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Title: An In-depth Review On the Scientific and Policy Issues Associated with Additive Manufacturing

Abstract

Historically, manufacturing processes have been predominantly subtractive, i.e. three-dimensional objects were created by successively cutting material away from a solid block, by scraping, machining, turning or dissolving. Additive manufacturing (AM) or three-dimensional (3D) printing, in contrast, is controlled material addition, implemented by successively depositing layers of material until a predesigned shape is formed. AM represents an innovative manufacturing technology, and is set to transform production processes from design to manufacture, and to eventual distribution to end users, ultimately leading to an increase in energy efficiency and a reduction in gas emissions for future generation of industries. The unique capability of this technology to produce intricate geometries with customizable material properties has made it a widely interesting and welcome development among scientists, industry and the general public. Its wide acceptance has continued to make 3D printing technology more openly accessible, and low-cost desktop printing, with the capability to reproduce 3D objects from medical prostheses to weapons, is rapidly increasing in availability to the public. However, most research and media attention has been focused on the ingenuity of this ground-breaking technology and its wide range of possibilities. Very little consideration is being given to the adverse effects of the seemingly unstoppable advancementmore » of AM technology and unrestricted access to 3D printing techniques. Also, proponents of AM technology rarely take into account the overall life-cycle cost and risks of failure of the manufactured part. Despite the promising prospects of this novel development, there are still concerns about how printed products will perform over time, the consistency of their quality, and the types and safety of materials used with this technology, especially with very large scale additive-manufactured products. This paper brings to light some scientific and policy risks and challenges concerning the material science and engineering aspects of these issues. Matters discussed include life-cycle cost analysis, end-product safety and quality assurance/control, regulation gaps, digital piracy, and resulting loopholes in safety and national security. The paper also presents potential options for curbing these risks, and otherwise adapting to the eventualities which, with certain inevitable factors in play, may lie beyond control.« less

Authors:
ORCiD logo [1]; ORCiD logo [1];  [1]
  1. Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Manufacturing Systems Research, Energy and Transportation Science Division
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE
OSTI Identifier:
1408024
Grant/Contract Number:  
[AC05-00OR22725]
Resource Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Journal of Science Policy & Governance
Additional Journal Information:
[ Journal Volume: 11; Journal Issue: 1]; Journal ID: ISSN 2372-2193
Publisher:
JSPG
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
42 ENGINEERING; 29 ENERGY PLANNING, POLICY, AND ECONOMY; Additive Manufacturing, 3D printing, 3D Printing Cost, Error Risk, Part Failure, Manufacturing Regulation, Direct Metal Laser Sintering, Manufacturing Optimization

Citation Formats

Love, Lonnie J., Nycz, Andrzej, and Adediran, Adeola I. An In-depth Review On the Scientific and Policy Issues Associated with Additive Manufacturing. United States: N. p., 2017. Web.
Love, Lonnie J., Nycz, Andrzej, & Adediran, Adeola I. An In-depth Review On the Scientific and Policy Issues Associated with Additive Manufacturing. United States.
Love, Lonnie J., Nycz, Andrzej, and Adediran, Adeola I. Sun . "An In-depth Review On the Scientific and Policy Issues Associated with Additive Manufacturing". United States. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1408024.
@article{osti_1408024,
title = {An In-depth Review On the Scientific and Policy Issues Associated with Additive Manufacturing},
author = {Love, Lonnie J. and Nycz, Andrzej and Adediran, Adeola I.},
abstractNote = {Historically, manufacturing processes have been predominantly subtractive, i.e. three-dimensional objects were created by successively cutting material away from a solid block, by scraping, machining, turning or dissolving. Additive manufacturing (AM) or three-dimensional (3D) printing, in contrast, is controlled material addition, implemented by successively depositing layers of material until a predesigned shape is formed. AM represents an innovative manufacturing technology, and is set to transform production processes from design to manufacture, and to eventual distribution to end users, ultimately leading to an increase in energy efficiency and a reduction in gas emissions for future generation of industries. The unique capability of this technology to produce intricate geometries with customizable material properties has made it a widely interesting and welcome development among scientists, industry and the general public. Its wide acceptance has continued to make 3D printing technology more openly accessible, and low-cost desktop printing, with the capability to reproduce 3D objects from medical prostheses to weapons, is rapidly increasing in availability to the public. However, most research and media attention has been focused on the ingenuity of this ground-breaking technology and its wide range of possibilities. Very little consideration is being given to the adverse effects of the seemingly unstoppable advancement of AM technology and unrestricted access to 3D printing techniques. Also, proponents of AM technology rarely take into account the overall life-cycle cost and risks of failure of the manufactured part. Despite the promising prospects of this novel development, there are still concerns about how printed products will perform over time, the consistency of their quality, and the types and safety of materials used with this technology, especially with very large scale additive-manufactured products. This paper brings to light some scientific and policy risks and challenges concerning the material science and engineering aspects of these issues. Matters discussed include life-cycle cost analysis, end-product safety and quality assurance/control, regulation gaps, digital piracy, and resulting loopholes in safety and national security. The paper also presents potential options for curbing these risks, and otherwise adapting to the eventualities which, with certain inevitable factors in play, may lie beyond control.},
doi = {},
journal = {Journal of Science Policy & Governance},
number = [1],
volume = [11],
place = {United States},
year = {2017},
month = {10}
}

Journal Article:
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