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Title: The Electromagnetic Counterpart of the Binary Neutron Star Merger LIGO/Virgo GW170817. V. Rising X-Ray Emission from an Off-axis Jet

Abstract

Here, we report the discovery of rising X-ray emission from the binary neutron star merger event GW170817. This is the first detection of X-ray emission from a gravitational-wave (GW) source. Observations acquired with the Chandra X-ray Observatory (CXO) at $$t\approx 2.3$$ days post-merger reveal no significant emission, with $${L}_{x}\lesssim 3.2\times {10}^{38}\,\mathrm{erg}\,{{\rm{s}}}^{-1}$$ (isotropic-equivalent). Continued monitoring revealed the presence of an X-ray source that brightened with time, reaching $${L}_{x}\approx 9\times {10}^{38}\,\mathrm{erg}\,{{\rm{s}}}^{-1}$$ at $$\approx 15.1$$ days post-merger. We interpret these findings in the context of isotropic and collimated relativistic outflows (both on- and off-axis). We find that the broadband X-ray to radio observations are consistent with emission from a relativistic jet with kinetic energy $${E}_{k}\sim {10}^{49-50}\,\mathrm{erg}$$, viewed off-axis with $${\theta }_{\mathrm{obs}}\sim 20^\circ \mbox{--}40^\circ $$. Our models favor a circumbinary density $$n\sim {10}^{-4}\mbox{--}{10}^{-2}\,{\mathrm{cm}}^{-3}$$, depending on the value of the microphysical parameter $${\epsilon }_{B}={10}^{-4}\mbox{--}{10}^{-2}$$. A central-engine origin of the X-ray emission is unlikely. Future X-ray observations at $$t\gtrsim 100$$ days, when the target will be observable again with the CXO, will provide additional constraints to solve the model degeneracies and test our predictions. Our inferences on $${\theta }_{\mathrm{obs}}$$ are testable with GW information on GW170817 from advanced LIGO/Virgo on the binary inclination.

Authors:
ORCiD logo [1];  [2];  [1];  [3];  [2];  [4];  [2];  [2];  [5];  [2];  [2];  [2];  [2];  [6];  [7];  [8];  [8];  [9];  [8];  [10] more »;  [11] « less
  1. Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (United States)
  2. Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA (United States)
  3. Univ. of Ferrara, Ferrara (Italy)
  4. Columbia Univ., New York, NY (United States)
  5. Ohio Univ., Athens, OH (United States)
  6. Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States)
  7. Syracuse Univ., Syracuse, NY (United States)
  8. Univ. of Chicago, Chicago, IL (United States)
  9. Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Univ. of Chicago, Chicago, IL (United States)
  10. Univ. of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (United States)
  11. Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Brandeis Univ., Waltham, MA (United States)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC), High Energy Physics (HEP)
OSTI Identifier:
1408215
Report Number(s):
arXiv:1710.05431; FERMILAB-PUB-17-499-A-AE-CD
Journal ID: ISSN 2041-8213; 1630774; TRN: US1702935
Grant/Contract Number:  
AC02-07CH11359
Resource Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
The Astrophysical Journal. Letters
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 848; Journal Issue: 2; Journal ID: ISSN 2041-8213
Publisher:
Institute of Physics (IOP)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
79 ASTRONOMY AND ASTROPHYSICS; stars: neutron; gravitational waves; relativistic processes

Citation Formats

Margutti, Raffaella, Berger, E., Fong, W., Guidorzi, C., Alexander, K. D., Metzger, B. D., Blanchard, P. K., Cowperthwaite, P. S., Chornock, R., Eftekhari, T., Nicholl, M., Villar, V. A., Williams, P. K. G., Annis, J., Brown, D. A., Chen, H., Doctor, Z., Frieman, J. A., Holz, D. E., Sako, M., and Soares-Santos, M.. The Electromagnetic Counterpart of the Binary Neutron Star Merger LIGO/Virgo GW170817. V. Rising X-Ray Emission from an Off-axis Jet. United States: N. p., 2017. Web. https://doi.org/10.3847/2041-8213/aa9057.
Margutti, Raffaella, Berger, E., Fong, W., Guidorzi, C., Alexander, K. D., Metzger, B. D., Blanchard, P. K., Cowperthwaite, P. S., Chornock, R., Eftekhari, T., Nicholl, M., Villar, V. A., Williams, P. K. G., Annis, J., Brown, D. A., Chen, H., Doctor, Z., Frieman, J. A., Holz, D. E., Sako, M., & Soares-Santos, M.. The Electromagnetic Counterpart of the Binary Neutron Star Merger LIGO/Virgo GW170817. V. Rising X-Ray Emission from an Off-axis Jet. United States. https://doi.org/10.3847/2041-8213/aa9057
Margutti, Raffaella, Berger, E., Fong, W., Guidorzi, C., Alexander, K. D., Metzger, B. D., Blanchard, P. K., Cowperthwaite, P. S., Chornock, R., Eftekhari, T., Nicholl, M., Villar, V. A., Williams, P. K. G., Annis, J., Brown, D. A., Chen, H., Doctor, Z., Frieman, J. A., Holz, D. E., Sako, M., and Soares-Santos, M.. Mon . "The Electromagnetic Counterpart of the Binary Neutron Star Merger LIGO/Virgo GW170817. V. Rising X-Ray Emission from an Off-axis Jet". United States. https://doi.org/10.3847/2041-8213/aa9057. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1408215.
@article{osti_1408215,
title = {The Electromagnetic Counterpart of the Binary Neutron Star Merger LIGO/Virgo GW170817. V. Rising X-Ray Emission from an Off-axis Jet},
author = {Margutti, Raffaella and Berger, E. and Fong, W. and Guidorzi, C. and Alexander, K. D. and Metzger, B. D. and Blanchard, P. K. and Cowperthwaite, P. S. and Chornock, R. and Eftekhari, T. and Nicholl, M. and Villar, V. A. and Williams, P. K. G. and Annis, J. and Brown, D. A. and Chen, H. and Doctor, Z. and Frieman, J. A. and Holz, D. E. and Sako, M. and Soares-Santos, M.},
abstractNote = {Here, we report the discovery of rising X-ray emission from the binary neutron star merger event GW170817. This is the first detection of X-ray emission from a gravitational-wave (GW) source. Observations acquired with the Chandra X-ray Observatory (CXO) at $t\approx 2.3$ days post-merger reveal no significant emission, with ${L}_{x}\lesssim 3.2\times {10}^{38}\,\mathrm{erg}\,{{\rm{s}}}^{-1}$ (isotropic-equivalent). Continued monitoring revealed the presence of an X-ray source that brightened with time, reaching ${L}_{x}\approx 9\times {10}^{38}\,\mathrm{erg}\,{{\rm{s}}}^{-1}$ at $\approx 15.1$ days post-merger. We interpret these findings in the context of isotropic and collimated relativistic outflows (both on- and off-axis). We find that the broadband X-ray to radio observations are consistent with emission from a relativistic jet with kinetic energy ${E}_{k}\sim {10}^{49-50}\,\mathrm{erg}$, viewed off-axis with ${\theta }_{\mathrm{obs}}\sim 20^\circ \mbox{--}40^\circ $. Our models favor a circumbinary density $n\sim {10}^{-4}\mbox{--}{10}^{-2}\,{\mathrm{cm}}^{-3}$, depending on the value of the microphysical parameter ${\epsilon }_{B}={10}^{-4}\mbox{--}{10}^{-2}$. A central-engine origin of the X-ray emission is unlikely. Future X-ray observations at $t\gtrsim 100$ days, when the target will be observable again with the CXO, will provide additional constraints to solve the model degeneracies and test our predictions. Our inferences on ${\theta }_{\mathrm{obs}}$ are testable with GW information on GW170817 from advanced LIGO/Virgo on the binary inclination.},
doi = {10.3847/2041-8213/aa9057},
journal = {The Astrophysical Journal. Letters},
number = 2,
volume = 848,
place = {United States},
year = {2017},
month = {10}
}

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    journal, March 2018

    • Geng, Jin-Jun; Dai, Zi-Gao; Huang, Yong-Feng
    • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 856, Issue 2
    • DOI: 10.3847/2041-8213/aab7f9

    A Turnover in the Radio Light Curve of GW170817
    journal, May 2018

    • Dobie, Dougal; Kaplan, David L.; Murphy, Tara
    • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 858, Issue 2
    • DOI: 10.3847/2041-8213/aac105

    Continued Brightening of the Afterglow of GW170817/GRB 170817A as Being Due to a Delayed Energy Injection
    journal, May 2018


    An Upper Limit on the Linear Polarization Fraction of the GW170817 Radio Continuum
    journal, July 2018

    • Corsi, Alessandra; Hallinan, Gregg W.; Lazzati, Davide
    • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 861, Issue 1
    • DOI: 10.3847/2041-8213/aacdfd

    Fading of the X-Ray Afterglow of Neutron Star Merger GW170817/GRB 170817A at 260 Days
    journal, July 2018

    • Nynka, Melania; Ruan, John J.; Haggard, Daryl
    • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 862, Issue 2
    • DOI: 10.3847/2041-8213/aad32d

    A Decline in the X-Ray through Radio Emission from GW170817 Continues to Support an Off-axis Structured Jet
    journal, August 2018

    • Alexander, K. D.; Margutti, R.; Blanchard, P. K.
    • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 863, Issue 2
    • DOI: 10.3847/2041-8213/aad637

    Fermi GBM Observations of GRB 150101B: A Second Nearby Event with a Short Hard Spike and a Soft Tail
    journal, August 2018


    Radio Sky Maps of the GRB 170817A Afterglow from Simulations
    journal, September 2018

    • Zrake, Jonathan; Xie, Xiaoyi; MacFadyen, Andrew
    • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 865, Issue 1
    • DOI: 10.3847/2041-8213/aaddf8

    Follow-up of the Neutron Star Bearing Gravitational-wave Candidate Events S190425z and S190426c with MMT and SOAR
    journal, July 2019

    • Hosseinzadeh, G.; Cowperthwaite, P. S.; Gomez, S.
    • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 880, Issue 1
    • DOI: 10.3847/2041-8213/ab271c

    GW170817 Afterglow Reveals that Short Gamma-Ray Bursts are Neutron Star Mergers
    journal, July 2019


    GROWTH on S190426c: Real-time Search for a Counterpart to the Probable Neutron Star–Black Hole Merger using an Automated Difference Imaging Pipeline for DECam
    journal, August 2019

    • Goldstein, Daniel A.; Andreoni, Igor; Nugent, Peter E.
    • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 881, Issue 1
    • DOI: 10.3847/2041-8213/ab3046

    Binary Black Hole Population Properties Inferred from the First and Second Observing Runs of Advanced LIGO and Advanced Virgo
    journal, September 2019


    A mildly relativistic wide-angle outflow in the neutron-star merger event GW170817
    journal, December 2017

    • Mooley, K. P.; Nakar, E.; Hotokezaka, K.
    • Nature, Vol. 554, Issue 7691
    • DOI: 10.1038/nature25452

    Superluminal motion of a relativistic jet in the neutron-star merger GW170817
    journal, September 2018


    The first direct double neutron star merger detection: Implications for cosmic nucleosynthesis
    journal, July 2018


    Retainment of r-process material in dwarf galaxies
    journal, April 2018

    • Beniamini, Paz; Dvorkin, Irina; Silk, Joe
    • Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Vol. 478, Issue 2
    • DOI: 10.1093/mnras/sty1035

    The progenitors of compact-object binaries: impact of metallicity, common envelope and natal kicks
    journal, July 2018

    • Giacobbo, Nicola; Mapelli, Michela
    • Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Vol. 480, Issue 2
    • DOI: 10.1093/mnras/sty1999

    Rapidly evolving transients in the Dark Energy Survey
    journal, August 2018

    • Pursiainen, M.; Childress, M.; Smith, M.
    • Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Vol. 481, Issue 1
    • DOI: 10.1093/mnras/sty2309

    The host galaxies of double compact objects merging in the local Universe
    journal, October 2018

    • Mapelli, Michela; Giacobbo, Nicola; Toffano, Mattia
    • Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Vol. 481, Issue 4
    • DOI: 10.1093/mnras/sty2663

    Host galaxies of merging compact objects: mass, star formation rate, metallicity, and colours
    journal, May 2019

    • Artale, M. Celeste; Mapelli, Michela; Giacobbo, Nicola
    • Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Vol. 487, Issue 2
    • DOI: 10.1093/mnras/stz1382

    First 100 ms of a long-lived magnetized neutron star formed in a binary neutron star merger
    journal, July 2019


    Implications from GW170817 and I-Love-Q relations for relativistic hybrid stars
    journal, April 2018


    Multimessenger parameter estimation of GW170817
    journal, April 2019


    Prospects for observing and localizing gravitational-wave transients with Advanced LIGO, Advanced Virgo and KAGRA
    text, January 2020

    • Abbott, B. P.; Abbott, R.; Abbott, T. D.
    • Apollo - University of Cambridge Repository
    • DOI: 10.17863/cam.57867

    Joint gravitational wave - gamma-ray burst detection rates in the aftermath of GW170817
    conference, January 2020

    • Howell, Eric; Ackley, Kendall; Rowlinson, Antonia
    • Proceedings of The New Era of Multi-Messenger Astrophysics — PoS(Asterics2019)
    • DOI: 10.22323/1.357.0035

    Is the Macronova in GW170817 Powered by the Central Engine?
    journal, July 2018

    • Matsumoto, Tatsuya; Ioka, Kunihito; Kisaka, Shota
    • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 861, Issue 1
    • DOI: 10.3847/1538-4357/aac4a8

    Search for GeV Gamma-Ray Counterparts of Gravitational Wave Events by CALET
    journal, August 2018


    Low-frequency View of GW170817/GRB 170817A with the Giant Metrewave Radio Telescope
    journal, October 2018

    • Resmi, L.; Schulze, S.; Ishwara-Chandra, C. H.
    • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 867, Issue 1
    • DOI: 10.3847/1538-4357/aae1a6

    Binary Neutron Star Mergers: Mass Ejection, Electromagnetic Counterparts, and Nucleosynthesis
    journal, December 2018

    • Radice, David; Perego, Albino; Hotokezaka, Kenta
    • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 869, Issue 2
    • DOI: 10.3847/1538-4357/aaf054

    Radioactive Gamma-Ray Emissions from Neutron Star Mergers
    journal, February 2019


    LSST Target-of-opportunity Observations of Gravitational-wave Events: Essential and Efficient
    journal, March 2019

    • Cowperthwaite, P. S.; Villar, V. A.; Scolnic, D. M.
    • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 874, Issue 1
    • DOI: 10.3847/1538-4357/ab07b6

    The Orbit of GW170817 Was Inclined by Less Than 28° to the Line of Sight
    journal, January 2018


    Spitzer Space Telescope Infrared Observations of the Binary Neutron Star Merger GW170817
    journal, July 2018

    • Villar, V. A.; Cowperthwaite, P. S.; Berger, E.
    • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 862, Issue 1
    • DOI: 10.3847/2041-8213/aad281

    A Strong Jet Signature in the Late-time Light Curve of GW170817
    journal, November 2018


    The Optical Afterglow of GW170817 at One Year Post-merger
    journal, January 2019