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Title: How reliable are efficiency measurements of perovskite solar cells? The first inter-comparison, between two accredited and eight non-accredited laboratories

Abstract

Perovskite materials have generated significant interest from academia and industry as a potential component in next-generation, high-efficiency, low-cost, photovoltaic (PV) devices. The record efficiency reported for perovskite solar cells has risen rapidly, and is now more than 22%. However, due to their complex dynamic behaviour, the process of measuring the efficiency of perovskite solar cells appears to be much more complicated than for other technologies. It has long been acknowledged that this is likely to greatly reduce the reliability of reported efficiency measurements, but the quantitative extent to which this occurs has not been determined. To investigate this, we conduct the first major inter-comparison of this PV technology. The participants included two labs accredited for PV performance measurement (CSIRO and NREL) and eight PV research laboratories. We find that the inter-laboratory measurement variability can be almost ten times larger for a slowly responding perovskite cell than for a control silicon cell. We show that for such a cell, the choice of measurement method, far more so than measurement hardware, is the single-greatest cause for this undesirably large variability. We provide recommendations for identifying the most appropriate method for a given cell, depending on its stabilization and degradation behaviour. Moreover, themore » results of this study suggest that identifying a consensus technique for accurate and meaningful efficiency measurements of perovskite solar cells will lead to an immediate improvement in reliability. This, in turn, should assist device researchers to correctly evaluate promising new materials and fabrication methods, and further boost the development of this technology.« less

Authors:
ORCiD logo [1]; ORCiD logo [1];  [2];  [1];  [1];  [1];  [3]; ORCiD logo [3]; ORCiD logo [4];  [5]; ORCiD logo [5];  [5];  [6]; ORCiD logo [6]; ORCiD logo [7]; ORCiD logo [7];  [8]; ORCiD logo [8];  [1]
  1. CSIRO Energy (Australia)
  2. National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)
  3. Univ. of New South Wales, Sydney (Australia)
  4. CSIRO Manufacturing (Australia)
  5. The Australian National Univ., Canberra (Australia)
  6. Monash Univ., Clayton (Australia)
  7. The Univ. of Queensland (Australia)
  8. Queensland Univ. of Technology, Brisbane (Australia)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)
OSTI Identifier:
1410964
Report Number(s):
NREL/JA-5J00-70564
Journal ID: ISSN 2050-7488; JMCAET; TRN: US1800167
Grant/Contract Number:  
AC36-08GO28308
Resource Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Journal of Materials Chemistry. A
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 5; Journal Issue: 43; Journal ID: ISSN 2050-7488
Publisher:
Royal Society of Chemistry
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
14 SOLAR ENERGY; perovskite solar cells; performance; variability; efficiency measurements

Citation Formats

Dunbar, Ricky B., Duck, Benjamin C., Moriarty, Tom E., Anderson, Kenrick F., Duffy, Noel W., Fell, Christopher J., Kim, Jincheol, Ho-Baillie, Anita, Vak, Doojin, Duong, The, Wu, YiLiang, Weber, Klaus, Pascoe, Alex, Cheng, Yi -Bing, Lin, Qianqian, Burn, Paul L., Bhattacharjee, Ripon, Wang, Hongxia, and Wilson, Gregory J. How reliable are efficiency measurements of perovskite solar cells? The first inter-comparison, between two accredited and eight non-accredited laboratories. United States: N. p., 2017. Web. doi:10.1039/C7TA05609E.
Dunbar, Ricky B., Duck, Benjamin C., Moriarty, Tom E., Anderson, Kenrick F., Duffy, Noel W., Fell, Christopher J., Kim, Jincheol, Ho-Baillie, Anita, Vak, Doojin, Duong, The, Wu, YiLiang, Weber, Klaus, Pascoe, Alex, Cheng, Yi -Bing, Lin, Qianqian, Burn, Paul L., Bhattacharjee, Ripon, Wang, Hongxia, & Wilson, Gregory J. How reliable are efficiency measurements of perovskite solar cells? The first inter-comparison, between two accredited and eight non-accredited laboratories. United States. doi:10.1039/C7TA05609E.
Dunbar, Ricky B., Duck, Benjamin C., Moriarty, Tom E., Anderson, Kenrick F., Duffy, Noel W., Fell, Christopher J., Kim, Jincheol, Ho-Baillie, Anita, Vak, Doojin, Duong, The, Wu, YiLiang, Weber, Klaus, Pascoe, Alex, Cheng, Yi -Bing, Lin, Qianqian, Burn, Paul L., Bhattacharjee, Ripon, Wang, Hongxia, and Wilson, Gregory J. Tue . "How reliable are efficiency measurements of perovskite solar cells? The first inter-comparison, between two accredited and eight non-accredited laboratories". United States. doi:10.1039/C7TA05609E. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1410964.
@article{osti_1410964,
title = {How reliable are efficiency measurements of perovskite solar cells? The first inter-comparison, between two accredited and eight non-accredited laboratories},
author = {Dunbar, Ricky B. and Duck, Benjamin C. and Moriarty, Tom E. and Anderson, Kenrick F. and Duffy, Noel W. and Fell, Christopher J. and Kim, Jincheol and Ho-Baillie, Anita and Vak, Doojin and Duong, The and Wu, YiLiang and Weber, Klaus and Pascoe, Alex and Cheng, Yi -Bing and Lin, Qianqian and Burn, Paul L. and Bhattacharjee, Ripon and Wang, Hongxia and Wilson, Gregory J.},
abstractNote = {Perovskite materials have generated significant interest from academia and industry as a potential component in next-generation, high-efficiency, low-cost, photovoltaic (PV) devices. The record efficiency reported for perovskite solar cells has risen rapidly, and is now more than 22%. However, due to their complex dynamic behaviour, the process of measuring the efficiency of perovskite solar cells appears to be much more complicated than for other technologies. It has long been acknowledged that this is likely to greatly reduce the reliability of reported efficiency measurements, but the quantitative extent to which this occurs has not been determined. To investigate this, we conduct the first major inter-comparison of this PV technology. The participants included two labs accredited for PV performance measurement (CSIRO and NREL) and eight PV research laboratories. We find that the inter-laboratory measurement variability can be almost ten times larger for a slowly responding perovskite cell than for a control silicon cell. We show that for such a cell, the choice of measurement method, far more so than measurement hardware, is the single-greatest cause for this undesirably large variability. We provide recommendations for identifying the most appropriate method for a given cell, depending on its stabilization and degradation behaviour. Moreover, the results of this study suggest that identifying a consensus technique for accurate and meaningful efficiency measurements of perovskite solar cells will lead to an immediate improvement in reliability. This, in turn, should assist device researchers to correctly evaluate promising new materials and fabrication methods, and further boost the development of this technology.},
doi = {10.1039/C7TA05609E},
journal = {Journal of Materials Chemistry. A},
number = 43,
volume = 5,
place = {United States},
year = {2017},
month = {10}
}

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