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Title: Temperature-dependent quantum efficiency degradation of K-Cs-Sb bialkali antimonide photocathodes grown by a triple-element codeposition method

Abstract

K-Cs-Sb bialkali antimonide photocathodes grown by a triple-element codeposition method have been found to have excellent quantum efficiency (QE) and outstanding near-atomic surface smoothness and have been employed in the VHF gun in the Advanced Photoinjector Experiment (APEX), however, their robustness in terms of their lifetime at elevated photocathode temperature has not yet been investigated. In this paper, the relationship between the lifetime of the K-Cs-Sb photocathode and the photocathode temperature has been investigated. The origin of the significant QE degradation at photocathode temperatures over 70 °C has been identified as the loss of cesium atoms from the K-Cs-Sb photocathode, based on the in situ x-ray analysis on the photocathode film during the decay process. The findings from this work will not only further the understanding of the behavior of K-Cs-Sb photocathodes at elevated temperature and help develop more temperature-robust cathodes, but also will become an important guide to the design and operation of the future high-field rf guns employing the use of such photocathodes.

Authors:
 [1];  [2];  [2];  [2];  [2];  [2];  [2];  [2];  [3];  [1];  [1];  [3];  [2]
  1. Stony Brook Univ., Stony Brook, NY (United States)
  2. Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)
  3. Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC), Basic Energy Sciences (BES) (SC-22)
OSTI Identifier:
1408196
Alternate Identifier(s):
OSTI ID: 1420117; OSTI ID: 1425106
Report Number(s):
BNL-200034-2018-JAAM
Journal ID: ISSN 2469-9888; PRABCJ; ark:/13030/qt5m22w19m; TRN: US1801463
Grant/Contract Number:  
AC02-05CH11231; KC0407-ALSJNT-I0013; SC0012704
Resource Type:
Published Article
Journal Name:
Physical Review Accelerators and Beams
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 20; Journal Issue: 11; Journal ID: ISSN 2469-9888
Publisher:
American Physical Society (APS)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
42 ENGINEERING

Citation Formats

Ding, Zihao, Karkare, Siddharth, Feng, Jun, Filippetto, Daniele, Johnson, Matthew, Virostek, Steve, Sannibale, Fernando, Nasiatka, James, Gaowei, Mengjia, Sinsheimer, John, Muller, Erik, Smedley, John, and Padmore, Howard. Temperature-dependent quantum efficiency degradation of K-Cs-Sb bialkali antimonide photocathodes grown by a triple-element codeposition method. United States: N. p., 2017. Web. doi:10.1103/PhysRevAccelBeams.20.113401.
Ding, Zihao, Karkare, Siddharth, Feng, Jun, Filippetto, Daniele, Johnson, Matthew, Virostek, Steve, Sannibale, Fernando, Nasiatka, James, Gaowei, Mengjia, Sinsheimer, John, Muller, Erik, Smedley, John, & Padmore, Howard. Temperature-dependent quantum efficiency degradation of K-Cs-Sb bialkali antimonide photocathodes grown by a triple-element codeposition method. United States. doi:10.1103/PhysRevAccelBeams.20.113401.
Ding, Zihao, Karkare, Siddharth, Feng, Jun, Filippetto, Daniele, Johnson, Matthew, Virostek, Steve, Sannibale, Fernando, Nasiatka, James, Gaowei, Mengjia, Sinsheimer, John, Muller, Erik, Smedley, John, and Padmore, Howard. Thu . "Temperature-dependent quantum efficiency degradation of K-Cs-Sb bialkali antimonide photocathodes grown by a triple-element codeposition method". United States. doi:10.1103/PhysRevAccelBeams.20.113401.
@article{osti_1408196,
title = {Temperature-dependent quantum efficiency degradation of K-Cs-Sb bialkali antimonide photocathodes grown by a triple-element codeposition method},
author = {Ding, Zihao and Karkare, Siddharth and Feng, Jun and Filippetto, Daniele and Johnson, Matthew and Virostek, Steve and Sannibale, Fernando and Nasiatka, James and Gaowei, Mengjia and Sinsheimer, John and Muller, Erik and Smedley, John and Padmore, Howard},
abstractNote = {K-Cs-Sb bialkali antimonide photocathodes grown by a triple-element codeposition method have been found to have excellent quantum efficiency (QE) and outstanding near-atomic surface smoothness and have been employed in the VHF gun in the Advanced Photoinjector Experiment (APEX), however, their robustness in terms of their lifetime at elevated photocathode temperature has not yet been investigated. In this paper, the relationship between the lifetime of the K-Cs-Sb photocathode and the photocathode temperature has been investigated. The origin of the significant QE degradation at photocathode temperatures over 70 °C has been identified as the loss of cesium atoms from the K-Cs-Sb photocathode, based on the in situ x-ray analysis on the photocathode film during the decay process. The findings from this work will not only further the understanding of the behavior of K-Cs-Sb photocathodes at elevated temperature and help develop more temperature-robust cathodes, but also will become an important guide to the design and operation of the future high-field rf guns employing the use of such photocathodes.},
doi = {10.1103/PhysRevAccelBeams.20.113401},
journal = {Physical Review Accelerators and Beams},
number = 11,
volume = 20,
place = {United States},
year = {2017},
month = {11}
}

Journal Article:
Free Publicly Available Full Text
Publisher's Version of Record
DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevAccelBeams.20.113401

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