skip to main content
DOE PAGES title logo U.S. Department of Energy
Office of Scientific and Technical Information

Title: Daily mean temperature estimate at the US SUFRAD stations as an average of the maximum and minimum temperatures

Abstract

At thousands of stations worldwide, the mean daily surface air temperature is estimated as a mean of the daily maximum (T max) and minimum (T min) temperatures. In this paper, we use the NOAA Surface Radiation Budget Network (SURFRAD) of seven US stations with surface air temperature recorded each minute to assess the accuracy of the mean daily temperature estimate as an average of the daily maximum and minimum temperatures and to investigate how the accuracy of the estimate increases with an increasing number of daily temperature observations. We find the average difference between the estimate based on an average of the maximum and minimum temperatures and the average of 1440 1-min daily observations to be - 0.05 ± 1.56 °C, based on analyses of a sample of 238 days of temperature observations. Considering determination of the daily mean temperature based on 3, 4, 6, 12, or 24 daily temperature observations, we find that 2, 4, or 6 daily observations do not reduce significantly the uncertainty of the daily mean temperature. The bias reduction in a statistically significant manner (95% confidence level) occurs only with 12 or 24 daily observations. The daily mean temperature determination based on 24 hourly observationsmore » reduces the sample daily temperature uncertainty to - 0.01 ± 0.20 °C. Finally, estimating the parameters of population of all SURFRAD observations, the 95% confidence intervals based on 24 hourly measurements is from - 0.025 to 0.004 °C, compared to a confidence interval from - 0.15 to 0.05 °C based on the mean of T max and T min.« less

Authors:
 [1];  [2];  [3];  [4];  [1]
  1. Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)
  2. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Boulder, CO (United States). Earth System Research Lab. Global Monitoring Division
  3. New Mexico State Univ., Las Cruces, NM (United States)
  4. Dalhousie Univ., Halifax, NS (Canada)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Boulder, CO (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE
OSTI Identifier:
1402626
Report Number(s):
[LA-UR-17-21392]
[Journal ID: ISSN 0177-798X]
Grant/Contract Number:  
[AC52-06NA25396]
Resource Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Theoretical and Applied Climatology
Additional Journal Information:
[ Journal Volume: 134; Journal Issue: 1-2]; Journal ID: ISSN 0177-798X
Publisher:
Springer Nature
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
54 ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES

Citation Formats

Chylek, Petr, Augustine, John A., Klett, James D., Lesins, Glen, and Dubey, Manvendra K. Daily mean temperature estimate at the US SUFRAD stations as an average of the maximum and minimum temperatures. United States: N. p., 2017. Web. doi:10.1007/s00704-017-2277-4.
Chylek, Petr, Augustine, John A., Klett, James D., Lesins, Glen, & Dubey, Manvendra K. Daily mean temperature estimate at the US SUFRAD stations as an average of the maximum and minimum temperatures. United States. doi:10.1007/s00704-017-2277-4.
Chylek, Petr, Augustine, John A., Klett, James D., Lesins, Glen, and Dubey, Manvendra K. Sat . "Daily mean temperature estimate at the US SUFRAD stations as an average of the maximum and minimum temperatures". United States. doi:10.1007/s00704-017-2277-4. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1402626.
@article{osti_1402626,
title = {Daily mean temperature estimate at the US SUFRAD stations as an average of the maximum and minimum temperatures},
author = {Chylek, Petr and Augustine, John A. and Klett, James D. and Lesins, Glen and Dubey, Manvendra K.},
abstractNote = {At thousands of stations worldwide, the mean daily surface air temperature is estimated as a mean of the daily maximum (Tmax) and minimum (Tmin) temperatures. In this paper, we use the NOAA Surface Radiation Budget Network (SURFRAD) of seven US stations with surface air temperature recorded each minute to assess the accuracy of the mean daily temperature estimate as an average of the daily maximum and minimum temperatures and to investigate how the accuracy of the estimate increases with an increasing number of daily temperature observations. We find the average difference between the estimate based on an average of the maximum and minimum temperatures and the average of 1440 1-min daily observations to be - 0.05 ± 1.56 °C, based on analyses of a sample of 238 days of temperature observations. Considering determination of the daily mean temperature based on 3, 4, 6, 12, or 24 daily temperature observations, we find that 2, 4, or 6 daily observations do not reduce significantly the uncertainty of the daily mean temperature. The bias reduction in a statistically significant manner (95% confidence level) occurs only with 12 or 24 daily observations. The daily mean temperature determination based on 24 hourly observations reduces the sample daily temperature uncertainty to - 0.01 ± 0.20 °C. Finally, estimating the parameters of population of all SURFRAD observations, the 95% confidence intervals based on 24 hourly measurements is from - 0.025 to 0.004 °C, compared to a confidence interval from - 0.15 to 0.05 °C based on the mean of Tmax and Tmin.},
doi = {10.1007/s00704-017-2277-4},
journal = {Theoretical and Applied Climatology},
number = [1-2],
volume = [134],
place = {United States},
year = {2017},
month = {9}
}

Journal Article:
Free Publicly Available Full Text
Publisher's Version of Record

Save / Share:

Works referenced in this record:

An Overview of the Global Historical Climatology Network-Daily Database
journal, July 2012

  • Menne, Matthew J.; Durre, Imke; Vose, Russell S.
  • Journal of Atmospheric and Oceanic Technology, Vol. 29, Issue 7
  • DOI: 10.1175/JTECH-D-11-00103.1

Diurnal temperature asymmetries and fog at Churchill, Manitoba
journal, July 2014


A Model to Estimate the Time of Observation Bias Associated with Monthly Mean Maximum, Minimum and Mean Temperatures for the United States
journal, February 1986


What is monthly mean land surface air temperature?
journal, April 2012

  • Zeng, Xubin; Wang, Aihui
  • Eos, Transactions American Geophysical Union, Vol. 93, Issue 15
  • DOI: 10.1029/2012EO150006

An Update on SURFRAD—The GCOS Surface Radiation Budget Network for the Continental United States
journal, October 2005

  • Augustine, John A.; Hodges, Gary B.; Cornwall, Christopher R.
  • Journal of Atmospheric and Oceanic Technology, Vol. 22, Issue 10
  • DOI: 10.1175/JTECH1806.1

Differences between true mean daily, monthly and annual air temperatures and air temperatures calculated with three equations: a case study from three Croatian stations
journal, January 2013

  • Bonacci, Ognjen; Željković, Ivana; Trogrlić, Robert Šakić
  • Theoretical and Applied Climatology, Vol. 114, Issue 1-2
  • DOI: 10.1007/s00704-012-0830-8

Analysis of the impacts of station exposure on the U.S. Historical Climatology Network temperatures and temperature trends
journal, January 2011

  • Fall, Souleymane; Watts, Anthony; Nielsen-Gammon, John
  • Journal of Geophysical Research, Vol. 116, Issue D14
  • DOI: 10.1029/2010JD015146

True mean Temperature
journal, April 1921


Regional Contrasts of the Warming Rate over Land Significantly Depend on the Calculation Methods of Mean Air Temperature
journal, July 2015

  • Wang, Kaicun; Zhou, Chunlüe
  • Scientific Reports, Vol. 5, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1038/srep12324

On the Causes of Instrumentally Observed Secular Temperature Trends
journal, August 1953


Benchmarking the performance of pairwise homogenization of surface temperatures in the United States: BENCHMARKING THE USHCN
journal, March 2012

  • Williams, Claude N.; Menne, Matthew J.; Thorne, Peter W.
  • Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, Vol. 117, Issue D5
  • DOI: 10.1029/2011JD016761

Spatiotemporal Divergence of the Warming Hiatus over Land Based on Different Definitions of Mean Temperature
journal, August 2016

  • Zhou, Chunlüe; Wang, Kaicun
  • Scientific Reports, Vol. 6, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1038/srep31789

Estimation of fractional sky cover from broadband shortwave radiometer measurements
journal, January 2006

  • Long, C. N.; Ackerman, T. P.; Gaustad, K. L.
  • Journal of Geophysical Research, Vol. 111, Issue D11
  • DOI: 10.1029/2005JD006475

Influence of different daily mean formulas on monthly and annual averages of temperature
journal, January 1993

  • Weber, R. O.
  • Theoretical and Applied Climatology, Vol. 47, Issue 4
  • DOI: 10.1007/BF00866241

SURFRAD—A National Surface Radiation Budget Network for Atmospheric Research
journal, October 2000


Climate reference stations in Germany: Status, parallel measurements and homogeneity of temperature time series
journal, January 2016

  • Kaspar, Frank; Hannak, Lisa; Schreiber, Klaus-Jürgen
  • Advances in Science and Research, Vol. 13
  • DOI: 10.5194/asr-13-163-2016

Recent trend in temperature evolution in Spanish mainland (1951-2010): from warming to hiatus: TEMPERATURE TREND OVER SPAIN
journal, October 2015

  • Gonzalez-Hidalgo, José Carlos; Peña-Angulo, Dhais; Brunetti, Michele
  • International Journal of Climatology, Vol. 36, Issue 6
  • DOI: 10.1002/joc.4519