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Title: Local formation of nitrogen-vacancy centers in diamond by swift heavy ions

In this paper, we exposed nitrogen-implanted diamonds to beams of swift heavy ions (~1 GeV, ~4 MeV/u) and find that these irradiations lead directly to the formation of nitrogen vacancy (NV) centers, without thermal annealing. We compare the photoluminescence intensities of swift heavy ion activated NV- centers to those formed by irradiation with low-energy electrons and by thermal annealing. NV- yields from irradiations with swift heavy ions are 0.1 of yields from low energy electrons and 0.02 of yields from thermal annealing. We discuss possible mechanisms of NV center formation by swift heavy ions such as electronic excitations and thermal spikes. While forming NV centers with low efficiency, swift heavy ions could enable the formation of three dimensional NV- assemblies over relatively large distances of tens of micrometers. Finally and further, our results show that NV center formation is a local probe of (partial) lattice damage relaxation induced by electronic excitations from swift heavy ions in diamond.
Authors:
 [1] ;  [2] ;  [2] ; ORCiD logo [3] ;  [3] ;  [3] ;  [4] ;  [5] ;  [6]
  1. Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Accelerator Technology and Applied Physics Division; Ilmenau Univ. of Technology (Germany). Dept. of Microelectronics and Nanoelectric Systems
  2. Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). The Molecular Foundry
  3. GSI Helmholtz Center for Heavy Ion Research, Darmstadt (Germany)
  4. GSI Helmholtz Center for Heavy Ion Research, Darmstadt (Germany); Technical Univ. of Darmstadt (Germany)
  5. Ilmenau Univ. of Technology (Germany). Dept. of Microelectronics and Nanoelectric Systems
  6. Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Accelerator Technology and Applied Physics Division
Publication Date:
Grant/Contract Number:
AC02-05CH11231
Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Journal of Applied Physics
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 116; Journal Issue: 21; Journal ID: ISSN 0021-8979
Publisher:
American Institute of Physics (AIP)
Research Org:
Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)
Sponsoring Org:
USDOE Office of Science (SC), Basic Energy Sciences (BES) (SC-22); LBNL Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) Program
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
36 MATERIALS SCIENCE; 74 ATOMIC AND MOLECULAR PHYSICS; diamond; electron radiation effects; ion implantation; vacancies; ion radiation effects
OSTI Identifier:
1407217
Alternate Identifier(s):
OSTI ID: 1226578