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Title: Charged-particle multiplicities in proton–proton collisions at $$\sqrt{s} = 0.9$$ s = 0.9 to 8 TeV

Abstract

A detailed study of pseudorapidity densities and multiplicity distributions of primary charged particles produced in proton–proton collisions, at s= 0.9, 2.36, 2.76, 7 and 8 TeV, in the pseudorapidity range | η| < 2 , was carried out using the ALICE detector. Measurements were obtained for three event classes: inelastic, non-single diffractive and events with at least one charged particle in the pseudorapidity interval | η| < 1. The use of an improved track-counting algorithm combined with ALICE’s measurements of diffractive processes allows a higher precision compared to our previous publications. A KNO scaling study was performed in the pseudorapidity intervals | η| < 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5. The data are compared to other experimental results and to models as implemented in Monte Carlo event generators PHOJET and recent tunes of PYTHIA6, PYTHIA8 and EPOS.

Authors:
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Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC), Nuclear Physics (NP)
Contributing Org.:
ALICE Collaboration
OSTI Identifier:
1408412
Grant/Contract Number:  
AC02-05CH11231
Resource Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
European Physical Journal. C, Particles and Fields
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 77; Journal Issue: 1; Journal ID: ISSN 1434-6044
Publisher:
Springer
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
72 PHYSICS OF ELEMENTARY PARTICLES AND FIELDS

Citation Formats

Adam, J., Adamová, D., Aggarwal, M. M., Rinella, G. Aglieri, Agnello, M., Agrawal, N., Ahammed, Z., Ahmed, I., Ahn, S. U., Aiola, S., Akindinov, A., Alam, S. N., Aleksandrov, D., Alessandro, B., Alexandre, D., Molina, R. Alfaro, Alici, A., Alkin, A., Almaraz, J. R. M., Alme, J., Alt, T., Altinpinar, S., Altsybeev, I., Prado, C. Alves Garcia, Andrei, C., Andronic, A., Anguelov, V., Anielski, J., Antičić, T., Antinori, F., Antonioli, P., Aphecetche, L., Appelshäuser, H., Arcelli, S., Arnaldi, R., Arnold, O. W., Arsene, I. C., Arslandok, M., Audurier, B., Augustinus, A., Averbeck, R., Azmi, M. D., Badalà, A., Baek, Y. W., Bagnasco, S., Bailhache, R., Bala, R., Baldisseri, A., Baral, R. C., Barbano, A. M., Barbera, R., Barile, F., Barnaföldi, G. G., Barnby, L. S., Barret, V., Bartalini, P., Barth, K., Bartke, J., Bartsch, E., Basile, M., Bastid, N., Basu, S., Bathen, B., Batigne, G., Camejo, A. Batista, Batyunya, B., Batzing, P. C., Bearden, I. G., Beck, H., Bedda, C., Behera, N. K., Belikov, I., Bellini, F., Martinez, H. Bello, Bellwied, R., Belmont, R., Belmont-Moreno, E., Belyaev, V., Bencedi, G., Beole, S., Berceanu, I., Bercuci, A., Berdnikov, Y., Berenyi, D., Bertens, R. A., Berzano, D., Betev, L., Bhasin, A., Bhat, I. R., Bhati, A. K., Bhattacharjee, B., Bhom, J., Bianchi, L., Bianchi, N., Bianchin, C., Bielčík, J., Bielčíková, J., Bilandzic, A., Biswas, R., Biswas, S., Bjelogrlic, S., Blair, J. T., Blau, D., Blume, C., Bock, F., Bogdanov, A., Bøggild, H., Boldizsár, L., Bombara, M., Book, J., Borel, H., Borissov, A., Borri, M., Bossú, F., Botta, E., Böttger, S., Bourjau, C., Braun-Munzinger, P., Bregant, M., Breitner, T., Broker, T. A., Browning, T. A., Broz, M., Brucken, E. J., Bruna, E., Bruno, G. E., Budnikov, D., Buesching, H., Bufalino, S., Buncic, P., Busch, O., Buthelezi, Z., Butt, J. B., Buxton, J. T., Caffarri, D., Cai, X., Caines, H., Diaz, L. Calero, Caliva, A., Villar, E. Calvo, Camerini, P., Carena, F., Carena, W., Carnesecchi, F., Castellanos, J. Castillo, Castro, A. J., Casula, E. A. R., Sanchez, C. Ceballos, Cepila, J., Cerello, P., Cerkala, J., Chang, B., Chapeland, S., Chartier, M., Charvet, J. L., Chattopadhyay, S., Chattopadhyay, S., Chelnokov, V., Cherney, M., Cheshkov, C., Cheynis, B., Barroso, V. Chibante, Chinellato, D. D., Cho, S., Chochula, P., Choi, K., Chojnacki, M., Choudhury, S., Christakoglou, P., Christensen, C. H., Christiansen, P., Chujo, T., Chung, S. U., Cicalo, C., Cifarelli, L., Cindolo, F., Cleymans, J., Colamaria, F., Colella, D., Collu, A., Colocci, M., Balbastre, G. Conesa, Valle, Z. Conesa del, Connors, M. E., Contreras, J. G., Cormier, T. M., Morales, Y. Corrales, Maldonado, I. Cortés, Cortese, P., Cosentino, M. R., Costa, F., Crochet, P., Albino, R. Cruz, Cuautle, E., Cunqueiro, L., Dahms, T., Dainese, A., Danu, A., Das, D., Das, I., Das, S., Dash, A., Dash, S., De, S., De Caro, A., de Cataldo, G., de Conti, C., de Cuveland, J., De Falco, A., De Gruttola, D., De Marco, N., De Pasquale, S., Deisting, A., Deloff, A., Dénes, E., Deplano, C., Dhankher, P., Di Bari, D., Di Mauro, A., Di Nezza, P., Corchero, M. A. Diaz, Dietel, T., Dillenseger, P., Divià, R., Djuvsland, Ø., Dobrin, A., Gimenez, D. Domenicis, Dönigus, B., Dordic, O., Drozhzhova, T., Dubey, A. K., Dubla, A., Ducroux, L., Dupieux, P., Ehlers, R. J., Elia, D., Engel, H., Epple, E., Erazmus, B., Erdemir, I., Erhardt, F., Espagnon, B., Estienne, M., Esumi, S., Eum, J., Evans, D., Evdokimov, S., Eyyubova, G., Fabbietti, L., Fabris, D., Faivre, J., Fantoni, A., Fasel, M., Feldkamp, L., Feliciello, A., Feofilov, G., Ferencei, J., Téllez, A. Fernández, Ferreiro, E. G., Ferretti, A., Festanti, A., Feuillard, V. J. G., Figiel, J., Figueredo, M. A. 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Calvo, Camerini, P., Carena, F., Carena, W., Carnesecchi, F., Castellanos, J. Castillo, Castro, A. J., Casula, E. A. R., Sanchez, C. Ceballos, Cepila, J., Cerello, P., Cerkala, J., Chang, B., Chapeland, S., Chartier, M., Charvet, J. L., Chattopadhyay, S., Chattopadhyay, S., Chelnokov, V., Cherney, M., Cheshkov, C., Cheynis, B., Barroso, V. Chibante, Chinellato, D. D., Cho, S., Chochula, P., Choi, K., Chojnacki, M., Choudhury, S., Christakoglou, P., Christensen, C. H., Christiansen, P., Chujo, T., Chung, S. U., Cicalo, C., Cifarelli, L., Cindolo, F., Cleymans, J., Colamaria, F., Colella, D., Collu, A., Colocci, M., Balbastre, G. Conesa, Valle, Z. Conesa del, Connors, M. E., Contreras, J. G., Cormier, T. M., Morales, Y. Corrales, Maldonado, I. Cortés, Cortese, P., Cosentino, M. R., Costa, F., Crochet, P., Albino, R. 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S., Windelband, B., Winn, M., Yaldo, C. G., Yang, H., Yang, P., Yano, S., Yasar, C., Yin, Z., Yokoyama, H., Yoo, I. -K., Yoon, J. H., Yurchenko, V., Yushmanov, I., Zaborowska, A., Zaccolo, V., Zaman, A., Zampolli, C., Zanoli, H. J. C., Zaporozhets, S., Zardoshti, N., Zarochentsev, A., Závada, P., Zaviyalov, N., Zbroszczyk, H., Zgura, I. S., Zhalov, M., Zhang, H., Zhang, X., Zhang, Y., Zhang, C., Zhang, Z., Zhao, C., Zhigareva, N., Zhou, D., Zhou, Y., Zhou, Z., Zhu, H., Zhu, J., Zichichi, A., Zimmermann, A., Zimmermann, M. B., Zinovjev, G., and Zyzak, M. Tue . "Charged-particle multiplicities in proton–proton collisions at $$\sqrt{s} = 0.9$$ s = 0.9 to 8 TeV". United States. doi:10.1140/epjc/s10052-016-4571-1. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1408412.
@article{osti_1408412,
title = {Charged-particle multiplicities in proton–proton collisions at $$\sqrt{s} = 0.9$$ s = 0.9 to 8 TeV},
author = {Adam, J. and Adamová, D. and Aggarwal, M. M. and Rinella, G. Aglieri and Agnello, M. and Agrawal, N. and Ahammed, Z. and Ahmed, I. and Ahn, S. U. and Aiola, S. and Akindinov, A. and Alam, S. N. and Aleksandrov, D. and Alessandro, B. and Alexandre, D. and Molina, R. Alfaro and Alici, A. and Alkin, A. and Almaraz, J. R. M. and Alme, J. and Alt, T. and Altinpinar, S. and Altsybeev, I. and Prado, C. Alves Garcia and Andrei, C. and Andronic, A. and Anguelov, V. and Anielski, J. and Antičić, T. and Antinori, F. and Antonioli, P. and Aphecetche, L. and Appelshäuser, H. and Arcelli, S. and Arnaldi, R. and Arnold, O. W. and Arsene, I. C. and Arslandok, M. and Audurier, B. and Augustinus, A. and Averbeck, R. and Azmi, M. D. and Badalà, A. and Baek, Y. W. and Bagnasco, S. and Bailhache, R. and Bala, R. and Baldisseri, A. and Baral, R. C. and Barbano, A. M. and Barbera, R. and Barile, F. and Barnaföldi, G. G. and Barnby, L. S. and Barret, V. and Bartalini, P. and Barth, K. and Bartke, J. and Bartsch, E. and Basile, M. and Bastid, N. and Basu, S. and Bathen, B. and Batigne, G. and Camejo, A. Batista and Batyunya, B. and Batzing, P. C. and Bearden, I. G. and Beck, H. and Bedda, C. and Behera, N. K. and Belikov, I. and Bellini, F. and Martinez, H. Bello and Bellwied, R. and Belmont, R. and Belmont-Moreno, E. and Belyaev, V. and Bencedi, G. and Beole, S. and Berceanu, I. and Bercuci, A. and Berdnikov, Y. and Berenyi, D. and Bertens, R. A. and Berzano, D. and Betev, L. and Bhasin, A. and Bhat, I. R. and Bhati, A. K. and Bhattacharjee, B. and Bhom, J. and Bianchi, L. and Bianchi, N. and Bianchin, C. and Bielčík, J. and Bielčíková, J. and Bilandzic, A. and Biswas, R. and Biswas, S. and Bjelogrlic, S. and Blair, J. T. and Blau, D. and Blume, C. and Bock, F. and Bogdanov, A. and Bøggild, H. and Boldizsár, L. and Bombara, M. and Book, J. and Borel, H. and Borissov, A. and Borri, M. and Bossú, F. and Botta, E. and Böttger, S. and Bourjau, C. and Braun-Munzinger, P. and Bregant, M. and Breitner, T. and Broker, T. A. and Browning, T. A. and Broz, M. and Brucken, E. J. and Bruna, E. and Bruno, G. E. and Budnikov, D. and Buesching, H. and Bufalino, S. and Buncic, P. and Busch, O. and Buthelezi, Z. and Butt, J. B. and Buxton, J. T. and Caffarri, D. and Cai, X. and Caines, H. and Diaz, L. Calero and Caliva, A. and Villar, E. Calvo and Camerini, P. and Carena, F. and Carena, W. and Carnesecchi, F. and Castellanos, J. Castillo and Castro, A. J. and Casula, E. A. R. and Sanchez, C. Ceballos and Cepila, J. and Cerello, P. and Cerkala, J. and Chang, B. and Chapeland, S. and Chartier, M. and Charvet, J. 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S. and Windelband, B. and Winn, M. and Yaldo, C. G. and Yang, H. and Yang, P. and Yano, S. and Yasar, C. and Yin, Z. and Yokoyama, H. and Yoo, I. -K. and Yoon, J. H. and Yurchenko, V. and Yushmanov, I. and Zaborowska, A. and Zaccolo, V. and Zaman, A. and Zampolli, C. and Zanoli, H. J. C. and Zaporozhets, S. and Zardoshti, N. and Zarochentsev, A. and Závada, P. and Zaviyalov, N. and Zbroszczyk, H. and Zgura, I. S. and Zhalov, M. and Zhang, H. and Zhang, X. and Zhang, Y. and Zhang, C. and Zhang, Z. and Zhao, C. and Zhigareva, N. and Zhou, D. and Zhou, Y. and Zhou, Z. and Zhu, H. and Zhu, J. and Zichichi, A. and Zimmermann, A. and Zimmermann, M. B. and Zinovjev, G. and Zyzak, M.},
abstractNote = {A detailed study of pseudorapidity densities and multiplicity distributions of primary charged particles produced in proton–proton collisions, at s= 0.9, 2.36, 2.76, 7 and 8 TeV, in the pseudorapidity range | η| < 2 , was carried out using the ALICE detector. Measurements were obtained for three event classes: inelastic, non-single diffractive and events with at least one charged particle in the pseudorapidity interval | η| < 1. The use of an improved track-counting algorithm combined with ALICE’s measurements of diffractive processes allows a higher precision compared to our previous publications. A KNO scaling study was performed in the pseudorapidity intervals | η| < 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5. The data are compared to other experimental results and to models as implemented in Monte Carlo event generators PHOJET and recent tunes of PYTHIA6, PYTHIA8 and EPOS.},
doi = {10.1140/epjc/s10052-016-4571-1},
journal = {European Physical Journal. C, Particles and Fields},
number = 1,
volume = 77,
place = {United States},
year = {2017},
month = {1}
}

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Interleaved parton showers and tuning prospects
journal, March 2011

  • Corke, Richard; Sjöstrand, Torbjörn
  • Journal of High Energy Physics, Vol. 2011, Issue 3
  • DOI: 10.1007/JHEP03(2011)032

High-energy-physics event generation with PYTHIA 5.7 and JETSET 7.4
journal, August 1994


The quark-gluon structure of the pomeron and the rise of inclusive spectra at high energies
journal, October 1982


Charged multiplicities in pp and AA collisions at LHC
journal, March 2012


Charged-Particle Multiplicity Density at Midrapidity in Central Pb-Pb Collisions at s N N = 2.76 TeV
journal, December 2010


Asymptotic Behavior and Subtractions in the Mandelstam Representation
journal, August 1961


Measurement of inelastic, single- and double-diffraction cross sections in proton–proton collisions at the LHC with ALICE
journal, June 2013


Charged particle multiplicity distributions at 200 and 900 GeV c.m. energy
journal, September 1989

  • Ansorge, R. E.; �sman, B.; Burow, L.
  • Zeitschrift f�r Physik C Particles and Fields, Vol. 43, Issue 3
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ALICE: Physics Performance Report, Volume II
journal, September 2006

  • Collaboration, Alice; Alessandro, B.; Antinori, F.
  • Journal of Physics G: Nuclear and Particle Physics, Vol. 32, Issue 10
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Transverse momentum spectra of charged particles in proton–proton collisions at <mml:math altimg="si1.gif" overflow="scroll" xmlns:xocs="http://www.elsevier.com/xml/xocs/dtd" xmlns:xs="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xmlns="http://www.elsevier.com/xml/ja/dtd" xmlns:ja="http://www.elsevier.com/xml/ja/dtd" xmlns:mml="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" xmlns:tb="http://www.elsevier.com/xml/common/table/dtd" xmlns:sb="http://www.elsevier.com/xml/common/struct-bib/dtd" xmlns:ce="http://www.elsevier.com/xml/common/dtd" xmlns:xlink="http://www.w3.org/1999/xlink" xmlns:cals="http://www.elsevier.com/xml/common/cals/dtd"><mml:msqrt><mml:mi>s</mml:mi></mml:msqrt><mml:mo>=</mml:mo><mml:mn>900</mml:mn><mml:mtext> GeV</mml:mtext></mml:math> with ALICE at the LHC
journal, September 2010


PYTHIA 6.4 physics and manual
journal, May 2006


A study of the general characteristics of proton-antiproton collisions at √s=0.2 to 0.9 TeV
journal, May 1990


Negative binomial multiplicity distributions in high energy hadron collisions
journal, September 1986

  • Giovannini, A.; Hove, L.
  • Zeitschrift für Physik C Particles and Fields, Vol. 30, Issue 3
  • DOI: 10.1007/BF01557602

Quantum Optics and Heavy Ion Physics
journal, August 2006


The ALICE TPC, a large 3-dimensional tracking device with fast readout for ultra-high multiplicity events
journal, October 2010

  • Alme, J.; Andres, Y.; Appelshäuser, H.
  • Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment, Vol. 622, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1016/j.nima.2010.04.042

A multidimensional unfolding method based on Bayes' theorem
journal, August 1995

  • D'Agostini, G.
  • Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment, Vol. 362, Issue 2-3
  • DOI: 10.1016/0168-9002(95)00274-X

Charged particle multiplicity distributions in pp collisions at ISR energies
journal, October 1977


On approximate KNO scalling at $$\bar PP$$ collider
journal, September 1984

  • Kam, C. H.; Lim, Y. K.; Phua, K. K.
  • Zeitschrift f�r Physik C Particles and Fields, Vol. 26, Issue 3
  • DOI: 10.1007/BF01452563

Jet production and fragmentation ine + e ? annihilation at 12?43 GeV
journal, December 1984

  • Althoff, M.; Braunschweig, W.; Kirschfink, F. J.
  • Zeitschrift f�r Physik C Particles and Fields, Vol. 22, Issue 4
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Scaling of pseudorapidity distributions at c.m. energies up to 0.9 TeV
journal, March 1986

  • Alner, G. J.; Ansorge, R. E.; �sman, B.
  • Zeitschrift f�r Physik C Particles and Fields, Vol. 33, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1007/BF01410446

A brief introduction to PYTHIA 8.1
journal, June 2008

  • Sjöstrand, Torbjörn; Mrenna, Stephen; Skands, Peter
  • Computer Physics Communications, Vol. 178, Issue 11
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Highly relativistic nucleus-nucleus collisions: The central rapidity region
journal, January 1983


Systematic measurements of identified particle spectra in pp , d + Au , and Au + Au collisions at the STAR detector
journal, March 2009


Charged particle multiplicities at the CERN SPS collider
journal, December 1981


The ALICE trigger system performance for p-p and Pb-Pb collisions
journal, January 2012


RHIC and High Energy Density Matter
journal, December 2003


Charged multiplicity distribution in pp interactions at CERN ISR energies
journal, August 1984


Production of K∗(892)0 and ϕ(1020) in pp collisions at $\sqrt{s}=7\ \mathrm{TeV}$
journal, October 2012


Possible scenarios for soft and semihard component structure in central hadron-hadron collisions in the TeV region
journal, April 1999


UA5: A general study of proton-antiproton physics at √s=546 GeV
journal, October 1987


Strange particle production in proton–proton collisions at $\sqrt{s}=0.9$ $\mbox {${\rm TeV}$}$ with ALICE at the LHC: The ALICE Collaboration
journal, March 2011


Scaling of multiplicity distributions in high energy hadron collisions
journal, January 1972


Cross Sections in Deuterium at High Energies
journal, October 1955


Performance of the ALICE VZERO system
journal, October 2013


Possible Manifestation of Quark-Gluon Plasma in Multiplicity Distributions from High-Energy Reactions
journal, October 1986


Charged-particle multiplicity in proton–proton collisions
journal, July 2010

  • Grosse-Oetringhaus, Jan Fiete; Reygers, Klaus
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The ALICE experiment at the CERN LHC
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  • Collaboration, The ALICE; Aamodt, K.; Quintana, A. Abrahantes
  • GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung, GSI, Darmstadt
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    EPOS LHC: Test of collective hadronization with data measured at the CERN Large Hadron Collider
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    Interleaved parton showers and tuning prospects
    journal, March 2011

    • Corke, Richard; Sjöstrand, Torbjörn
    • Journal of High Energy Physics, Vol. 2011, Issue 3
    • DOI: 10.1007/jhep03(2011)032

    Pseudorapidity distributions of charged particles produced in p ¯ p interactions as s = 630 and 1800 GeV
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    Possible scenarios for soft and semihard component structure in central hadron-hadron collisions in the TeV region
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    A study of the general characteristics of proton-antiproton collisions at √s=0.2 to 0.9 TeV
    journal, May 1990


    Scaling of multiplicity distributions in high energy hadron collisions
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    Hard diffraction in hadron-hadron interactions and in photoproduction
    journal, August 1995


    ALICE: Physics Performance Report, Volume II
    journal, September 2006

    • Collaboration, Alice; Alessandro, B.; Antinori, F.
    • Journal of Physics G: Nuclear and Particle Physics, Vol. 32, Issue 10
    • DOI: 10.1088/0954-3899/32/10/001

    UA5: A general study of proton-antiproton physics at √s=546 GeV
    journal, October 1987


    Asymptotic Behavior and Subtractions in the Mandelstam Representation
    journal, August 1961


    Pomeron as quark-gluon strings and multiple hadron production at SPS-Collider energies
    journal, November 1982


    Highly relativistic nucleus-nucleus collisions: The central rapidity region
    journal, January 1983


    Multiparton interactions and hadron structure
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    A brief introduction to PYTHIA 8.1
    journal, June 2008

    • Sjöstrand, Torbjörn; Mrenna, Stephen; Skands, Peter
    • Computer Physics Communications, Vol. 178, Issue 11
    • DOI: 10.1016/j.cpc.2008.01.036

    Operation and calibration of the Silicon Drift Detectors of the ALICE experiment during the 2008 cosmic ray data taking period
    journal, April 2010


    Charged-particle multiplicity measurement in proton–proton collisions at $\sqrt{s}=7$ TeV with ALICE at LHC
    journal, June 2010


    The role of double parton collisions in soft hadron interactions
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    Charged-Particle Multiplicity Density at Midrapidity in Central Pb-Pb Collisions at s N N = 2.76 TeV
    journal, December 2010


    Scaling of pseudorapidity distributions at c.m. energies up to 0.9 TeV
    journal, March 1986

    • Alner, G. J.; Ansorge, R. E.; �sman, B.
    • Zeitschrift f�r Physik C Particles and Fields, Vol. 33, Issue 1
    • DOI: 10.1007/bf01410446

    Predictions of the Quark–Gluon String Model for pp at LHC
    journal, April 2010


    Production of K∗(892)0 and ϕ(1020) in pp collisions at $\sqrt{s}=7\ \mathrm{TeV}$
    journal, October 2012


    Jet production and fragmentation ine + e ? annihilation at 12?43 GeV
    journal, December 1984

    • Althoff, M.; Braunschweig, W.; Kirschfink, F. J.
    • Zeitschrift f�r Physik C Particles and Fields, Vol. 22, Issue 4
    • DOI: 10.1007/bf01547419

    Negative binomial multiplicity distributions in high energy hadron collisions
    journal, September 1986

    • Giovannini, A.; Hove, L.
    • Zeitschrift für Physik C Particles and Fields, Vol. 30, Issue 3
    • DOI: 10.1007/bf01557602

    Energy dependence of the transverse momentum distributions of charged particles in pp collisions measured by ALICE
    journal, December 2013


    Transverse momentum spectra of charged particles in proton–proton collisions at <mml:math altimg="si1.gif" overflow="scroll" xmlns:xocs="http://www.elsevier.com/xml/xocs/dtd" xmlns:xs="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xmlns="http://www.elsevier.com/xml/ja/dtd" xmlns:ja="http://www.elsevier.com/xml/ja/dtd" xmlns:mml="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" xmlns:tb="http://www.elsevier.com/xml/common/table/dtd" xmlns:sb="http://www.elsevier.com/xml/common/struct-bib/dtd" xmlns:ce="http://www.elsevier.com/xml/common/dtd" xmlns:xlink="http://www.w3.org/1999/xlink" xmlns:cals="http://www.elsevier.com/xml/common/cals/dtd"><mml:msqrt><mml:mi>s</mml:mi></mml:msqrt><mml:mo>=</mml:mo><mml:mn>900</mml:mn><mml:mtext> GeV</mml:mtext></mml:math> with ALICE at the LHC
    journal, September 2010


    Charged particle multiplicity distributions in pp collisions at ISR energies
    journal, October 1977


    Pseudorapidity distributions of charged particles in d+Au and p+p collisions at
    journal, July 2004

    • Nouicer, Rachid; Collaboration), (for the PHOBOS; Back, B. B.
    • Journal of Physics G: Nuclear and Particle Physics, Vol. 30, Issue 8
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    Charged-particle multiplicity measurement in proton–proton collisions at $\sqrt{s}=0.9$ and 2.36 TeV with ALICE at LHC
    journal, June 2010


    Charged particle multiplicity distributions in proton-antiproton collisions at 540 GeV centre of mass energy
    journal, March 1983


    A multidimensional unfolding method based on Bayes' theorem
    journal, August 1995

    • D'Agostini, G.
    • Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment, Vol. 362, Issue 2-3
    • DOI: 10.1016/0168-9002(95)00274-x

    Charged particle multiplicities at the CERN SPS collider
    journal, December 1981


    Neutral pion and η meson production in proton–proton collisions at <mml:math altimg="si1.gif" overflow="scroll" xmlns:xocs="http://www.elsevier.com/xml/xocs/dtd" xmlns:xs="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xmlns="http://www.elsevier.com/xml/ja/dtd" xmlns:ja="http://www.elsevier.com/xml/ja/dtd" xmlns:mml="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" xmlns:tb="http://www.elsevier.com/xml/common/table/dtd" xmlns:sb="http://www.elsevier.com/xml/common/struct-bib/dtd" xmlns:ce="http://www.elsevier.com/xml/common/dtd" xmlns:xlink="http://www.w3.org/1999/xlink" xmlns:cals="http://www.elsevier.com/xml/common/cals/dtd"><mml:msqrt><mml:mi>s</mml:mi></mml:msqrt><mml:mo>=</mml:mo><mml:mn>0.9</mml:mn><mml:mtext> </mml:mtext><mml:mtext>TeV</mml:mtext></mml:math> and <mml:math altimg="si2.gif" overflow="scroll" xmlns:xocs="http://www.elsevier.com/xml/xocs/dtd" xmlns:xs="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xmlns="http://www.elsevier.com/xml/ja/dtd" xmlns:ja="http://www.elsevier.com/xml/ja/dtd" xmlns:mml="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" xmlns:tb="http://www.elsevier.com/xml/common/table/dtd" xmlns:sb="http://www.elsevier.com/xml/common/struct-bib/dtd" xmlns:ce="http://www.elsevier.com/xml/common/dtd" xmlns:xlink="http://www.w3.org/1999/xlink" xmlns:cals="http://www.elsevier.com/xml/common/cals/dtd"><mml:msqrt><mml:mi>s</mml:mi></mml:msqrt><mml:mo>=</mml:mo><mml:mn>7</mml:mn><mml:mtext> </mml:mtext><mml:mtext>TeV</mml:mtext></mml:math>
    journal, October 2012


    The quark-gluon structure of the pomeron and the rise of inclusive spectra at high energies
    journal, October 1982


    Systematic measurements of identified particle spectra in pp , d + Au , and Au + Au collisions at the STAR detector
    journal, March 2009


    High-energy-physics event generation with PYTHIA 5.7 and JETSET 7.4
    journal, August 1994


    Strange particle production in proton–proton collisions at $\sqrt{s}=0.9$ $\mbox {${\rm TeV}$}$ with ALICE at the LHC: The ALICE Collaboration
    journal, March 2011


    Remarks on multiplicity fluctuations and KNO scaling in p collider experiments
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    Comparison of p and pp interactions at
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    SVD approach to data unfolding
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    • Höcker, Andreas; Kartvelishvili, Vakhtang
    • Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment, Vol. 372, Issue 3
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    Performance of the ALICE VZERO system
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    On approximate KNO scalling at $$\bar PP$$ collider
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    • Kam, C. H.; Lim, Y. K.; Phua, K. K.
    • Zeitschrift f�r Physik C Particles and Fields, Vol. 26, Issue 3
    • DOI: 10.1007/bf01452563

    Possible Manifestation of Quark-Gluon Plasma in Multiplicity Distributions from High-Energy Reactions
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    Multi-strange baryon production in pp collisions at <mml:math altimg="si1.gif" overflow="scroll" xmlns:xocs="http://www.elsevier.com/xml/xocs/dtd" xmlns:xs="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xmlns="http://www.elsevier.com/xml/ja/dtd" xmlns:ja="http://www.elsevier.com/xml/ja/dtd" xmlns:mml="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" xmlns:tb="http://www.elsevier.com/xml/common/table/dtd" xmlns:sb="http://www.elsevier.com/xml/common/struct-bib/dtd" xmlns:ce="http://www.elsevier.com/xml/common/dtd" xmlns:xlink="http://www.w3.org/1999/xlink" xmlns:cals="http://www.elsevier.com/xml/common/cals/dtd"><mml:msqrt><mml:mi>s</mml:mi></mml:msqrt><mml:mo>=</mml:mo><mml:mn>7</mml:mn><mml:mtext> TeV</mml:mtext></mml:math> with ALICE
    journal, June 2012


    Centrality determination of Pb-Pb collisions at s N N = 2.76 TeV with ALICE
    journal, October 2013


    Charged multiplicities in pp and AA collisions at LHC
    journal, March 2012


    The ALICE TPC, a large 3-dimensional tracking device with fast readout for ultra-high multiplicity events
    journal, October 2010

    • Alme, J.; Andres, Y.; Appelshäuser, H.
    • Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment, Vol. 622, Issue 1
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    Transverse-Momentum and Pseudorapidity Distributions of Charged Hadrons in p p Collisions at s = 7 TeV
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    Charged-particle multiplicities in proton–proton collisions at $\sqrt{s} = 0.9$ to 8 TeV
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    • Adam, Jaroslav; Adamova, Dagmar; Aggarwal, Madan Mohan
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    Measurement of inelastic, single- and double-diffraction cross sections in proton–proton collisions at the LHC with ALICE
    journal, June 2013


    Charged particle multiplicity distributions at 200 and 900 GeV c.m. energy
    journal, September 1989

    • Ansorge, R. E.; �sman, B.; Burow, L.
    • Zeitschrift f�r Physik C Particles and Fields, Vol. 43, Issue 3
    • DOI: 10.1007/bf01506531

    The ALICE experiment at the CERN LHC
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    Cross Sections in Deuterium at High Energies
    journal, October 1955


    Multiplicity dependence of the average transverse momentum in pp, p–Pb, and Pb–Pb collisions at the LHC
    journal, December 2013


    PYTHIA 6.4 physics and manual
    journal, May 2006


    The ALICE trigger system performance for p-p and Pb-Pb collisions
    journal, January 2012


    Charged-particle multiplicities in pp interactions measured with the ATLAS detector at the LHC
    journal, May 2011


    Charged multiplicity distribution in pp interactions at CERN ISR energies
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    Quantum Optics and Heavy Ion Physics
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    Some intriguing aspects of multiparticle production processes
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    • Wilk, Grzegorz; Włodarczyk, Zbigniew
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    Some intriguing aspects of multiparticle production processes
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    Event-by-event mean ${p}_{{\rm{T}}}$ fluctuations and transverse size of color flux tube generated in pp collisions at $\sqrt{s}$ = 0.90 TeV
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    Multiplicity distribution and normalized moments in p–p collisions at LHC in forward rapidity using Weibull model
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    Correlated wounded hot spots in proton-proton interactions
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    Multiplicity dependence of light-flavor hadron production in p p collisions at s = 7 TeV
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    Intriguing properties of multiplicity distributions
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    Measurement of ϒ ( 1 S ) Elliptic Flow at Forward Rapidity in Pb-Pb Collisions at s N N = 5.02 TeV
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    Measurement of charged particle spectra in minimum-bias events from proton–proton collisions at $$\sqrt{s}=13\,\text {TeV} $$ s = 13 TeV
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    Comparing the PYTHIA Monte Carlo to a two-component (soft + hard) model of hadron production in high-energy p–p collisions
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