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Title: Active particles in complex and crowded environments

Differently from passive Brownian particles, active particles, also known as self-propelled Brownian particles or microswimmers and nanoswimmers, are capable of taking up energy from their environment and converting it into directed motion. Because of this constant flow of energy, their behavior can be explained and understood only within the framework of nonequilibrium physics. In the biological realm, many cells perform directed motion, for example, as a way to browse for nutrients or to avoid toxins. Inspired by these motile microorganisms, researchers have been developing artificial particles that feature similar swimming behaviors based on different mechanisms. These man-made micromachines and nanomachines hold a great potential as autonomous agents for health care, sustainability, and security applications. Finally, with a focus on the basic physical features of the interactions of self-propelled Brownian particles with a crowded and complex environment, this comprehensive review will provide a guided tour through its basic principles, the development of artificial self-propelling microparticles and nanoparticles, and their application to the study of nonequilibrium phenomena, as well as the open challenges that the field is currently facing.
 [1] ;  [2] ;  [3] ;  [4] ;  [5] ;  [6]
  1. Univ. of Stuttgart (Germany); Max Planck Inst. for Intelligent Systems, Stuttgart (Germany)
  2. Sapienza Univ. of Rome (Italy); NANOTEC-CNR Inst. of Nanotechnology, Rome (Italy)
  3. Heinrich Heine Univ. Dusseldorf (Germany)
  4. Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)
  5. Univ. College London (United Kingdom)
  6. Univ. of Gothenburg (Sweden); Bilkent Univ., Ankara (Turkey)
Publication Date:
Report Number(s):
Journal ID: ISSN 0034-6861
Grant/Contract Number:
AC52-06NA25396; SPP 1726; 307940; PCIG11GA-2012-321726; MP1205; IC1208; MP1305
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Reviews of Modern Physics
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 88; Journal Issue: 4; Journal ID: ISSN 0034-6861
American Physical Society (APS)
Research Org:
Univ. of Gothenburg (Sweden); Univ. of Stuttgart (Germany); Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Bilkent Univ., Ankara (Turkey)
Sponsoring Org:
USDOE; German Research Foundation (DFG); European Research Council (ERC); Turkish Academy of Sciences; European Cooperation in Science and Technology (COST)
Country of Publication:
United States
72 PHYSICS OF ELEMENTARY PARTICLES AND FIELDS; 71 CLASSICAL AND QUANTUM MECHANICS, GENERAL PHYSICS; active brownian particles; active matter; non-Newtonian fluids; statistical physics; biological physics
OSTI Identifier: