skip to main content
DOE PAGES title logo U.S. Department of Energy
Office of Scientific and Technical Information

Title: In Situ GIWAXS Analysis of Solvent and Additive Effects on PTB7 Thin Film Microstructure Evolution during Spin Coating

Abstract

The influence of solvent and processing additives on the pathways and rates of crystalline morphology formation for spin-coated semiconducting PTB7 (poly[[4,8-bis[(2- ethylhexyl)oxy]benzo[1,2-b:4,5-b']dithiophene-2,6-diyl][3-fluoro-2-[(2-ethylhexyl)- carbonyl]-thieno[3,4-b]thiophenediyl]]) thin films is investigated by in situ grazing incident wide angle x-ray scattering (GIWAXS) and optical reflectance, to better understand polymer solar cell (PSC) optimization approaches. In situ characterization of PTB7 film formation from chloroform (CF), chlorobenzene (CB), and 1,2-dichlorobenzene (DCB) solutions, as well as CB solutions with 1% and 3% v/v of the processing additives 1-chloronapthalene (CN), diphenyl ether (DPE), and 1,8-diiodooctane (DIO), reveals multiple crystallization pathways with: i) single-solvent systems exhibiting rapid (<3s) crystallization after a solvent boiling point-dependent film thinning transition, ii) solvent + additive systems exhibiting different crystallization pathways and crystallite formation times from minutes (CN, DPE) to 2 1.5 hours (DIO). Here, identifying crystalline intermediates has implications for bulk-heterojunction PSC morphology optimization via optimized spin-casting processes.

Authors:
 [1];  [2];  [1];  [3];  [3];  [3];  [3]; ORCiD logo [1]
  1. Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (United States); Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Lemont, IL (United States)
  2. Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Lemont, IL (United States)
  3. Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (United States)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Energy Frontier Research Centers (EFRC) (United States). Argonne-Northwestern Solar Energy Research Center (ANSER)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC), Basic Energy Sciences (BES) (SC-22)
OSTI Identifier:
1405329
Alternate Identifier(s):
OSTI ID: 1398721
Grant/Contract Number:  
AC02-06CH11357; SC0001059; FG02-08ER46536; 7-286-1-046
Resource Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Advanced Materials
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 2017; Journal ID: ISSN 0935-9648
Publisher:
Wiley
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
36 MATERIALS SCIENCE; PTB7; additive; in situ GIWAXS; organic photovoltaic; spin coating

Citation Formats

Manley, Eric F., Strzalka, Joseph, Fauvell, Thomas J., Jackson, Nicholas E., Leonardi, Matthew J., Eastham, Nicholas D., Marks, Tobin J., and Chen, Lin X. In Situ GIWAXS Analysis of Solvent and Additive Effects on PTB7 Thin Film Microstructure Evolution during Spin Coating. United States: N. p., 2017. Web. doi:10.1002/adma.201703933.
Manley, Eric F., Strzalka, Joseph, Fauvell, Thomas J., Jackson, Nicholas E., Leonardi, Matthew J., Eastham, Nicholas D., Marks, Tobin J., & Chen, Lin X. In Situ GIWAXS Analysis of Solvent and Additive Effects on PTB7 Thin Film Microstructure Evolution during Spin Coating. United States. doi:10.1002/adma.201703933.
Manley, Eric F., Strzalka, Joseph, Fauvell, Thomas J., Jackson, Nicholas E., Leonardi, Matthew J., Eastham, Nicholas D., Marks, Tobin J., and Chen, Lin X. Mon . "In Situ GIWAXS Analysis of Solvent and Additive Effects on PTB7 Thin Film Microstructure Evolution during Spin Coating". United States. doi:10.1002/adma.201703933. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1405329.
@article{osti_1405329,
title = {In Situ GIWAXS Analysis of Solvent and Additive Effects on PTB7 Thin Film Microstructure Evolution during Spin Coating},
author = {Manley, Eric F. and Strzalka, Joseph and Fauvell, Thomas J. and Jackson, Nicholas E. and Leonardi, Matthew J. and Eastham, Nicholas D. and Marks, Tobin J. and Chen, Lin X.},
abstractNote = {The influence of solvent and processing additives on the pathways and rates of crystalline morphology formation for spin-coated semiconducting PTB7 (poly[[4,8-bis[(2- ethylhexyl)oxy]benzo[1,2-b:4,5-b']dithiophene-2,6-diyl][3-fluoro-2-[(2-ethylhexyl)- carbonyl]-thieno[3,4-b]thiophenediyl]]) thin films is investigated by in situ grazing incident wide angle x-ray scattering (GIWAXS) and optical reflectance, to better understand polymer solar cell (PSC) optimization approaches. In situ characterization of PTB7 film formation from chloroform (CF), chlorobenzene (CB), and 1,2-dichlorobenzene (DCB) solutions, as well as CB solutions with 1% and 3% v/v of the processing additives 1-chloronapthalene (CN), diphenyl ether (DPE), and 1,8-diiodooctane (DIO), reveals multiple crystallization pathways with: i) single-solvent systems exhibiting rapid (<3s) crystallization after a solvent boiling point-dependent film thinning transition, ii) solvent + additive systems exhibiting different crystallization pathways and crystallite formation times from minutes (CN, DPE) to 2 1.5 hours (DIO). Here, identifying crystalline intermediates has implications for bulk-heterojunction PSC morphology optimization via optimized spin-casting processes.},
doi = {10.1002/adma.201703933},
journal = {Advanced Materials},
number = ,
volume = 2017,
place = {United States},
year = {2017},
month = {10}
}

Journal Article:
Free Publicly Available Full Text
Publisher's Version of Record

Citation Metrics:
Cited by: 17 works
Citation information provided by
Web of Science

Save / Share:

Works referenced in this record:

Charge generation in organic photovoltaics: a review of theory and computation
journal, January 2016

  • Pelzer, Kenley M.; Darling, Seth B.
  • Molecular Systems Design & Engineering, Vol. 1, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1039/C6ME00005C

Guiding the Selection of Processing Additives for Increasing the Efficiency of Bulk Heterojunction Polymeric Solar Cells
journal, September 2013

  • Vongsaysy, Uyxing; Pavageau, Bertrand; Wantz, Guillaume
  • Advanced Energy Materials, Vol. 4, Issue 3
  • DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201300752

A Mechanistic Understanding of Processing Additive-Induced Efficiency Enhancement in Bulk Heterojunction Organic Solar Cells
journal, October 2013

  • Schmidt, Kristin; Tassone, Christopher J.; Niskala, Jeremy R.
  • Advanced Materials, Vol. 26, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1002/adma.201303622

Light Harvesting for Organic Photovoltaics
journal, March 2016


Realizing over 10% efficiency in polymer solar cell by device optimization
journal, January 2015


Molecular Design of Benzodithiophene-Based Organic Photovoltaic Materials
journal, June 2016


A Systematic Approach to Solvent Selection Based on Cohesive Energy Densities in a Molecular Bulk Heterojunction System
journal, February 2011

  • Walker, Bright; Tamayo, Arnold; Duong, Duc T.
  • Advanced Energy Materials, Vol. 1, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201000054

Effects of Additives on the Morphology of Solution Phase Aggregates Formed by Active Layer Components of High-Efficiency Organic Solar Cells
journal, December 2011

  • Lou, Sylvia J.; Szarko, Jodi M.; Xu, Tao
  • Journal of the American Chemical Society, Vol. 133, Issue 51
  • DOI: 10.1021/ja2085564

Removal of Residual Diiodooctane Improves Photostability of High-Performance Organic Solar Cell Polymers
journal, January 2016

  • Tremolet de Villers, Bertrand J.; O’Hara, Kathryn A.; Ostrowski, David P.
  • Chemistry of Materials, Vol. 28, Issue 3
  • DOI: 10.1021/acs.chemmater.5b04346

Additives for morphology control in high-efficiency organic solar cells
journal, September 2013


Fast Printing and In Situ Morphology Observation of Organic Photovoltaics Using Slot-Die Coating
journal, December 2014

  • Liu, Feng; Ferdous, Sunzida; Schaible, Eric
  • Advanced Materials, Vol. 27, Issue 5
  • DOI: 10.1002/adma.201404040

In Situ Imaging and Height Reconstruction of Phase Separation Processes in Polymer Blends during Spin Coating
journal, May 2011

  • Ebbens, Stephen; Hodgkinson, Richard; Parnell, Andrew J.
  • ACS Nano, Vol. 5, Issue 6
  • DOI: 10.1021/nn201210e

Organic photovoltaics: technology and market
journal, June 2004


Current methodologies for a sustainable approach to π-conjugated organic semiconductors
journal, January 2016

  • Marrocchi, Assunta; Facchetti, Antonio; Lanari, Daniela
  • Energy & Environmental Science, Vol. 9, Issue 3
  • DOI: 10.1039/C5EE03727A

Small-Bandgap Polymer Solar Cells with Unprecedented Short-Circuit Current Density and High Fill Factor
journal, April 2015


Efficient polymer solar cells fabricated from solvent processing additive solution
journal, January 2015

  • Yi, Chao; Hu, Xiaowen; Liu, Huckleberry C.
  • Journal of Materials Chemistry C, Vol. 3, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1039/C4TC01949K

Materials and Applications for Large Area Electronics: Solution-Based Approaches
journal, January 2010

  • Arias, Ana Claudia; MacKenzie, J. Devin; McCulloch, Iain
  • Chemical Reviews, Vol. 110, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1021/cr900150b

Vertical Phase Separation in Small Molecule:Polymer Blend Organic Thin Film Transistors Can Be Dynamically Controlled
journal, February 2016

  • Zhao, Kui; Wodo, Olga; Ren, Dingding
  • Advanced Functional Materials, Vol. 26, Issue 11
  • DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201503943

Toward Additive-Free Small-Molecule Organic Solar Cells: Roles of the Donor Crystallization Pathway and Dynamics
journal, September 2015

  • Abdelsamie, Maged; Treat, Neil D.; Zhao, Kui
  • Advanced Materials, Vol. 27, Issue 45
  • DOI: 10.1002/adma.201503395

Structural and absorption studies of the thermochromic transition in poly(3-hexylthiophene)
journal, January 1989


Morphology changes upon scaling a high-efficiency, solution-processed solar cell
journal, January 2016

  • Ro, Hyun Wook; Downing, Jonathan M.; Engmann, Sebastian
  • Energy & Environmental Science, Vol. 9, Issue 9
  • DOI: 10.1039/C6EE01623E

Look fast: Crystallization of conjugated molecules during solution shearing probed in-situ and in real time by X-ray scattering
journal, December 2012

  • Smilgies, Detlef-M.; Li, Ruipeng; Giri, Gaurav
  • physica status solidi (RRL) - Rapid Research Letters, Vol. 7, Issue 3
  • DOI: 10.1002/pssr.201206507

Controlling Solution-Phase Polymer Aggregation with Molecular Weight and Solvent Additives to Optimize Polymer-Fullerene Bulk Heterojunction Solar Cells
journal, March 2014

  • Bartelt, Jonathan A.; Douglas, Jessica D.; Mateker, William R.
  • Advanced Energy Materials, Vol. 4, Issue 9
  • DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201301733

A general relationship between disorder, aggregation and charge transport in conjugated polymers
journal, August 2013

  • Noriega, Rodrigo; Rivnay, Jonathan; Vandewal, Koen
  • Nature Materials, Vol. 12, Issue 11
  • DOI: 10.1038/nmat3722

Influence of Solvent and Solvent Additive on the Morphology of PTB7 Films Probed via X-ray Scattering
journal, December 2013

  • Guo, Shuai; Herzig, Eva M.; Naumann, Anna
  • The Journal of Physical Chemistry B, Vol. 118, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1021/jp410075a

The critical role of additives in binary halogen-free solvent systems for the general processing of highly efficient organic solar cells
journal, January 2015

  • Yao, Kai; Xu, Yun-Xiang; Wang, Xiaofeng
  • RSC Advances, Vol. 5, Issue 114
  • DOI: 10.1039/C5RA19850J

The dedicated high-resolution grazing-incidence X-ray scattering beamline 8-ID-E at the Advanced Photon Source
journal, June 2012

  • Jiang, Zhang; Li, Xuefa; Strzalka, Joseph
  • Journal of Synchrotron Radiation, Vol. 19, Issue 4
  • DOI: 10.1107/S0909049512022017

Semi-crystalline photovoltaic polymers with efficiency exceeding 9% in a ∼300 nm thick conventional single-cell device
journal, January 2014

  • Nguyen, T. L.; Choi, H.; Ko, S. -J.
  • Energy Environ. Sci., Vol. 7, Issue 9
  • DOI: 10.1039/C4EE01529K

In Situ Morphology Studies of the Mechanism for Solution Additive Effects on the Formation of Bulk Heterojunction Films
journal, September 2014

  • Richter, Lee J.; DeLongchamp, Dean M.; Bokel, Felicia A.
  • Advanced Energy Materials, Vol. 5, Issue 3
  • DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201400975

Spin-Cast Bulk Heterojunction Solar Cells: A Dynamical Investigation
journal, February 2013


A real-time study of the benefits of co-solvents in polymer solar cell processing
journal, February 2015

  • van Franeker, Jacobus J.; Turbiez, Mathieu; Li, Weiwei
  • Nature Communications, Vol. 6, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1038/ncomms7229

Influence of Blend Ratio and Processing Additive on Free Carrier Yield and Mobility in PTB7:PC 71 BM Photovoltaic Solar Cells
journal, April 2016

  • Pranculis, Vytenis; Ruseckas, Arvydas; Vithanage, Dimali A.
  • The Journal of Physical Chemistry C, Vol. 120, Issue 18
  • DOI: 10.1021/acs.jpcc.6b01548

The Role of Solvent Additive Processing in High Performance Small Molecule Solar Cells
journal, November 2014

  • Perez, Louis A.; Rogers, James T.; Brady, Michael A.
  • Chemistry of Materials, Vol. 26, Issue 22
  • DOI: 10.1021/cm5031987

The Active Layer Morphology of Organic Solar Cells Probed with Grazing Incidence Scattering Techniques
journal, February 2014


10.8% Efficiency Polymer Solar Cells Based on PTB7-Th and PC 71 BM via Binary Solvent Additives Treatment
journal, July 2016

  • Wan, Qun; Guo, Xia; Wang, Zaiyu
  • Advanced Functional Materials, Vol. 26, Issue 36
  • DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201602181

Toward Efficient Thick Active PTB7 Photovoltaic Layers Using Diphenyl Ether as a Solvent Additive
journal, June 2016

  • Zheng, Yifan; Goh, Tenghooi; Fan, Pu
  • ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces, Vol. 8, Issue 24
  • DOI: 10.1021/acsami.6b03453

Structural Order in Bulk Heterojunction Films Prepared with Solvent Additives
journal, January 2011

  • Rogers, James T.; Schmidt, Kristin; Toney, Michael F.
  • Advanced Materials, Vol. 23, Issue 20
  • DOI: 10.1002/adma.201003690

Enhanced Power Conversion Efficiency of Low Band-Gap Polymer Solar Cells by Insertion of Optimized Binary Processing Additives
journal, October 2013

  • Wang, Dong Hwan; Kyaw, Aung Ko Ko; Pouliot, Jean-Rémi
  • Advanced Energy Materials, Vol. 4, Issue 4
  • DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201300835

25th Anniversary Article: Organic Field-Effect Transistors: The Path Beyond Amorphous Silicon
journal, January 2014


Aggregation and morphology control enables multiple cases of high-efficiency polymer solar cells
journal, November 2014

  • Liu, Yuhang; Zhao, Jingbo; Li, Zhengke
  • Nature Communications, Vol. 5, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1038/ncomms6293

Improved Performance of Molecular Bulk-Heterojunction Photovoltaic Cells through Predictable Selection of Solvent Additives
journal, July 2012

  • Graham, Kenneth R.; Wieruszewski, Patrick M.; Stalder, Romain
  • Advanced Functional Materials, Vol. 22, Issue 22
  • DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201102456

Effects of Solvent Additives on Morphology, Charge Generation, Transport, and Recombination in Solution-Processed Small-Molecule Solar Cells
journal, January 2014

  • Kyaw, Aung Ko Ko; Wang, Dong Hwan; Luo, Chan
  • Advanced Energy Materials, Vol. 4, Issue 7
  • DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201301469

Photophysical and Morphological Implications of Single-Strand Conjugated Polymer Folding in Solution
journal, April 2016


Quantitative Determination of Organic Semiconductor Microstructure from the Molecular to Device Scale
journal, June 2012

  • Rivnay, Jonathan; Mannsfeld, Stefan C. B.; Miller, Chad E.
  • Chemical Reviews, Vol. 112, Issue 10
  • DOI: 10.1021/cr3001109

Energy-Level Modulation of Small-Molecule Electron Acceptors to Achieve over 12% Efficiency in Polymer Solar Cells
journal, September 2016


Understanding How Processing Additives Tune the Nanoscale Morphology of High Efficiency Organic Photovoltaic Blends: From Casting Solution to Spun-Cast Thin Film
journal, August 2014

  • Shao, Ming; Keum, Jong Kahk; Kumar, Rajeev
  • Advanced Functional Materials, Vol. 24, Issue 42
  • DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201401547

The Effect of Solvent Additive on the Charge Generation and Photovoltaic Performance of a Solution-Processed Small Molecule:Perylene Diimide Bulk Heterojunction Solar Cell
journal, July 2014

  • Sharenko, Alexander; Gehrig, Dominik; Laquai, Frédéric
  • Chemistry of Materials, Vol. 26, Issue 14
  • DOI: 10.1021/cm5010483

Interplay of Solvent Additive Concentration and Active Layer Thickness on the Performance of Small Molecule Solar Cells
journal, September 2014

  • Love, John A.; Collins, Samuel D.; Nagao, Ikuhiro
  • Advanced Materials, Vol. 26, Issue 43
  • DOI: 10.1002/adma.201402403

Interplay between intrachain and interchain interactions in semiconducting polymer assemblies: The HJ-aggregate model
journal, May 2012

  • Yamagata, H.; Spano, F. C.
  • The Journal of Chemical Physics, Vol. 136, Issue 18
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.4705272

H- and J-Aggregate Behavior in Polymeric Semiconductors
journal, April 2014


Microstructural Characterization and Charge Transport in Thin Films of Conjugated Polymers
journal, July 2010

  • Salleo, Alberto; Kline, R. Joseph; DeLongchamp, Dean M.
  • Advanced Materials, Vol. 22, Issue 34
  • DOI: 10.1002/adma.200903712

Synergistic Impact of Solvent and Polymer Additives on the Film Formation of Small Molecule Blend Films for Bulk Heterojunction Solar Cells
journal, July 2015

  • McDowell, Caitlin; Abdelsamie, Maged; Zhao, Kui
  • Advanced Energy Materials, Vol. 5, Issue 18
  • DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201501121

X-ray structural studies of poly(3-alkylthiophenes): an example of an inverse comb
journal, August 1992

  • Prosa, T. J.; Winokur, M. J.; Moulton, Jeff
  • Macromolecules, Vol. 25, Issue 17
  • DOI: 10.1021/ma00043a019

Bimolecular Crystals of Fullerenes in Conjugated Polymers and the Implications of Molecular Mixing for Solar Cells
journal, April 2009

  • Mayer, A. C.; Toney, Michael F.; Scully, Shawn R.
  • Advanced Functional Materials, Vol. 19, Issue 8
  • DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200801684

In Situ Characterization of Polymer–Fullerene Bilayer Stability
journal, January 2015

  • Leman, Deborah; Kelly, Mary Allison; Ness, Stuart
  • Macromolecules, Vol. 48, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1021/ma5021227

Effect of Processing Additives on the Solidification of Blade-Coated Polymer/Fullerene Blend Films via In-Situ Structure Measurements
journal, April 2013

  • Shin, Nayool; Richter, Lee J.; Herzing, Andrew A.
  • Advanced Energy Materials, Vol. 3, Issue 7
  • DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201201027

A lactam building block for efficient polymer solar cells
journal, January 2015

  • Cao, Jiamin; Qian, Liu; Lu, Futai
  • Chemical Communications, Vol. 51, Issue 59
  • DOI: 10.1039/C5CC03620H

Morphology-Performance Relationships in High-Efficiency All-Polymer Solar Cells
journal, October 2013

  • Zhou, Nanjia; Lin, Hui; Lou, Sylvia J.
  • Advanced Energy Materials, Vol. 4, Issue 3
  • DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201300785

Morphology characterization in organic and hybrid solar cells
journal, January 2012

  • Chen, Wei; Nikiforov, Maxim P.; Darling, Seth B.
  • Energy & Environmental Science, Vol. 5, Issue 8
  • DOI: 10.1039/c2ee22056c

Solvent Additive Effects on Small Molecule Crystallization in Bulk Heterojunction Solar Cells Probed During Spin Casting
journal, September 2013

  • Perez, Louis A.; Chou, Kang Wei; Love, John A.
  • Advanced Materials, Vol. 25, Issue 44
  • DOI: 10.1002/adma.201302389

Recent Advances in Bulk Heterojunction Polymer Solar Cells
journal, August 2015


Late stage crystallization and healing during spin-coating enhance carrier transport in small-molecule organic semiconductors
journal, January 2014

  • Wei Chou, Kang; Ullah Khan, Hadayat; Niazi, Muhammad R.
  • J. Mater. Chem. C, Vol. 2, Issue 28
  • DOI: 10.1039/C4TC00981A

Effects of Thermal Annealing Upon the Morphology of Polymer-Fullerene Blends
journal, August 2010

  • Verploegen, Eric; Mondal, Rajib; Bettinger, Christopher J.
  • Advanced Functional Materials, Vol. 20, Issue 20
  • DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201000975

The Importance of Fullerene Percolation in the Mixed Regions of Polymer-Fullerene Bulk Heterojunction Solar Cells
journal, October 2012

  • Bartelt, Jonathan A.; Beiley, Zach M.; Hoke, Eric T.
  • Advanced Energy Materials, Vol. 3, Issue 3
  • DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201200637

Recent progress in organic photovoltaics: device architecture and optical design
journal, January 2014

  • Cao, Weiran; Xue, Jiangeng
  • Energy & Environmental Science, Vol. 7, Issue 7
  • DOI: 10.1039/c4ee00260a

Interdiffusion of PCBM and P3HT Reveals Miscibility in a Photovoltaically Active Blend
journal, November 2010

  • Treat, Neil D.; Brady, Michael A.; Smith, Gordon
  • Advanced Energy Materials, Vol. 1, Issue 1, p. 82-89
  • DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201000023

The Next Breakthrough for Organic Photovoltaics?
journal, December 2014

  • Jackson, Nicholas E.; Savoie, Brett M.; Marks, Tobin J.
  • The Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters, Vol. 6, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1021/jz502223t

Heterogeneous Nucleation Promotes Carrier Transport in Solution-Processed Organic Field-Effect Transistors
journal, September 2012

  • Li, Ruipeng; Khan, Hadayat Ullah; Payne, Marcia M.
  • Advanced Functional Materials, Vol. 23, Issue 3
  • DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201201264

The future of organic photovoltaics
journal, January 2015

  • Mazzio, Katherine A.; Luscombe, Christine K.
  • Chemical Society Reviews, Vol. 44, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1039/C4CS00227J

For the Bright Future-Bulk Heterojunction Polymer Solar Cells with Power Conversion Efficiency of 7.4%
journal, May 2010

  • Liang, Yongye; Xu, Zheng; Xia, Jiangbin
  • Advanced Materials, Vol. 22, Issue 20, p. E135-E138
  • DOI: 10.1002/adma.200903528

7.7% Efficient All-Polymer Solar Cells
journal, July 2015

  • Hwang, Ye-Jin; Courtright, Brett A. E.; Ferreira, Amy S.
  • Advanced Materials, Vol. 27, Issue 31
  • DOI: 10.1002/adma.201501604

The case for organic photovoltaics
journal, January 2013


Processing Additives for Improved Efficiency from Bulk Heterojunction Solar Cells
journal, March 2008

  • Lee, Jae Kwan; Ma, Wan Li; Brabec, Christoph J.
  • Journal of the American Chemical Society, Vol. 130, Issue 11
  • DOI: 10.1021/ja710079w

Interpretation of Solution X-Ray Scattering by Explicit-Solvent Molecular Dynamics
journal, May 2015


Enhanced power-conversion efficiency in polymer solar cells using an inverted device structure
journal, August 2012


Organic Thin Film Transistors: Structures, Models, Materials, Fabrication, and Applications: A Review
journal, January 2014


    Works referencing / citing this record:

    Solvent Additives: Key Morphology-Directing Agents for Solution-Processed Organic Solar Cells
    journal, June 2018

    • McDowell, Caitlin; Abdelsamie, Maged; Toney, Michael F.
    • Advanced Materials, Vol. 30, Issue 33
    • DOI: 10.1002/adma.201707114