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Title: Evaluation of energy balance closure adjustment methods by independent evapotranspiration estimates from lysimeters and hydrological simulations

Here, we report non-closure of the surface energy balance is a frequently observed phenomenon of hydrometeorological field measurements, when using the eddy-covariance method, which can be ascribed to an underestimation of the turbulent fluxes. Several approaches have been proposed in order to adjust the measured fluxes for this apparent systematic error. However, there are uncertainties about partitioning of the energy balance residual between the sensible and latent heat flux and whether such a correction should be applied on 30-minute data or longer time scales. The data for this study originate from two grassland sites in southern Germany, where measurements from weighable lysimeters are available as reference. The adjusted evapotranspiration rates are also compared with joint energy and water balance simulations using a physically-based distributed hydrological model. We evaluate two adjustment methods: the first one preserves the Bowen ratio and the correction factor is determined on a daily basis. The second one attributes a smaller portion of the residual energy to the latent heat flux than to the sensible heat flux for closing the energy balance for every 30-minute flux integration interval. Both methods lead to an improved agreement of the eddy-covariance based fluxes with the independent lysimeter estimates and themore » physically-based model simulations. The first method results in a better comparability of evapotranspiration rates, and the second method leads to a smaller overall bias. These results are similar between both sites despite considerable differences in terrain complexity and grassland management. Moreover, we found that a daily adjustment factor leads to less scatter than a complete partitioning of the residual for every half-hour time interval. Lastly, the vertical temperature gradient in the surface layer and friction velocity were identified as important predictors for a potential future parameterization of the energy balance residual.« less
Authors:
ORCiD logo [1] ;  [2] ;  [3] ;  [3] ;  [3] ;  [3] ;  [3] ;  [4] ;  [3] ;  [5]
  1. Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Institute of Meteorology and Climate Research - Atmospheric Environmental Research, Garmisch-Partenkirchen (Germany); Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Institute of Geography and Geoecology, Karlsruhe (Germany)
  2. Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Institute of Meteorology and Climate Research - Atmospheric Environmental Research, Garmisch-Partenkirchen (Germany); Institute of Hydrology und Meteorology, Technical University Dresden, Dresden (Germany)
  3. Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Institute of Meteorology and Climate Research - Atmospheric Environmental Research, Garmisch-Partenkirchen (Germany)
  4. Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Institute of Meteorology and Climate Research - Atmospheric Environmental Research, Garmisch-Partenkirchen (Germany); Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)
  5. Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Institute of Meteorology and Climate Research - Atmospheric Environmental Research, Garmisch-Partenkirchen (Germany); Institute of Geography, University of Augsburg, Augsburg (Germany)
Publication Date:
Report Number(s):
LA-UR-17-26917
Journal ID: ISSN 0885-6087
Grant/Contract Number:
AC52-06NA25396
Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Hydrological Processes
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 32; Journal Issue: 1; Journal ID: ISSN 0885-6087
Research Org:
Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)
Sponsoring Org:
USDOE; Helmholtz Association (Germany)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
58 GEOSCIENCES; Earth Sciences
OSTI Identifier:
1409786

Mauder, Matthias, Genzel, Sandra, Fu, Jin, Kiese, Ralf, Soltani, Mohsen, Steinbrecher, Rainer, Zeeman, Matthias, Banerjee, Tirtha, De Roo, Frederik, and Kunstmann, Harald. Evaluation of energy balance closure adjustment methods by independent evapotranspiration estimates from lysimeters and hydrological simulations. United States: N. p., Web. doi:10.1002/hyp.11397.
Mauder, Matthias, Genzel, Sandra, Fu, Jin, Kiese, Ralf, Soltani, Mohsen, Steinbrecher, Rainer, Zeeman, Matthias, Banerjee, Tirtha, De Roo, Frederik, & Kunstmann, Harald. Evaluation of energy balance closure adjustment methods by independent evapotranspiration estimates from lysimeters and hydrological simulations. United States. doi:10.1002/hyp.11397.
Mauder, Matthias, Genzel, Sandra, Fu, Jin, Kiese, Ralf, Soltani, Mohsen, Steinbrecher, Rainer, Zeeman, Matthias, Banerjee, Tirtha, De Roo, Frederik, and Kunstmann, Harald. 2017. "Evaluation of energy balance closure adjustment methods by independent evapotranspiration estimates from lysimeters and hydrological simulations". United States. doi:10.1002/hyp.11397.
@article{osti_1409786,
title = {Evaluation of energy balance closure adjustment methods by independent evapotranspiration estimates from lysimeters and hydrological simulations},
author = {Mauder, Matthias and Genzel, Sandra and Fu, Jin and Kiese, Ralf and Soltani, Mohsen and Steinbrecher, Rainer and Zeeman, Matthias and Banerjee, Tirtha and De Roo, Frederik and Kunstmann, Harald},
abstractNote = {Here, we report non-closure of the surface energy balance is a frequently observed phenomenon of hydrometeorological field measurements, when using the eddy-covariance method, which can be ascribed to an underestimation of the turbulent fluxes. Several approaches have been proposed in order to adjust the measured fluxes for this apparent systematic error. However, there are uncertainties about partitioning of the energy balance residual between the sensible and latent heat flux and whether such a correction should be applied on 30-minute data or longer time scales. The data for this study originate from two grassland sites in southern Germany, where measurements from weighable lysimeters are available as reference. The adjusted evapotranspiration rates are also compared with joint energy and water balance simulations using a physically-based distributed hydrological model. We evaluate two adjustment methods: the first one preserves the Bowen ratio and the correction factor is determined on a daily basis. The second one attributes a smaller portion of the residual energy to the latent heat flux than to the sensible heat flux for closing the energy balance for every 30-minute flux integration interval. Both methods lead to an improved agreement of the eddy-covariance based fluxes with the independent lysimeter estimates and the physically-based model simulations. The first method results in a better comparability of evapotranspiration rates, and the second method leads to a smaller overall bias. These results are similar between both sites despite considerable differences in terrain complexity and grassland management. Moreover, we found that a daily adjustment factor leads to less scatter than a complete partitioning of the residual for every half-hour time interval. Lastly, the vertical temperature gradient in the surface layer and friction velocity were identified as important predictors for a potential future parameterization of the energy balance residual.},
doi = {10.1002/hyp.11397},
journal = {Hydrological Processes},
number = 1,
volume = 32,
place = {United States},
year = {2017},
month = {11}
}