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Title: Energy efficiency evaluation of a stationary lithium-ion battery container storage system via electro-thermal modeling and detailed component analysis

Energy efficiency is a key performance indicator for battery storage systems. A detailed electro-thermal model of a stationary lithium-ion battery system is developed and an evaluation of its energy efficiency is conducted. The model offers a holistic approach to calculating conversion losses and auxiliary power consumption. Sub-models for battery rack, power electronics, thermal management as well as the control and monitoring components are developed and coupled to a comprehensive model. The simulation is parametrized based on a prototype 192 kWh system using lithium iron phosphate batteries connected to the low voltage grid. The key loss mechanisms are identified, thoroughly analyzed and modeled. Generic profiles featuring various system operation modes are evaluated to show the characteristics of stationary battery systems. Typically the losses in the power electronics outweigh the losses in the battery at low power operating points. The auxiliary power consumption dominates for low system utilization rates. For estimation of real-world performance, the grid applications Primary Control Reserve, Secondary Control Reserve and the storage of surplus photovoltaic power are evaluated. Conversion round-trip efficiency is in the range of 70-80%. Finally, overall system efficiency, which also considers system power consumption, is 8-13 percentage points lower for Primary Control Reserve and themore » photovoltaic-battery application. However, for Secondary Control Reserve, the total round-trip efficiency is found to be extremely low at 23% due to the low energy throughput of this application type.« less
Authors:
ORCiD logo [1] ;  [1] ;  [1] ;  [1] ;  [2] ;  [2] ;  [1]
  1. Technical Univ. of Munich (TUM), Munich (Germany). Inst. for Electrical Energy Storage Technology (EES)
  2. National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States). Transportation and Hydrogen Systems Center
Publication Date:
Report Number(s):
NREL/JA-5400-70546
Journal ID: ISSN 0306-2619
Grant/Contract Number:
AC36-08GO28308; 03ET1205G
Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Applied Energy
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 210; Journal Issue: C; Journal ID: ISSN 0306-2619
Publisher:
Elsevier
Research Org:
National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)
Sponsoring Org:
USDOE Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Vehicle Technologies Office (EE-3V)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
25 ENERGY STORAGE; 33 ADVANCED PROPULSION SYSTEMS; ENERGY EFFICIENCY; BATTERY STORAGE SYSTEM; LITHIUM-ION; CONTAINER SYSTEM; ENERGY LOSS MECHANISM ANALYSIS; THERMAL NETWORK MODEL
OSTI Identifier:
1409737

Schimpe, Michael, Naumann, Maik, Truong, Nam, Hesse, Holger C., Santhanagopalan, Shriram, Saxon, Aron, and Jossen, Andreas. Energy efficiency evaluation of a stationary lithium-ion battery container storage system via electro-thermal modeling and detailed component analysis. United States: N. p., Web. doi:10.1016/j.apenergy.2017.10.129.
Schimpe, Michael, Naumann, Maik, Truong, Nam, Hesse, Holger C., Santhanagopalan, Shriram, Saxon, Aron, & Jossen, Andreas. Energy efficiency evaluation of a stationary lithium-ion battery container storage system via electro-thermal modeling and detailed component analysis. United States. doi:10.1016/j.apenergy.2017.10.129.
Schimpe, Michael, Naumann, Maik, Truong, Nam, Hesse, Holger C., Santhanagopalan, Shriram, Saxon, Aron, and Jossen, Andreas. 2017. "Energy efficiency evaluation of a stationary lithium-ion battery container storage system via electro-thermal modeling and detailed component analysis". United States. doi:10.1016/j.apenergy.2017.10.129.
@article{osti_1409737,
title = {Energy efficiency evaluation of a stationary lithium-ion battery container storage system via electro-thermal modeling and detailed component analysis},
author = {Schimpe, Michael and Naumann, Maik and Truong, Nam and Hesse, Holger C. and Santhanagopalan, Shriram and Saxon, Aron and Jossen, Andreas},
abstractNote = {Energy efficiency is a key performance indicator for battery storage systems. A detailed electro-thermal model of a stationary lithium-ion battery system is developed and an evaluation of its energy efficiency is conducted. The model offers a holistic approach to calculating conversion losses and auxiliary power consumption. Sub-models for battery rack, power electronics, thermal management as well as the control and monitoring components are developed and coupled to a comprehensive model. The simulation is parametrized based on a prototype 192 kWh system using lithium iron phosphate batteries connected to the low voltage grid. The key loss mechanisms are identified, thoroughly analyzed and modeled. Generic profiles featuring various system operation modes are evaluated to show the characteristics of stationary battery systems. Typically the losses in the power electronics outweigh the losses in the battery at low power operating points. The auxiliary power consumption dominates for low system utilization rates. For estimation of real-world performance, the grid applications Primary Control Reserve, Secondary Control Reserve and the storage of surplus photovoltaic power are evaluated. Conversion round-trip efficiency is in the range of 70-80%. Finally, overall system efficiency, which also considers system power consumption, is 8-13 percentage points lower for Primary Control Reserve and the photovoltaic-battery application. However, for Secondary Control Reserve, the total round-trip efficiency is found to be extremely low at 23% due to the low energy throughput of this application type.},
doi = {10.1016/j.apenergy.2017.10.129},
journal = {Applied Energy},
number = C,
volume = 210,
place = {United States},
year = {2017},
month = {11}
}