Weak antilocalization effect due to topological surface states in Bi _{2}Se _{2.1}Te _{0.9}
Abstract
In this work, we have investigated the weak antilocalization (WAL) effect in the ptype Bi _{2}Se _{2.1}Te _{0.9} topological system. The magnetoconductance shows a cusplike feature at low magnetic fields, indicating the presence of the WAL effect. The WAL curves measured at different tilt angles merge together when they are plotted as a function of the normal field components, showing that surface states dominate the magnetoconductance in the Bi _{2}Se _{2.1}Te _{0.9} crystal. We have calculated magnetoconductance per conduction channel and applied the HikamiLarkinNagaoka formula to determine the physical parameters that characterize the WAL effect. The number of conduction channels and the phase coherence length do not change with temperature up to T = 5 K. In addition, the sample shows a large positive magnetoresistance that reaches 1900% under a magnetic field of 35 T at T = 0.33 K with no sign of saturation. The magnetoresistance value decreases with both increasing temperature and tilt angle of the sample surface with respect to the magnetic field. The large magnetoresistance of topological insulators can be utilized in future technology such as sensors and memory devices.
 Authors:

 Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)
 Florida State Univ., Tallahassee, FL (United States). National High Magnetic Field Lab. (MagLab)
 Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Sofia (Bulgaria). Inst. of Optical Materials and Technology
 Univ. of Houston, Houston, TX (United States). Texas Center for Superconductivity (TCSUH) and Dept. of Physics
 Univ. of Houston, Houston, TX (United States). Texas Center for Superconductivity (TCSUH) and Dept. of Physics; Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)
 Publication Date:
 Research Org.:
 Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)
 Sponsoring Org.:
 USDOE Office of Science (SC), Basic Energy Sciences (BES) (SC22). Materials Sciences & Engineering Division; US Air Force Office of Scientific Research (AFOSR); T.L.L. Temple Foundation; John J. and Rebecca B. Moores Endowment Fund; Bulgaria National Science Fund (BNSF); National Science Foundation (NSF)
 OSTI Identifier:
 1402682
 Alternate Identifier(s):
 OSTI ID: 1399058
 Report Number(s):
 INL/JOU1742598
Journal ID: ISSN 00218979
 Grant/Contract Number:
 AC0705ID14517; FA95501510236; DN 08/9; DMR1157490
 Resource Type:
 Accepted Manuscript
 Journal Name:
 Journal of Applied Physics
 Additional Journal Information:
 Journal Volume: 122; Journal Issue: 14; Journal ID: ISSN 00218979
 Publisher:
 American Institute of Physics (AIP)
 Country of Publication:
 United States
 Language:
 English
 Subject:
 75 CONDENSED MATTER PHYSICS, SUPERCONDUCTIVITY AND SUPERFLUIDITY; 36 MATERIALS SCIENCE; Weak Antilocalization; Magnetoresistance; Topologi; crystallography; electronic transport; magnetic ordering; transition metals; hall mobility; classical electromagnetism; Fermi surface
Citation Formats
Shrestha, K., Graf, D., Marinova, V., Lorenz, B., and Chu, C. W. Weak antilocalization effect due to topological surface states in Bi2Se2.1Te0.9. United States: N. p., 2017.
Web. doi:10.1063/1.4997947.
Shrestha, K., Graf, D., Marinova, V., Lorenz, B., & Chu, C. W. Weak antilocalization effect due to topological surface states in Bi2Se2.1Te0.9. United States. doi:10.1063/1.4997947.
Shrestha, K., Graf, D., Marinova, V., Lorenz, B., and Chu, C. W. Wed .
"Weak antilocalization effect due to topological surface states in Bi2Se2.1Te0.9". United States. doi:10.1063/1.4997947. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1402682.
@article{osti_1402682,
title = {Weak antilocalization effect due to topological surface states in Bi2Se2.1Te0.9},
author = {Shrestha, K. and Graf, D. and Marinova, V. and Lorenz, B. and Chu, C. W.},
abstractNote = {In this work, we have investigated the weak antilocalization (WAL) effect in the ptype Bi2Se2.1Te0.9 topological system. The magnetoconductance shows a cusplike feature at low magnetic fields, indicating the presence of the WAL effect. The WAL curves measured at different tilt angles merge together when they are plotted as a function of the normal field components, showing that surface states dominate the magnetoconductance in the Bi2Se2.1Te0.9 crystal. We have calculated magnetoconductance per conduction channel and applied the HikamiLarkinNagaoka formula to determine the physical parameters that characterize the WAL effect. The number of conduction channels and the phase coherence length do not change with temperature up to T = 5 K. In addition, the sample shows a large positive magnetoresistance that reaches 1900% under a magnetic field of 35 T at T = 0.33 K with no sign of saturation. The magnetoresistance value decreases with both increasing temperature and tilt angle of the sample surface with respect to the magnetic field. The large magnetoresistance of topological insulators can be utilized in future technology such as sensors and memory devices.},
doi = {10.1063/1.4997947},
journal = {Journal of Applied Physics},
number = 14,
volume = 122,
place = {United States},
year = {2017},
month = {10}
}
Web of Science
Works referenced in this record:
Weak Antilocalization Effect and Noncentrosymmetric Superconductivity in a Topologically Nontrivial Semimetal LuPdBi
journal, July 2014
 Xu, Guizhou; Wang, Wenhong; Zhang, Xiaoming
 Scientific Reports, Vol. 4, Issue 1
Weak antilocalization in topological insulator Bi ${}_{2}$ Te ${}_{3}$ microflakes
journal, January 2013
 Chiu, ShaoPin; Lin, JuhnJong
 Physical Review B, Vol. 87, Issue 3
Topological insulators and superconductors
journal, October 2011
 Qi, XiaoLiang; Zhang, ShouCheng
 Reviews of Modern Physics, Vol. 83, Issue 4
Observation of Dirac Holes and Electrons in a Topological Insulator
journal, June 2011
 Taskin, A. A.; Ren, Zhi; Sasaki, Satoshi
 Physical Review Letters, Vol. 107, Issue 1
Extremely large nonsaturating magnetoresistance and ultrahigh mobility due to topological surface states in the metallic ${\mathrm{Bi}}_{2}{\mathrm{Te}}_{3}$ topological insulator
journal, May 2017
 Shrestha, K.; Chou, M.; Graf, D.
 Physical Review B, Vol. 95, Issue 19
Large magnetoresistance and Fermi surface study of Sb _{2} Se _{2} Te single crystal
journal, September 2017
 Shrestha, K.; Marinova, V.; Graf, D.
 Journal of Applied Physics, Vol. 122, Issue 12
Quantum Interference in Macroscopic Crystals of Nonmetallic ${\mathrm{Bi}}_{2}{\mathrm{Se}}_{3}$
journal, December 2009
 Checkelsky, J. G.; Hor, Y. S.; Liu, M.H.
 Physical Review Letters, Vol. 103, Issue 24, Article No. 246601
2D layered transport properties from topological insulator Bi2Se3 single crystals and micro flakes
journal, June 2016
 Chiatti, Olivio; Riha, Christian; Lawrenz, Dominic
 Scientific Reports, Vol. 6, Issue 1
Topological Crystalline Insulators and Topological Superconductors: From Concepts to Materials
journal, March 2015
 Ando, Yoichi; Fu, Liang
 Annual Review of Condensed Matter Physics, Vol. 6, Issue 1
Colloquium: Topological insulators
journal, November 2010
 Hasan, M. Z.; Kane, C. L.
 Reviews of Modern Physics, Vol. 82, Issue 4, p. 30453067
Experimental Realization of a ThreeDimensional Topological Insulator, Bi_{2}Te_{3}
journal, June 2009
 Chen, Y. L.; Analytis, J. G.; Chu, J.H.
 Science, Vol. 325, Issue 5937, p. 178181
Simultaneous detection of quantum oscillations from bulk and topological surface states in metallic
journal, April 2017
 Shrestha, Keshav; Graf, David E.; Marinova, Vera
 Philosophical Magazine, Vol. 97, Issue 20
Observation of TimeReversalProtected SingleDiracCone TopologicalInsulator States in ${\mathrm{Bi}}_{2}{\mathrm{Te}}_{3}$ and ${\mathrm{Sb}}_{2}{\mathrm{Te}}_{3}$
journal, September 2009
 Hsieh, D.; Xia, Y.; Qian, D.
 Physical Review Letters, Vol. 103, Issue 14
Observation of a largegap topologicalinsulator class with a single Dirac cone on the surface
journal, May 2009
 Xia, Y.; Qian, D.; Hsieh, D.
 Nature Physics, Vol. 5, Issue 6, p. 398402
Quantum Oscillations and Hall Anomaly of Surface States in the Topological Insulator Bi_{2}Te_{3}
journal, July 2010
 Qu, D.X.; Hor, Y. S.; Xiong, J.
 Science, Vol. 329, Issue 5993, p. 821824
SpinOrbit Interaction and Magnetoresistance in the Two Dimensional Random System
journal, February 1980
 Hikami, S.; Larkin, A. I.; Nagaoka, Y.
 Progress of Theoretical Physics, Vol. 63, Issue 2
Topological Insulator Materials
journal, October 2013
 Ando, Yoichi
 Journal of the Physical Society of Japan, Vol. 82, Issue 10, Article No. 102001
Shubnikov–de Haas oscillations from topological surface states of metallic ${\mathrm{Bi}}_{2}{\mathrm{Se}}_{2.1}{\mathrm{Te}}_{0.9}$
journal, December 2014
 Shrestha, Keshav; Marinova, Vera; Lorenz, Bernd
 Physical Review B, Vol. 90, Issue 24
$p$type ${\text{Bi}}_{2}{\text{Se}}_{3}$ for topological insulator and lowtemperature thermoelectric applications
journal, May 2009
 Hor, Y. S.; Richardella, A.; Roushan, P.
 Physical Review B, Vol. 79, Issue 19, Article No. 195208
Room Temperature Giant and Linear Magnetoresistance in Topological Insulator ${\mathrm{Bi}}_{2}{\mathrm{Te}}_{3}$ Nanosheets
journal, June 2012
 Wang, Xiaolin; Du, Yi; Dou, Shixue
 Physical Review Letters, Vol. 108, Issue 26
Surface Shubnikov–de Haas oscillations and nonzero Berry phases of the topological hole conduction in ${\mathrm{Tl}}_{1x}{\mathrm{Bi}}_{1+x}{\mathrm{Se}}_{2}$
journal, November 2014
 Eguchi, G.; Kuroda, K.; Shirai, K.
 Physical Review B, Vol. 90, Issue 20
ThicknessIndependent Transport Channels in Topological Insulator ${\mathrm{Bi}}_{2}{\mathrm{Se}}_{3}$ Thin Films
journal, September 2012
 Bansal, Namrata; Kim, Yong Seung; Brahlek, Matthew
 Physical Review Letters, Vol. 109, Issue 11
Crystal structure and chemistry of topological insulators
journal, January 2013
 Cava, R. J.; Ji, Huiwen; Fuccillo, M. K.
 Journal of Materials Chemistry C, Vol. 1, Issue 19
Weak Antilocalization and Quantum Oscillations of Surface States in Topological Insulator Bi2Se2Te
journal, October 2012
 Bao, Lihong; He, Liang; Meyer, Nicholas
 Scientific Reports, Vol. 2, Issue 1
Impurity Effect on Weak Antilocalization in the Topological Insulator ${\mathrm{Bi}}_{2}{\mathrm{Te}}_{3}$
journal, April 2011
 He, HongTao; Wang, Gan; Zhang, Tao
 Physical Review Letters, Vol. 106, Issue 16
Quantum oscillations in metallic ${\mathrm{Sb}}_{2}{\mathrm{Te}}_{2}\mathrm{Se}$ topological insulator
journal, February 2017
 Shrestha, K.; Marinova, V.; Graf, D.
 Physical Review B, Vol. 95, Issue 7
Angulardependent oscillations of the magnetoresistance in ${\text{Bi}}_{2}{\text{Se}}_{3}$ due to the threedimensional bulk Fermi surface
journal, May 2010
 Eto, Kazuma; Ren, Zhi; Taskin, A. A.
 Physical Review B, Vol. 81, Issue 19
Twodimensional surface state in the quantum limit of a topological insulator
journal, November 2010
 Analytis, James G.; McDonald, Ross D.; Riggs, Scott C.
 Nature Physics, Vol. 6, Issue 12
Structural and electronic properties of highly doped topological insulator Bi _{2} Se _{3} crystals
journal, December 2012
 Cao, Helin; Xu, Suyang; Miotkowski, Ireneusz
 physica status solidi (RRL)  Rapid Research Letters, Vol. 7, Issue 12
Large magnetoresistance in high mobility topological insulator Bi _{2} Se _{3}
journal, July 2013
 Yan, Yuan; Wang, LiXian; Yu, DaPeng
 Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 103, Issue 3
An isolated Dirac cone on the surface of ternary tetradymitelike topological insulators
journal, September 2011
 Lin, H.; Das, Tanmoy; Wray, L. A.
 New Journal of Physics, Vol. 13, Issue 9
Evidence of surface transport and weak antilocalization in a single crystal of the ${\mathrm{Bi}}_{2}{\mathrm{Te}}_{2}\mathrm{Se}$ topological insulator
journal, October 2014
 Shekhar, Chandra; ViolBarbosa, C. E.; Yan, Binghai
 Physical Review B, Vol. 90, Issue 16
Magnetoresistance up to 60 Tesla in topological insulator Bi _{2} Te _{3} thin films
journal, November 2012
 Zhang, S. X.; McDonald, R. D.; Shekhter, A.
 Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 101, Issue 20