals competing effects that produce nonmonotonic behavior in the mass flux when increasing magma permeability. Using this physics-based model in a Bayesian inversion, we link data sets from Mount St. Helens such as extrusion flux and earthquake depths with petrological data to estimate unknown model parameters, including magma chamber pressure and water content, magma permeability constants, conduit radius, and friction along the conduit walls. Even with this relatively simple model and limited data, we obtain improved constraints on important model parameters. We find thatmore » the magma chamber had low (<5 wt %) total volatiles and that the magma permeability scale is well constrained at ~10 –11.4m 2 to reproduce observed dome rock porosities. Here, compared with previous results, higher magma overpressure and lower wall friction are required to compensate for increased viscous resistance while keeping extrusion rate at the observed value.« less

Authors:
ORCiD logo [1]; ORCiD logo [1];  [2]; ORCiD logo [3]
  1. Stanford Univ., Stanford, CA (United States)
  2. Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)
  3. U.S. Geological Survey, Menlo Park, CA (United States)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)
OSTI Identifier:
1411224
Report Number(s):
SAND-2017-10536J
Journal ID: ISSN 2169-9313; 657548; TRN: US1800200
Grant/Contract Number:  
AC04-94AL85000
Resource Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Journal of Geophysical Research. Solid Earth
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 122; Journal Issue: 10; Journal ID: ISSN 2169-9313
Publisher:
American Geophysical Union
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
58 GEOSCIENCES; physics-based models; inverse theory; volcano conduit; Mount St. Helens; Bayes theorem

Citation Formats

Wong, Ying -Qi, Segall, Paul, Bradley, Andrew, and Anderson, Kyle. Constraining the Magmatic System at Mount St. Helens (2004-2008) Using Bayesian Inversion With Physics-Based Models Including Gas Escape and Crystallization. United States: N. p., 2017. Web. doi:10.1002/2017jb014343.
Wong, Ying -Qi, Segall, Paul, Bradley, Andrew, & Anderson, Kyle. Constraining the Magmatic System at Mount St. Helens (2004-2008) Using Bayesian Inversion With Physics-Based Models Including Gas Escape and Crystallization. United States. doi:10.1002/2017jb014343.
Wong, Ying -Qi, Segall, Paul, Bradley, Andrew, and Anderson, Kyle. Wed . "Constraining the Magmatic System at Mount St. Helens (2004-2008) Using Bayesian Inversion With Physics-Based Models Including Gas Escape and Crystallization". United States. doi:10.1002/2017jb014343. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1411224.
@article{osti_1411224,
title = {Constraining the Magmatic System at Mount St. Helens (2004-2008) Using Bayesian Inversion With Physics-Based Models Including Gas Escape and Crystallization},
author = {Wong, Ying -Qi and Segall, Paul and Bradley, Andrew and Anderson, Kyle},
abstractNote = {Physics-based models of volcanic eruptions track conduit processes as functions of depth and time. When used in inversions, these models permit integration of diverse geological and geophysical data sets to constrain important parameters of magmatic systems. We develop a 1-D steady state conduit model for effusive eruptions including equilibrium crystallization and gas transport through the conduit and compare with the quasi-steady dome growth phase of Mount St. Helens in 2005. Viscosity increase resulting from pressure-dependent crystallization leads to a natural transition from viscous flow to frictional sliding on the conduit margin. Erupted mass flux depends strongly on wall rock and magma permeabilities due to their impact on magma density. Including both lateral and vertical gas transport reveals competing effects that produce nonmonotonic behavior in the mass flux when increasing magma permeability. Using this physics-based model in a Bayesian inversion, we link data sets from Mount St. Helens such as extrusion flux and earthquake depths with petrological data to estimate unknown model parameters, including magma chamber pressure and water content, magma permeability constants, conduit radius, and friction along the conduit walls. Even with this relatively simple model and limited data, we obtain improved constraints on important model parameters. We find that the magma chamber had low (<5 wt %) total volatiles and that the magma permeability scale is well constrained at ~10–11.4m2 to reproduce observed dome rock porosities. Here, compared with previous results, higher magma overpressure and lower wall friction are required to compensate for increased viscous resistance while keeping extrusion rate at the observed value.},
doi = {10.1002/2017jb014343},
journal = {Journal of Geophysical Research. Solid Earth},
number = 10,
volume = 122,
place = {United States},
year = {2017},
month = {10}
}

Journal Article:
Free Publicly Available Full Text
Publisher's Version of Record

Citation Metrics:
Cited by: 1 work
Citation information provided by
Web of Science

Save / Share:

Works referenced in this record:

Incorporating seismic observations into 2D conduit flow modeling
journal, April 2006


Permeability-porosity relationship in vesicular basalts
journal, January 1999

  • Saar, Martin O.; Manga, Michael
  • Geophysical Research Letters, Vol. 26, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1029/1998GL900256

Viscosity of high crystal content melts: Dependence on solid fraction: CRYSTAL-CONTENT VISCOSITY DEPENDENCE
journal, November 2005


A simple formula for calculating porosity of magma in volcanic conduits during dome-forming eruptions
journal, May 2010


Permeability of the continental crust: Implications of geothermal data and metamorphic systems
journal, February 1999

  • Manning, C. E.; Ingebritsen, S. E.
  • Reviews of Geophysics, Vol. 37, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1029/1998RG900002

Reply to the comment by Mike R. James et al. on “It takes three to tango: 2. Bubble dynamics in basaltic volcanoes and ramifications for modeling normal Strombolian activity”
journal, January 2011

  • Suckale, Jenny; Hager, Bradford H.; Elkins-Tanton, Linda T.
  • Journal of Geophysical Research, Vol. 116, Issue B6
  • DOI: 10.1029/2011JB008351

Rate and state dependent friction and the stability of sliding between elastically deformable solids
journal, September 2001

  • Rice, James R.; Lapusta, Nadia; Ranjith, K.
  • Journal of the Mechanics and Physics of Solids, Vol. 49, Issue 9
  • DOI: 10.1016/S0022-5096(01)00042-4

The Fluid Mechanics Inside a Volcano
journal, January 2007


Controls of conduit geometry and wallrock elasticity on lava dome eruptions
journal, August 2007

  • Costa, A.; Melnik, O.; Sparks, R. S. J.
  • Earth and Planetary Science Letters, Vol. 260, Issue 1-2
  • DOI: 10.1016/j.epsl.2007.05.024

Solubility of H2O in rhyolitic melts at low pressures and a new empirical model for mixed H2O–CO2 solubility in rhyolitic melts
journal, May 2005


Physics-based models of ground deformation and extrusion rate at effusively erupting volcanoes
journal, January 2011

  • Anderson, Kyle; Segall, Paul
  • Journal of Geophysical Research, Vol. 116, Issue B7
  • DOI: 10.1029/2010JB007939

Permeability development in vesiculating magmas: implications for fragmentation
journal, September 1996

  • Klug, Caroline; Cashman, Katharine V.
  • Bulletin of Volcanology, Vol. 58, Issue 2-3
  • DOI: 10.1007/s004450050128

A frictional law for volcanic ash gouge
journal, August 2014


Bubble suspension rheology and implications for conduit flow
journal, May 2005


Nonlinear dynamics of lava dome extrusion
journal, November 1999

  • Melnik, O.; Sparks, R. S. J.
  • Nature, Vol. 402, Issue 6757
  • DOI: 10.1038/46950

Structural relaxation in silicate melts and non-Newtonian melt rheology in geologic processes
journal, April 1989

  • Dingwell, DonaldB.; Webb, SharonL.
  • Physics and Chemistry of Minerals, Vol. 16, Issue 5
  • DOI: 10.1007/BF00197020

H2O diffusion in dacitic and andesitic melts
journal, December 2004

  • Behrens, Harald; Zhang, Youxue; Xu, Zhengjiu
  • Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, Vol. 68, Issue 24
  • DOI: 10.1016/j.gca.2004.07.008

Permeability of vesicular silicic magma: inertial and hysteresis effects
journal, November 2004


Bayesian estimation of magma supply, storage, and eruption rates using a multiphysical volcano model: Kīlauea Volcano, 2000–2012
journal, August 2016


Dynamics of magma ascent and lava extrusion at Soufrière Hills Volcano, Montserrat
journal, January 2002


Conduit degassing and thermal controls on eruption styles at Mount St. Helens
journal, December 2012

  • Schneider, Andrew; Rempel, Alan W.; Cashman, Katharine V.
  • Earth and Planetary Science Letters, Vol. 357-358
  • DOI: 10.1016/j.epsl.2012.09.045

Evolution of the mechanics of the 2004–2008 Mt. St. Helens lava dome with time and temperature
journal, July 2011

  • Smith, Rosanna; Sammonds, Peter R.; Tuffen, Hugh
  • Earth and Planetary Science Letters, Vol. 307, Issue 1-2
  • DOI: 10.1016/j.epsl.2011.04.044

Two-dimensional gas loss for silicic magma flows: toward more realistic numerical models
journal, April 2009


Ascent and compaction of gas rich magma and the effects of hysteretic permeability
journal, May 2009

  • Michaut, Chloé; Bercovici, David; Sparks, R. Steve J.
  • Earth and Planetary Science Letters, Vol. 282, Issue 1-4
  • DOI: 10.1016/j.epsl.2009.03.026

Gas content, eruption rate and instabilities of eruption regime in silicic volcanoes
journal, March 1991


Insights into volcanic conduit flow from an open-source numerical model: INSIGHTS INTO VOLCANIC CONDUIT FLOW
journal, July 2002


The Kinetics of Degassing-Induced Crystallization at Soufriere Hills Volcano, Montserrat
journal, August 2003


Rheology of crystal-bearing silicate melts: An experimental study at high viscosities
journal, March 1995

  • Lejeune, Anne-Marie; Richet, Pascal
  • Journal of Geophysical Research: Solid Earth, Vol. 100, Issue B3
  • DOI: 10.1029/94JB02985

Equation of State Calculations by Fast Computing Machines
journal, June 1953

  • Metropolis, Nicholas; Rosenbluth, Arianna W.; Rosenbluth, Marshall N.
  • The Journal of Chemical Physics, Vol. 21, Issue 6
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.1699114

Friction of rocks
journal, January 1978

  • Byerlee, J.
  • Pure and Applied Geophysics PAGEOPH, Vol. 116, Issue 4-5
  • DOI: 10.1007/BF00876528

The viscosity of hydrous dacitic liquids: implications for the rheology of evolving silicic magmas
journal, June 2008

  • Whittington, Alan G.; Hellwig, Bridget M.; Behrens, Harald
  • Bulletin of Volcanology, Vol. 71, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1007/s00445-008-0217-y

Forecasting volcanic eruptions
journal, May 2003


Factors controlling permeability-porosity relationships in magma
journal, November 2001


Monte Carlo sampling of solutions to inverse problems
journal, July 1995

  • Mosegaard, Klaus; Tarantola, Albert
  • Journal of Geophysical Research: Solid Earth, Vol. 100, Issue B7
  • DOI: 10.1029/94JB03097

Extreme frictional processes in the volcanic conduit of Mount St. Helens (USA) during the 2004–2008 eruption
journal, May 2012


Monte Carlo sampling methods using Markov chains and their applications
journal, April 1970


The rheology of two-phase magmas: A review and analysis
journal, May 2013


Non-Newtonian rheology of crystal-bearing magmas and implications for magma ascent dynamics
journal, December 2007


Dynamics of seismogenic volcanic extrusion at Mount St Helens in 2004–05
journal, November 2006

  • Iverson, Richard M.; Dzurisin, Daniel; Gardner, Cynthia A.
  • Nature, Vol. 444, Issue 7118
  • DOI: 10.1038/nature05322

Effects of gas escape and crystallization on the complexity of conduit flow dynamics during lava dome eruptions: CONDUIT DYNAMICS IN LAVA DOME ERUPTIONS
journal, August 2012

  • Kozono, T.; Koyaguchi, T.
  • Journal of Geophysical Research: Solid Earth, Vol. 117, Issue B8
  • DOI: 10.1029/2012JB009343