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Title: Confined dense circumstellar material surrounding a regular type II supernova

With the advent of new wide-field, high-cadence optical transient surveys, our understanding of the diversity of core-collapse supernovae has grown tremendously in the last decade. However, the pre-supernova evolution of massive stars, that sets the physical backdrop to these violent events, is theoretically not well understood and difficult to probe observationally. Here we report the discovery of the supernova iPTF 13dqy = SN 2013fs a mere ~3 hr after explosion. Our rapid follow-up observations, which include multiwavelength photometry and extremely early (beginning at ~6 hr post-explosion) spectra, map the distribution of material in the immediate environment (≲ 10 15 cm) of the exploding star and establish that it was surrounded by circumstellar material (CSM) that was ejected during the final ~1 yr prior to explosion at a high rate, around 10 -3 solar masses per year. The complete disappearance of flash-ionised emission lines within the first several days requires that the dense CSM be confined to within ≲10 15 cm, consistent with radio non-detections at 70–100 days. The observations indicate that iPTF 13dqy was a regular Type II SN; thus, the finding that the probable red supergiant (RSG) progenitor of this common explosion ejected material at a highly elevated ratemore » just prior to its demise suggests that pre-supernova instabilities may be common among exploding massive stars.« less
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  1. Weizmann Inst. of Science, Rehovot (Israel)
  2. California Inst. of Technology (CalTech), Pasadena, CA (United States); Univ. of Copenhagen (Denmark). The Niels Bohr Inst.
  3. Trinity College Dublin (Ireland)
  4. Hebrew Univ. of Jerusalem (Israel). Racah Inst. of Physics
  5. California Inst. of Technology (CalTech), Pasadena, CA (United States)
  6. Stockholm Univ. (Sweden)
  7. Weizmann Inst. of Science, Rehovot (Israel); Israel Atomic Energy Commission (IAEC), Yavne (Israel). Soreq Nuclear Research Centre (Soreq NRC)
  8. Univ. of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States); NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC), Greenbelt, MD (United States)
  9. Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States)
  10. Univ. of California, Santa Barbara, CA (United States); Las Cumbres Observatory, Goleta, CA (United States)
  11. Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)
  12. Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)
  13. California Inst. of Technology (CalTech), La Canada Flintridge, CA (United States)
  14. Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)
  15. Univ. Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (UNAM), Mexico City (Mexico). Inst. de Astronomia
  16. Queen's Univ., Belfast, Northern Ireland (United Kingdom)
  17. Univ. of Southampton (United Kingdom)
Publication Date:
Report Number(s):
Journal ID: ISSN 1745-2473; TRN: US1703254
Grant/Contract Number:
AC52-06NA25396; AC02-05CH11231
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Nature Physics
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 13; Journal Issue: 5; Journal ID: ISSN 1745-2473
Nature Publishing Group (NPG)
Research Org:
Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)
Sponsoring Org:
USDOE Office of Science (SC)
Country of Publication:
United States
79 ASTRONOMY AND ASTROPHYSICS; Astronomy and Astrophysics
OSTI Identifier:
Alternate Identifier(s):
OSTI ID: 1436152