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Title: The Ocean's Vital Skin: Toward an Integrated Understanding of the Sea Surface Microlayer

Abstract

Despite the huge extent of the ocean’s surface, until now relatively little attention has been paid to the sea surface microlayer (SML) as the ultimate interface where heat, momentum and mass exchange between the ocean and the atmosphere takes place. Via the SML, large-scale environmental changes in the ocean such as warming, acidification, deoxygenation, and eutrophication potentially influence cloud formation, precipitation, and the global radiation balance. Due to the deep connectivity between biological, chemical, and physical processes, studies of the SML may reveal multiple sensitivities to global and regional changes. Understanding the processes at the ocean’s surface, in particular involving the SML as an important and determinant interface, could therefore provide an essential contribution to the reduction of uncertainties regarding ocean-climate feedbacks. This review identifies gaps in our current knowledge of the SML and highlights a need to develop a holistic and mechanistic understanding of the diverse biological, chemical, and physical processes occurring at the ocean-atmosphere interface. We advocate the development of strong interdisciplinary expertise and collaboration in order to bridge between ocean and atmospheric sciences. Although this will pose significant methodological challenges, such an initiative would represent a new role model for interdisciplinary research in Earth System sciences.

Authors:
 [1];  [1];  [2];  [3];  [4];  [5];  [6];  [7];  [8];  [8];  [9];  [1];  [10];  [11];  [12];  [6];  [1]
  1. GEOMAR Helmholtz Centre for Ocean Research Kiel (Germany)
  2. The Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom, Plymouth (United Kingdom)
  3. Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)
  4. Kiel University (Germany). Kiel Marine Science, Institute of Physical Chemistry
  5. GEOMAR Helmholtz Centre for Ocean Research Kiel (Germany); University of Siena (Italy). Department of Biotechnology, Chemistry and Pharmac
  6. Leibniz-Institute for Tropospheric Research (Germany). Chemistry of the Atmosphere
  7. Helmholtz Zentrum München (HZ), Munich (Germany)
  8. University of East Anglia, Norwich (United Kingdom). School of Environmental Sciences
  9. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Seattle, WA (United States). Pacific Marine Environmental Laboratory
  10. Nova Southeastern University, Fort Lauderdale, FL (United States). Department of Marine and Environmental Sciences, Halmos College of Natural Sciences and Oceanography
  11. Leibniz-Institute for Baltic Sea Research Warnemuende (Germany). Biological Oceanography; Ossietzky University Oldenburg (Germany). Institute for Chemistry and Biology of the Marine Environment (ICBM)
  12. Newcastle University (United Kingdom). School of Marine Science and Technology
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC)
OSTI Identifier:
1406685
Report Number(s):
PNNL-SA-127523
Journal ID: ISSN 2296-7745; KP1703020
Grant/Contract Number:  
AC05-76RL01830
Resource Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Frontiers in Marine Science
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 4; Journal ID: ISSN 2296-7745
Publisher:
Frontiers Research Foundation
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
54 ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES; 59 BASIC BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES; sea surface microlayer; air-sea exchange; neuston; aerosols; surface films; gas exchange; review

Citation Formats

Engel, Anja, Bange, Hermann W., Cunliffe, Michael, Burrows, Susannah M., Friedrichs, Gernot, Galgani, Luisa, Herrmann, Hartmut, Hertkorn, Norbert, Johnson, Martin, Liss, Peter S., Quinn, Patricia K., Schartau, Markus, Soloviev, Alexander, Stolle, Christian, Upstill-Goddard, Robert C., van Pinxteren, Manuela, and Zancker, Birthe. The Ocean's Vital Skin: Toward an Integrated Understanding of the Sea Surface Microlayer. United States: N. p., 2017. Web. doi:10.3389/fmars.2017.00165.
Engel, Anja, Bange, Hermann W., Cunliffe, Michael, Burrows, Susannah M., Friedrichs, Gernot, Galgani, Luisa, Herrmann, Hartmut, Hertkorn, Norbert, Johnson, Martin, Liss, Peter S., Quinn, Patricia K., Schartau, Markus, Soloviev, Alexander, Stolle, Christian, Upstill-Goddard, Robert C., van Pinxteren, Manuela, & Zancker, Birthe. The Ocean's Vital Skin: Toward an Integrated Understanding of the Sea Surface Microlayer. United States. doi:10.3389/fmars.2017.00165.
Engel, Anja, Bange, Hermann W., Cunliffe, Michael, Burrows, Susannah M., Friedrichs, Gernot, Galgani, Luisa, Herrmann, Hartmut, Hertkorn, Norbert, Johnson, Martin, Liss, Peter S., Quinn, Patricia K., Schartau, Markus, Soloviev, Alexander, Stolle, Christian, Upstill-Goddard, Robert C., van Pinxteren, Manuela, and Zancker, Birthe. Tue . "The Ocean's Vital Skin: Toward an Integrated Understanding of the Sea Surface Microlayer". United States. doi:10.3389/fmars.2017.00165. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1406685.
@article{osti_1406685,
title = {The Ocean's Vital Skin: Toward an Integrated Understanding of the Sea Surface Microlayer},
author = {Engel, Anja and Bange, Hermann W. and Cunliffe, Michael and Burrows, Susannah M. and Friedrichs, Gernot and Galgani, Luisa and Herrmann, Hartmut and Hertkorn, Norbert and Johnson, Martin and Liss, Peter S. and Quinn, Patricia K. and Schartau, Markus and Soloviev, Alexander and Stolle, Christian and Upstill-Goddard, Robert C. and van Pinxteren, Manuela and Zancker, Birthe},
abstractNote = {Despite the huge extent of the ocean’s surface, until now relatively little attention has been paid to the sea surface microlayer (SML) as the ultimate interface where heat, momentum and mass exchange between the ocean and the atmosphere takes place. Via the SML, large-scale environmental changes in the ocean such as warming, acidification, deoxygenation, and eutrophication potentially influence cloud formation, precipitation, and the global radiation balance. Due to the deep connectivity between biological, chemical, and physical processes, studies of the SML may reveal multiple sensitivities to global and regional changes. Understanding the processes at the ocean’s surface, in particular involving the SML as an important and determinant interface, could therefore provide an essential contribution to the reduction of uncertainties regarding ocean-climate feedbacks. This review identifies gaps in our current knowledge of the SML and highlights a need to develop a holistic and mechanistic understanding of the diverse biological, chemical, and physical processes occurring at the ocean-atmosphere interface. We advocate the development of strong interdisciplinary expertise and collaboration in order to bridge between ocean and atmospheric sciences. Although this will pose significant methodological challenges, such an initiative would represent a new role model for interdisciplinary research in Earth System sciences.},
doi = {10.3389/fmars.2017.00165},
journal = {Frontiers in Marine Science},
number = ,
volume = 4,
place = {United States},
year = {2017},
month = {5}
}

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The Impact of Dry Atmospheric Deposition on the Sea-Surface Microlayer in the SE Mediterranean Sea: An Experimental Approach
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Physicochemical Signatures of Natural Sea Films from Middle Adriatic Stations
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Abundant protein-containing particles in the sea
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Sea surface microlayers: A unified physicochemical and biological perspective of the air–ocean interface
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Photosensitized production of functionalized and unsaturated organic compounds at the air-sea interface
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Wavelet Analysis of SAR Images for Coastal Monitoring
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Enhanced extracellular enzymatic peptide hydrolysis in the sea-surface microlayer
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Effects of ultraviolet B radiation on (not so) transparent exopolymer particles
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    Works referencing / citing this record:

    Polystyrene microplastics increase microbial release of marine Chromophoric Dissolved Organic Matter in microcosm experiments
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    Plastic Accumulation in the Sea Surface Microlayer: An Experiment-Based Perspective for Future Studies
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    SISI: A New Device for In Situ Incubations at the Ocean Surface
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    • Journal of Marine Science and Engineering, Vol. 5, Issue 4
    • DOI: 10.3390/jmse5040046

    Modeling Atmosphere-Ocean Radiative Transfer: A PACE Mission Perspective
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    Polystyrene microplastics increase microbial release of marine Chromophoric Dissolved Organic Matter in microcosm experiments
    journal, October 2018


    Modeling Atmosphere-Ocean Radiative Transfer: A PACE Mission Perspective
    journal, June 2019


    Plastic Accumulation in the Sea Surface Microlayer: An Experiment-Based Perspective for Future Studies
    journal, January 2019


    SISI: A New Device for In Situ Incubations at the Ocean Surface
    journal, September 2017

    • Rahlff, Janina; Stolle, Christian; Wurl, Oliver
    • Journal of Marine Science and Engineering, Vol. 5, Issue 4
    • DOI: 10.3390/jmse5040046

    Bacterial Community Composition in the Sea Surface Microlayer Off the Peruvian Coast
    journal, November 2018