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Title: Large-Scale Wind Disturbances Promote Tree Diversity in a Central Amazon Forest

Canopy gaps created by wind-throw events, or blowdowns, create a complex mosaic of forest patches varying in disturbance intensity and recovery in the Central Amazon. Using field and remote sensing data, we investigated the short-term (four-year) effects of large (>2000 m 2) blowdown gaps created during a single storm event in January 2005 near Manaus, Brazil, to study (i) how forest structure and composition vary with disturbance gradients and (ii) whether tree diversity is promoted by niche differentiation related to wind-throw events at the landscape scale. In the forest area affected by the blowdown, tree mortality ranged from 0 to 70%, and was highest on plateaus and slopes. Less impacted areas in the region affected by the blowdown had overlapping characteristics with a nearby unaffected forest in tree density (583±46 trees ha -1) (mean±99% Confidence Interval) and basal area (26.7±2.4 m 2 ha -1). Highly impacted areas had tree density and basal area as low as 120 trees ha -1 and 14.9 m 2 ha -1, respectively. In general, these structural measures correlated negatively with an index of tree mortality intensity derived from satellite imagery. Four years after the blowdown event, differences in size-distribution, fraction of resprouters, floristic composition andmore » species diversity still correlated with disturbance measures such as tree mortality and gap size. Our results suggest that the gradients of wind disturbance intensity encompassed in large blowdown gaps (>2000 m 2) promote tree diversity. Specialists for particular disturbance intensities existed along the entire gradient. The existence of species or genera taking an intermediate position between undisturbed and gap specialists led to a peak of rarefied richness and diversity at intermediate disturbance levels. A diverse set of species differing widely in requirements and recruitment strategies forms the initial post-disturbance cohort, thus lending a high resilience towards wind disturbances at the community level.« less
Authors:
 [1] ;  [2] ;  [3] ;  [4] ;  [3] ;  [3] ;  [5] ;  [6] ;  [7]
  1. Leipzig Univ. (Germany). Special Botany and Functional Biodiversity; Max Planck Inst. for Biogeochemistry, Jena (Germany); National Inst. of Amazonian Research (INPA), Manaus (Brazil). Forest Management Lab.
  2. National Inst. of Amazonian Research (INPA), Manaus (Brazil). Forest Management Lab.; Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Geography Dept.; Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Climate Sciences Dept.; Tulane Univ., New Orleans, LA (United States). Ecology and Evolutionary Biology Dept.
  3. National Inst. of Amazonian Research (INPA), Manaus (Brazil). Forest Management Lab.
  4. Max Planck Inst. for Biogeochemistry, Jena (Germany); National Inst. of Amazonian Research (INPA), Manaus (Brazil). Forest Management Lab.
  5. Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Climate Sciences Dept.; Tulane Univ., New Orleans, LA (United States). Ecology and Evolutionary Biology Dept.
  6. Leipzig Univ. (Germany). Special Botany and Functional Biodiversity
  7. Leipzig Univ. (Germany). Special Botany and Functional Biodiversity; Max Planck Inst. for Biogeochemistry, Jena (Germany); German Centre for Integrative Biodiversity Research (iDiv), Leipzig (Germany)
Publication Date:
Grant/Contract Number:
AC02-05CH11231; 473357/2012-7
Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
PLoS ONE
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 9; Journal Issue: 8; Journal ID: ISSN 1932-6203
Publisher:
Public Library of Science
Research Org:
Leipzig Univ. (Germany); Max Planck Inst. for Biogeochemistry, Jena (Germany); National Inst. of Amazonian Research (INPA), Manaus (Brazil); Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)
Sponsoring Org:
USDOE; National Aeronautic and Space Administration (NASA); Brazilian Council for Scientific and Technological Development (CNPq); National Inst. of Science and Technology (INCT) of Madeira of the Amazon (Brazil); Max Planck Inst. for Biogeochemistry (Germany)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
54 ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES; forests; trees; death rates; species diversity; plateaus; wood; forest ecology; Quechua people
OSTI Identifier:
1407249

Marra, Daniel Magnabosco, Chambers, Jeffrey Q., Higuchi, Niro, Trumbore, Susan E., Ribeiro, Gabriel H. P. M., dos Santos, Joaquim, Negrón-Juárez, Robinson I., Reu, Björn, and Wirth, Christian. Large-Scale Wind Disturbances Promote Tree Diversity in a Central Amazon Forest. United States: N. p., Web. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0103711.
Marra, Daniel Magnabosco, Chambers, Jeffrey Q., Higuchi, Niro, Trumbore, Susan E., Ribeiro, Gabriel H. P. M., dos Santos, Joaquim, Negrón-Juárez, Robinson I., Reu, Björn, & Wirth, Christian. Large-Scale Wind Disturbances Promote Tree Diversity in a Central Amazon Forest. United States. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0103711.
Marra, Daniel Magnabosco, Chambers, Jeffrey Q., Higuchi, Niro, Trumbore, Susan E., Ribeiro, Gabriel H. P. M., dos Santos, Joaquim, Negrón-Juárez, Robinson I., Reu, Björn, and Wirth, Christian. 2014. "Large-Scale Wind Disturbances Promote Tree Diversity in a Central Amazon Forest". United States. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0103711. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1407249.
@article{osti_1407249,
title = {Large-Scale Wind Disturbances Promote Tree Diversity in a Central Amazon Forest},
author = {Marra, Daniel Magnabosco and Chambers, Jeffrey Q. and Higuchi, Niro and Trumbore, Susan E. and Ribeiro, Gabriel H. P. M. and dos Santos, Joaquim and Negrón-Juárez, Robinson I. and Reu, Björn and Wirth, Christian},
abstractNote = {Canopy gaps created by wind-throw events, or blowdowns, create a complex mosaic of forest patches varying in disturbance intensity and recovery in the Central Amazon. Using field and remote sensing data, we investigated the short-term (four-year) effects of large (>2000 m2) blowdown gaps created during a single storm event in January 2005 near Manaus, Brazil, to study (i) how forest structure and composition vary with disturbance gradients and (ii) whether tree diversity is promoted by niche differentiation related to wind-throw events at the landscape scale. In the forest area affected by the blowdown, tree mortality ranged from 0 to 70%, and was highest on plateaus and slopes. Less impacted areas in the region affected by the blowdown had overlapping characteristics with a nearby unaffected forest in tree density (583±46 trees ha-1) (mean±99% Confidence Interval) and basal area (26.7±2.4 m2 ha-1). Highly impacted areas had tree density and basal area as low as 120 trees ha-1 and 14.9 m2 ha-1, respectively. In general, these structural measures correlated negatively with an index of tree mortality intensity derived from satellite imagery. Four years after the blowdown event, differences in size-distribution, fraction of resprouters, floristic composition and species diversity still correlated with disturbance measures such as tree mortality and gap size. Our results suggest that the gradients of wind disturbance intensity encompassed in large blowdown gaps (>2000 m2) promote tree diversity. Specialists for particular disturbance intensities existed along the entire gradient. The existence of species or genera taking an intermediate position between undisturbed and gap specialists led to a peak of rarefied richness and diversity at intermediate disturbance levels. A diverse set of species differing widely in requirements and recruitment strategies forms the initial post-disturbance cohort, thus lending a high resilience towards wind disturbances at the community level.},
doi = {10.1371/journal.pone.0103711},
journal = {PLoS ONE},
number = 8,
volume = 9,
place = {United States},
year = {2014},
month = {8}
}