skip to main content
DOE PAGES title logo U.S. Department of Energy
Office of Scientific and Technical Information

Title: Marrying Excitons and Plasmons in Monolayer Transition-Metal Dichalcogenides

Abstract

Just as photons are the quanta of light, plasmons are the quanta of orchestrated charge-density oscillations in conducting media. Plasmon phenomena in normal metals, superconductors, and doped semiconductors are often driven by long-wavelength Coulomb interactions. Yet, in crystals whose Fermi surface is comprised of disconnected pockets in the Brillouin zone, collective electron excitations can also attain a shortwave component when electrons transition between these pockets. Here, we show that the band structure of monolayer transition-metal dichalcogenides gives rise to an intriguing mechanism through which shortwave plasmons are paired up with excitons. The coupling elucidates the origin for the optical sideband that is observed repeatedly in monolayers of WSe2 and WS2 but not understood. The theory makes it clear why exciton-plasmon coupling has the right conditions to manifest itself distinctly only in the optical spectra of electron-doped tungsten-based monolayers.

Authors:
; ; ;
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
State Univ. of New York (SUNY), Albany, NY (United States); Univ. of Rochester, NY (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC), Basic Energy Sciences (BES) (SC-22)
OSTI Identifier:
1409241
Alternate Identifier(s):
OSTI ID: 1545802
Grant/Contract Number:  
SC0014349; SC0004890
Resource Type:
Published Article
Journal Name:
Physical Review X
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Name: Physical Review X Journal Volume: 7 Journal Issue: 4; Journal ID: ISSN 2160-3308
Publisher:
American Physical Society
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
75 CONDENSED MATTER PHYSICS, SUPERCONDUCTIVITY AND SUPERFLUIDITY

Citation Formats

Van Tuan, Dinh, Scharf, Benedikt, Žutić, Igor, and Dery, Hanan. Marrying Excitons and Plasmons in Monolayer Transition-Metal Dichalcogenides. United States: N. p., 2017. Web. doi:10.1103/PhysRevX.7.041040.
Van Tuan, Dinh, Scharf, Benedikt, Žutić, Igor, & Dery, Hanan. Marrying Excitons and Plasmons in Monolayer Transition-Metal Dichalcogenides. United States. doi:10.1103/PhysRevX.7.041040.
Van Tuan, Dinh, Scharf, Benedikt, Žutić, Igor, and Dery, Hanan. Fri . "Marrying Excitons and Plasmons in Monolayer Transition-Metal Dichalcogenides". United States. doi:10.1103/PhysRevX.7.041040.
@article{osti_1409241,
title = {Marrying Excitons and Plasmons in Monolayer Transition-Metal Dichalcogenides},
author = {Van Tuan, Dinh and Scharf, Benedikt and Žutić, Igor and Dery, Hanan},
abstractNote = {Just as photons are the quanta of light, plasmons are the quanta of orchestrated charge-density oscillations in conducting media. Plasmon phenomena in normal metals, superconductors, and doped semiconductors are often driven by long-wavelength Coulomb interactions. Yet, in crystals whose Fermi surface is comprised of disconnected pockets in the Brillouin zone, collective electron excitations can also attain a shortwave component when electrons transition between these pockets. Here, we show that the band structure of monolayer transition-metal dichalcogenides gives rise to an intriguing mechanism through which shortwave plasmons are paired up with excitons. The coupling elucidates the origin for the optical sideband that is observed repeatedly in monolayers of WSe2 and WS2 but not understood. The theory makes it clear why exciton-plasmon coupling has the right conditions to manifest itself distinctly only in the optical spectra of electron-doped tungsten-based monolayers.},
doi = {10.1103/PhysRevX.7.041040},
journal = {Physical Review X},
number = 4,
volume = 7,
place = {United States},
year = {2017},
month = {11}
}

Journal Article:
Free Publicly Available Full Text
Publisher's Version of Record
DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevX.7.041040

Citation Metrics:
Cited by: 15 works
Citation information provided by
Web of Science

Save / Share:

Works referenced in this record:

Plasmons and high-temperature superconductivity in alloys of copper oxides
journal, June 1987


Valley dynamics probed through charged and neutral exciton emission in monolayer WSe 2
journal, August 2014


Effective Electron-Hole Interaction in Shallow Excitons
journal, August 1970

  • Shindo, Koichi
  • Journal of the Physical Society of Japan, Vol. 29, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1143/JPSJ.29.287

Trion and Biexciton in Monolayer Transition Metal Dichalcogenides
journal, December 2016


Fermi polaron-polaritons in charge-tunable atomically thin semiconductors
journal, October 2016

  • Sidler, Meinrad; Back, Patrick; Cotlet, Ovidiu
  • Nature Physics, Vol. 13, Issue 3
  • DOI: 10.1038/nphys3949

Superconductivity at very low density: The case of strontium titanate
journal, December 2016


Valley- and spin-polarized Landau levels in monolayer WSe2
journal, October 2016


Binding energies of trions and biexcitons in two-dimensional semiconductors from diffusion quantum Monte Carlo calculations
journal, February 2017


Solving the Eliashberg equations by means ofN-point Pad� approximants
journal, November 1977

  • Vidberg, H. J.; Serene, J. W.
  • Journal of Low Temperature Physics, Vol. 29, Issue 3-4
  • DOI: 10.1007/BF00655090

Atomically Thin MoS2 A New Direct-Gap Semiconductor
journal, September 2010


Binding energies and spatial structures of small carrier complexes in monolayer transition-metal dichalcogenides via diffusion Monte Carlo
journal, October 2015

  • Mayers, Matthew Z.; Berkelbach, Timothy C.; Hybertsen, Mark S.
  • Physical Review B, Vol. 92, Issue 16
  • DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevB.92.161404

Long-lived nanosecond spin relaxation and spin coherence of electrons in monolayer MoS2 and WS2
journal, August 2015

  • Yang, Luyi; Sinitsyn, Nikolai A.; Chen, Weibing
  • Nature Physics, Vol. 11, Issue 10
  • DOI: 10.1038/nphys3419

Many-body theory of trion absorption features in two-dimensional semiconductors
journal, January 2017


Plasmon Mechanism of Superconductivity in Two- and Three-Dimensional Electron Systems
journal, September 1978

  • Takada, Yasutami
  • Journal of the Physical Society of Japan, Vol. 45, Issue 3
  • DOI: 10.1143/JPSJ.45.786

Theory of intervalley Coulomb interactions in monolayer transition-metal dichalcogenides
journal, August 2016


Ultrafast Coulomb-Induced Intervalley Coupling in Atomically Thin WS 2
journal, April 2016


Metal-non-metal transition in heterostructures with thick spacer layers
journal, April 1989


Van der Waals engineering of ferromagnetic semiconductor heterostructures for spin and valleytronics
journal, May 2017


Interacting many-body systems in quantum wells: Evidence for exciton-trion-electron correlations
journal, June 2004


Excitonic effects in two-dimensional semiconductors: Path integral Monte Carlo approach
journal, November 2015


Giant bandgap renormalization and excitonic effects in a monolayer transition metal dichalcogenide semiconductor
journal, August 2014

  • Ugeda, Miguel M.; Bradley, Aaron J.; Shi, Su-Fei
  • Nature Materials, Vol. 13, Issue 12
  • DOI: 10.1038/nmat4061

Excited Biexcitons in Transition Metal Dichalcogenides
journal, September 2015


Electron Interaction in Solids
journal, December 1956

  • Pines, David
  • Canadian Journal of Physics, Vol. 34, Issue 12A
  • DOI: 10.1139/p56-154

Theory of plasmon-assisted electron pairing in semiconductors
journal, March 1995


The role of finite hole mass in the negatively charged exciton in two dimensions
journal, April 2001

  • A. Narvaez, Gustavo; Hawrylak, Pawel; A. Brum, José
  • Physica E: Low-dimensional Systems and Nanostructures, Vol. 9, Issue 4
  • DOI: 10.1016/S1386-9477(00)00295-2

Superconductivity in transition elements
journal, June 1965


Experimental Evidence for Dark Excitons in Monolayer WSe 2
journal, December 2015


Theory of neutral and charged exciton scattering with electrons in semiconductor quantum wells
journal, January 2003


Observation of Excitonic Fine Structure in a 2D Transition-Metal Dichalcogenide Semiconductor
journal, January 2015

  • Shang, Jingzhi; Shen, Xiaonan; Cong, Chunxiao
  • ACS Nano, Vol. 9, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1021/nn5059908

Trions in GaAs quantum wells
journal, May 2005


Binding energies of exciton complexes in transition metal dichalcogenide monolayers and effect of dielectric environment
journal, November 2015


Corrigendum: k.p theory for two-dimensional transition metal dichalcogenide semiconductors (2015 2D Mater. 2 022001)
journal, November 2015


Polarization analysis of excitons in monolayer and bilayer transition-metal dichalcogenides
journal, September 2015


Optical properties of atomically thin transition metal dichalcogenides: observations and puzzles
journal, January 2017


Excitonic luminescence upconversion in a two-dimensional semiconductor
journal, December 2015

  • Jones, Aaron M.; Yu, Hongyi; Schaibley, John R.
  • Nature Physics, Vol. 12, Issue 4
  • DOI: 10.1038/nphys3604

Observation of biexcitons in monolayer WSe2
journal, May 2015

  • You, Yumeng; Zhang, Xiao-Xiao; Berkelbach, Timothy C.
  • Nature Physics, Vol. 11, Issue 6
  • DOI: 10.1038/nphys3324

Spin-dependent optical properties in strained silicon and germanium
journal, March 2013


Theory of neutral and charged excitons in monolayer transition metal dichalcogenides
journal, July 2013

  • Berkelbach, Timothy C.; Hybertsen, Mark S.; Reichman, David R.
  • Physical Review B, Vol. 88, Issue 4
  • DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevB.88.045318

Enhanced valley splitting in monolayer WSe2 due to magnetic exchange field
journal, May 2017

  • Zhao, Chuan; Norden, Tenzin; Zhang, Peiyao
  • Nature Nanotechnology, Vol. 12, Issue 8
  • DOI: 10.1038/nnano.2017.68

Robust high-temperature trion emission in monolayers of Mo ( S y Se 1 y ) 2 alloys
journal, May 2017


Three-Particle Complexes in Two-Dimensional Semiconductors
journal, March 2015


Coupled Spin and Valley Physics in Monolayers of MoS 2 and Other Group-VI Dichalcogenides
journal, May 2012


Excitonic Valley Effects in Monolayer WS 2 under High Magnetic Fields
journal, November 2016


Auger recombination of dark excitons in WS 2 and WSe 2 monolayers
journal, August 2016


Carrier and Polarization Dynamics in Monolayer MoS 2
journal, January 2014


Quantum Theory of the Dielectric Constant in Real Solids
journal, April 1962


Charged excitons in monolayer WSe 2 : Experiment and theory
journal, August 2017


Many-body effects in the absorption, gain, and luminescence spectra of semiconductor quantum-well structures
journal, January 1986


Excitons and Plasmons in Superconductors
journal, February 1961


Normal Modes in Hexagonal Boron Nitride
journal, June 1966


Excitonic Linewidth Approaching the Homogeneous Limit in MoS 2 -Based van der Waals Heterostructures
journal, May 2017


Magnetic brightening and control of dark excitons in monolayer WSe2
journal, June 2017

  • Zhang, Xiao-Xiao; Cao, Ting; Lu, Zhengguang
  • Nature Nanotechnology, Vol. 12, Issue 9
  • DOI: 10.1038/nnano.2017.105

Emerging Photoluminescence in Monolayer MoS2
journal, April 2010

  • Splendiani, Andrea; Sun, Liang; Zhang, Yuanbo
  • Nano Letters, Vol. 10, Issue 4, p. 1271-1275
  • DOI: 10.1021/nl903868w

Spin and pseudospins in layered transition metal dichalcogenides
journal, April 2014

  • Xu, Xiaodong; Yao, Wang; Xiao, Di
  • Nature Physics, Vol. 10, Issue 5
  • DOI: 10.1038/nphys2942

Identification of excitons, trions and biexcitons in single-layer WS 2 : Identification of excitons, trions and biexcitons in single-layer WS
journal, July 2015

  • Plechinger, Gerd; Nagler, Philipp; Kraus, Julia
  • physica status solidi (RRL) - Rapid Research Letters, Vol. 9, Issue 8
  • DOI: 10.1002/pssr.201510224

Dielectric screening in two-dimensional insulators: Implications for excitonic and impurity states in graphane
journal, August 2011


Population inversion and giant bandgap renormalization in atomically thin WS2 layers
journal, June 2015


Intervalley plasmons in graphene
journal, August 2010


Magnetic Proximity Effects in Transition-Metal Dichalcogenides: Converting Excitons
journal, September 2017


Trion fine structure and coupled spin–valley dynamics in monolayer tungsten disulfide
journal, September 2016

  • Plechinger, Gerd; Nagler, Philipp; Arora, Ashish
  • Nature Communications, Vol. 7, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1038/ncomms12715

Selection Rules Connecting Different Points in the Brillouin Zone
journal, October 1961


Auger recombination in semiconductor quantum wells
journal, August 1998


Magneto-optics of two-dimensional electron gases modified by strong Coulomb interactions in ZnSe quantum wells
journal, December 2005


Long-Lived Hole Spin/Valley Polarization Probed by Kerr Rotation in Monolayer WSe 2
journal, July 2016


A Collective Description of Electron Interactions: III. Coulomb Interactions in a Degenerate Electron Gas
journal, November 1953


The valley Hall effect in MoS2 transistors
journal, June 2014


Dirac cones and Dirac saddle points of bright excitons in monolayer transition metal dichalcogenides
journal, May 2014

  • Yu, Hongyi; Liu, Gui-Bin; Gong, Pu
  • Nature Communications, Vol. 5, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1038/ncomms4876

Exciton spin dynamics in quantum wells
journal, June 1993

  • Maialle, M. Z.; de Andrada e. Silva, E. A.; Sham, L. J.
  • Physical Review B, Vol. 47, Issue 23
  • DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevB.47.15776

Two-dimensional Fröhlich interaction in transition-metal dichalcogenide monolayers: Theoretical modeling and first-principles calculations
journal, August 2016


Exciton complexes in low dimensional transition metal dichalcogenides
journal, August 2014


Theory of Spin-Dependent Phonon-Assisted Optical Transitions in Silicon
journal, July 2010


Splitting between bright and dark excitons in transition metal dichalcogenide monolayers
journal, March 2016


Optical generation of excitonic valley coherence in monolayer WSe2
journal, August 2013

  • Jones, Aaron M.; Yu, Hongyi; Ghimire, Nirmal J.
  • Nature Nanotechnology, Vol. 8, Issue 9
  • DOI: 10.1038/nnano.2013.151

Transport Theory of Monolayer Transition-Metal Dichalcogenides through Symmetry
journal, July 2013


Van der Waals heterostructures
journal, July 2013

  • Geim, A. K.; Grigorieva, I. V.
  • Nature, Vol. 499, Issue 7459, p. 419-425
  • DOI: 10.1038/nature12385

Electronics and optoelectronics of two-dimensional transition metal dichalcogenides
journal, November 2012

  • Wang, Qing Hua; Kalantar-Zadeh, Kourosh; Kis, Andras
  • Nature Nanotechnology, Vol. 7, Issue 11, p. 699-712
  • DOI: 10.1038/nnano.2012.193

Collective Energy Losses in Solids
journal, July 1956


Electrical generation and control of the valley carriers in a monolayer transition metal dichalcogenide
journal, April 2016


Photonics and optoelectronics of 2D semiconductor transition metal dichalcogenides
journal, March 2016


Exciton band structure of monolayer MoS 2
journal, February 2015


Signatures of the electronic nature of pairing in high-Tc superconductors obtained by non-equilibrium boson spectroscopy
journal, December 2013

  • Krasnov, Vladimir M.; Katterwe, Sven-Olof; Rydh, Andreas
  • Nature Communications, Vol. 4, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1038/ncomms3970

Band Alignment in WSe 2 –Graphene Heterostructures
journal, February 2015


Electron theory of the optical properties of laser-excited semiconductors
journal, January 1984


Electrical Tuning of Exciton Binding Energies in Monolayer WS 2
journal, September 2015


Auger recombination in bulk and quantum well InGaAs
journal, March 1990

  • Hausser, S.; Fuchs, G.; Hangleiter, A.
  • Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 56, Issue 10
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.103175

Dark trions and biexcitons in WS2 and WSe2 made bright by e-e scattering
journal, April 2017

  • Danovich, Mark; Zólyomi, Viktor; Fal’ko, Vladimir I.
  • Scientific Reports, Vol. 7, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1038/srep45998

Acoustical Plasmons, Phonon Anomalies, and Superconductivity in Transition-Metal Systems
journal, March 1972


Probing the Spin-Polarized Electronic Band Structure in Monolayer Transition Metal Dichalcogenides by Optical Spectroscopy
journal, January 2017


Exciton Binding Energy and Nonhydrogenic Rydberg Series in Monolayer WS 2
journal, August 2014


Optical studies of charged excitons in II VI semiconductor quantum wells
journal, March 2003


Adiabatic Amplification of Plasmons and Demons in 2D Systems
journal, August 2016