skip to main content
DOE PAGES title logo U.S. Department of Energy
Office of Scientific and Technical Information

Title: EMIC waves and associated relativistic electron precipitation on 25-26 January 2013

Abstract

Using measurements from the Van Allen Probes and the Balloon Array for RBSP Relativistic Electron Losses (BARREL), we perform a case study of electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves and associated relativistic electron precipitation (REP) observed on 25–26 January 2013. Among all the EMIC wave and REP events from the two missions, the pair of the events is the closest both in space and time. The Van Allen Probe-B detected significant EMIC waves at L = 2.1–3.9 and magnetic local time (MLT) = 21.0–23.4 for 53.5 min from 2353:00 UT, 25 January 2013. Meanwhile, BARREL-1T observed clear precipitation of relativistic electrons at L = 4.2–4.3 and MLT = 20.7–20.8 for 10.0 min from 2358 UT, 25 January 2013. Local plasma and field conditions for the excitation of the EMIC waves, wave properties, electron minimum resonant energy Emin, and electron pitch angle diffusion coefficient Dαα of a sample EMIC wave packet are examined along with solar wind plasma and interplanetary magnetic field parameters, geomagnetic activity, and results from the spectral analysis of the BARREL balloon observations to investigate the two types of events. The events occurred in the early main phase of a moderate storm (min. Dst* = -51.0 nT). The EMICmore » wave event consists of two parts. Finally, unlike the first part, the second part of the EMIC wave event was locally generated and still in its source region. It is found that the REP event is likely associated with the EMIC wave event.« less

Authors:
ORCiD logo [1]; ORCiD logo [2];  [1]; ORCiD logo [1]; ORCiD logo [1]; ORCiD logo [3]; ORCiD logo [3]; ORCiD logo [4]; ORCiD logo [1]; ORCiD logo [1]; ORCiD logo [5]; ORCiD logo [5]; ORCiD logo [6];  [6]; ORCiD logo [7]
  1. Univ. of New Hampshire, Durham, NH (United States). Space Science Center and Dept. of Physics
  2. Dartmouth College, Hanover, NH (United States). Dept. of Physics and Astronomy; NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC), Greenbelt, MD (United States)
  3. Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)
  4. Dartmouth College, Hanover, NH (United States). Dept. of Physics and Astronomy
  5. Univ. of Iowa, Iowa City, IA (United States). Dept. of Physics and Astronomy
  6. Aerospace Corporation, Los Angeles, CA (United States). Space Sciences Dept.
  7. Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States). Lab. for Atmospheric and Space Physics
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA); USDOE
OSTI Identifier:
1402609
Report Number(s):
LA-UR-16-23133
Journal ID: ISSN 2169-9380; TRN: US1703007
Grant/Contract Number:  
AC52-06NA25396; 967399; 921647; NAS5-01072; NNX11AO82G; NNX13AE23G; NNX15AF66G; NNX08AM58G
Resource Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Journal of Geophysical Research. Space Physics
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 121; Journal Issue: 11; Journal ID: ISSN 2169-9380
Publisher:
American Geophysical Union
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
71 CLASSICAL AND QUANTUM MECHANICS, GENERAL PHYSICS; 58 GEOSCIENCES; Heliospheric and Magnetospheric Physics; EMIC waves; relativistic electron precipitation (REP); Van Allen Probes; BARREL; geomagnetic storm; FFT

Citation Formats

Zhang, Jichun, Halford, Alexa J., Saikin, Anthony A., Huang, Chia-Lin, Spence, Harlan E., Larsen, Brian A., Reeves, Geoffrey D., Millan, Robyn M., Smith, Charles W., Torbert, Roy B., Kurth, William S., Kletzing, Craig A., Blake, J. Bernard, Fennel, Joseph F., and Baker, Daniel N.. EMIC waves and associated relativistic electron precipitation on 25-26 January 2013. United States: N. p., 2016. Web. https://doi.org/10.1002/2016JA022918.
Zhang, Jichun, Halford, Alexa J., Saikin, Anthony A., Huang, Chia-Lin, Spence, Harlan E., Larsen, Brian A., Reeves, Geoffrey D., Millan, Robyn M., Smith, Charles W., Torbert, Roy B., Kurth, William S., Kletzing, Craig A., Blake, J. Bernard, Fennel, Joseph F., & Baker, Daniel N.. EMIC waves and associated relativistic electron precipitation on 25-26 January 2013. United States. https://doi.org/10.1002/2016JA022918
Zhang, Jichun, Halford, Alexa J., Saikin, Anthony A., Huang, Chia-Lin, Spence, Harlan E., Larsen, Brian A., Reeves, Geoffrey D., Millan, Robyn M., Smith, Charles W., Torbert, Roy B., Kurth, William S., Kletzing, Craig A., Blake, J. Bernard, Fennel, Joseph F., and Baker, Daniel N.. Fri . "EMIC waves and associated relativistic electron precipitation on 25-26 January 2013". United States. https://doi.org/10.1002/2016JA022918. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1402609.
@article{osti_1402609,
title = {EMIC waves and associated relativistic electron precipitation on 25-26 January 2013},
author = {Zhang, Jichun and Halford, Alexa J. and Saikin, Anthony A. and Huang, Chia-Lin and Spence, Harlan E. and Larsen, Brian A. and Reeves, Geoffrey D. and Millan, Robyn M. and Smith, Charles W. and Torbert, Roy B. and Kurth, William S. and Kletzing, Craig A. and Blake, J. Bernard and Fennel, Joseph F. and Baker, Daniel N.},
abstractNote = {Using measurements from the Van Allen Probes and the Balloon Array for RBSP Relativistic Electron Losses (BARREL), we perform a case study of electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves and associated relativistic electron precipitation (REP) observed on 25–26 January 2013. Among all the EMIC wave and REP events from the two missions, the pair of the events is the closest both in space and time. The Van Allen Probe-B detected significant EMIC waves at L = 2.1–3.9 and magnetic local time (MLT) = 21.0–23.4 for 53.5 min from 2353:00 UT, 25 January 2013. Meanwhile, BARREL-1T observed clear precipitation of relativistic electrons at L = 4.2–4.3 and MLT = 20.7–20.8 for 10.0 min from 2358 UT, 25 January 2013. Local plasma and field conditions for the excitation of the EMIC waves, wave properties, electron minimum resonant energy Emin, and electron pitch angle diffusion coefficient Dαα of a sample EMIC wave packet are examined along with solar wind plasma and interplanetary magnetic field parameters, geomagnetic activity, and results from the spectral analysis of the BARREL balloon observations to investigate the two types of events. The events occurred in the early main phase of a moderate storm (min. Dst* = -51.0 nT). The EMIC wave event consists of two parts. Finally, unlike the first part, the second part of the EMIC wave event was locally generated and still in its source region. It is found that the REP event is likely associated with the EMIC wave event.},
doi = {10.1002/2016JA022918},
journal = {Journal of Geophysical Research. Space Physics},
number = 11,
volume = 121,
place = {United States},
year = {2016},
month = {10}
}

Journal Article:
Free Publicly Available Full Text
Publisher's Version of Record

Citation Metrics:
Cited by: 7 works
Citation information provided by
Web of Science

Save / Share:

Works referenced in this record:

Electron densities inferred from plasma wave spectra obtained by the Waves instrument on Van Allen Probes: Van Allen Probes Electron Densities
journal, February 2015

  • Kurth, W. S.; De Pascuale, S.; Faden, J. B.
  • Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics, Vol. 120, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1002/2014JA020857

First detection of a terrestrial MeV X-ray burst
journal, November 1998

  • Foat, J. E.; Lin, R. P.; Smith, D. M.
  • Geophysical Research Letters, Vol. 25, Issue 22
  • DOI: 10.1029/1998GL900134

Ray tracing of ULF waves in a multicomponent magnetospheric plasma: Consequences for the generation mechanism of ion cyclotron waves
journal, January 1982


Modeling the dynamics of the inner magnetosphere during strong geomagnetic storms
journal, January 2005


The Balloon Array for RBSP Relativistic Electron Losses (BARREL)
journal, March 2013


The Radiation Belt Storm Probes (RBSP) and Space Weather
journal, December 2012


POES satellite observations of EMIC-wave driven relativistic electron precipitation during 1998-2010: EMIC DRIVEN REP 1998-2010
journal, January 2013

  • Carson, Bonar R.; Rodger, Craig J.; Clilverd, Mark A.
  • Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics, Vol. 118, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1029/2012JA017998

Radial dependence of relativistic electron fluxes for storm main phase development
journal, January 2002


Stochastic gyroresonant electron acceleration in a low-beta plasma. I - Interaction with parallel transverse cold plasma waves
journal, July 1992

  • Steinacker, Juergen; Miller, James A.
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 393
  • DOI: 10.1086/171544

Precipitation of relativistic electrons by interaction with electromagnetic ion cyclotron waves
journal, March 2000

  • Lorentzen, K. R.; McCarthy, M. P.; Parks, G. K.
  • Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics, Vol. 105, Issue A3
  • DOI: 10.1029/1999JA000283

Cluster observations of EMIC triggered emissions in association with Pc1 waves near Earth's plasmapause: OBSERVATIONS OF EMIC TRIGGERED EMISSIONS
journal, May 2010

  • Pickett, J. S.; Grison, B.; Omura, Y.
  • Geophysical Research Letters, Vol. 37, Issue 9
  • DOI: 10.1029/2010GL042648

Limit on stably trapped particle fluxes
journal, January 1966


Observation of relativistic electron precipitation during a rapid decrease of trapped relativistic electron flux
journal, January 2007

  • Millan, R. M.; Lin, R. P.; Smith, D. M.
  • Geophysical Research Letters, Vol. 34, Issue 10
  • DOI: 10.1029/2006GL028653

Observations of relativistic electron precipitation from the radiation belts driven by EMIC waves
journal, January 2008

  • Rodger, Craig J.; Raita, Tero; Clilverd, Mark A.
  • Geophysical Research Letters, Vol. 35, Issue 16
  • DOI: 10.1029/2008GL034804

New conjunctive CubeSat and balloon measurements to quantify rapid energetic electron precipitation: QUANTIFYING RAPID E - PRECIPITATION LOSS
journal, November 2013

  • Blum, L. W.; Schiller, Q.; Li, X.
  • Geophysical Research Letters, Vol. 40, Issue 22
  • DOI: 10.1002/2013GL058546

Timescales for radiation belt electron acceleration and loss due to resonant wave-particle interactions: 1. Theory: RADIATION BELT ELECTRON TIMESCALES
journal, April 2007

  • Summers, Danny; Ni, Binbin; Meredith, Nigel P.
  • Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics, Vol. 112, Issue A4
  • DOI: 10.1029/2006JA011801

A statistical study of EMIC wave-associated He + energization in the outer magnetosphere: Cluster/CODIF observations : HE
journal, November 2011

  • Zhang, J. -C.; Kistler, L. M.; Mouikis, C. G.
  • Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics, Vol. 116, Issue A11
  • DOI: 10.1029/2011JA016690

The controlling effect of ion temperature on EMIC wave excitation and scattering: HOT PLASMA EFFECT ON EMIC WAVES
journal, August 2011

  • Chen, Lunjin; Thorne, Richard M.; Bortnik, Jacob
  • Geophysical Research Letters, Vol. 38, Issue 16
  • DOI: 10.1029/2011GL048653

Estimating relativistic electron pitch angle scattering rates using properties of the electromagnetic ion cyclotron wave spectrum
journal, January 2006

  • Loto'aniu, T. M.; Thorne, R. M.; Fraser, B. J.
  • Journal of Geophysical Research, Vol. 111, Issue A4
  • DOI: 10.1029/2005JA011452

An empirical phase space analysis of ring current dynamics: Solar wind control of injection and decay
journal, April 2000

  • O'Brien, T. Paul; McPherron, Robert L.
  • Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics, Vol. 105, Issue A4
  • DOI: 10.1029/1998JA000437

Radiation belt dynamics: The importance of wave-particle interactions: FRONTIER
journal, November 2010

  • Thorne, Richard Mansergh
  • Geophysical Research Letters, Vol. 37, Issue 22
  • DOI: 10.1029/2010GL044990

The occurrence and wave properties of H + ‐, He + ‐, and O + ‐band EMIC waves observed by the Van Allen Probes
journal, September 2015

  • Saikin, A. A.; Zhang, J. ‐C.; Allen, R. C.
  • Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics, Vol. 120, Issue 9
  • DOI: 10.1002/2015JA021358

Radial transport of radiation belt electrons due to stormtime Pc5 waves
journal, January 2009


Excitation of EMIC waves detected by the Van Allen Probes on 28 April 2013: EMIC WAVE EXCITATION
journal, June 2014

  • Zhang, J. -C.; Saikin, A. A.; Kistler, L. M.
  • Geophysical Research Letters, Vol. 41, Issue 12
  • DOI: 10.1002/2014GL060621

Velocity Space Diffusion from Weak Plasma Turbulence in a Magnetic Field
journal, January 1966


Simulation of EMIC wave excitation in a model magnetosphere including structured high-density plumes: EMIC EXCITATION IN PLUMES
journal, July 2009

  • Chen, Lunjin; Thorne, Richard M.; Horne, Richard B.
  • Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics, Vol. 114, Issue A7
  • DOI: 10.1029/2009JA014204

Core plasma in the magnetosphere
journal, January 1987


Relativistic electron pitch-angle scattering by electromagnetic ion cyclotron waves during geomagnetic storms
journal, January 2003


X-ray observations of MeV electron precipitation with a balloon-borne germanium spectrometer: X-RAY OBSERVATIONS OF MEV ELECTRON PRECIPITATION
journal, December 2002

  • Millan, R. M.; Lin, R. P.; Smith, D. M.
  • Geophysical Research Letters, Vol. 29, Issue 24
  • DOI: 10.1029/2002GL015922

Predicting interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) propagation delay times using the minimum variance technique
journal, January 2003


Simulation of the energy distribution of relativistic electron precipitation caused by quasi-linear interactions with EMIC waves: ENERGY DIST OF REP CAUSED BY EMIC
journal, December 2013

  • Li, Zan; Millan, Robyn M.; Hudson, Mary K.
  • Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics, Vol. 118, Issue 12
  • DOI: 10.1002/2013JA019163

Science Objectives and Rationale for the Radiation Belt Storm Probes Mission
journal, September 2012


Correction to “Predicting interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) propagation delay times using the minimum variance technique”
journal, January 2004


Duskside relativistic electron precipitation as measured by SAMPEX: A statistical survey: DREP MEASURED BY SAMPEX
journal, August 2013

  • Comess, Max D.; Smith, David M.; Selesnick, Richard S.
  • Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics, Vol. 118, Issue 8
  • DOI: 10.1002/jgra.50481

High-resolution in situ observations of electron precipitation-causing EMIC waves: EMIC WAVES DRIVING PRECIPITATION
journal, November 2015

  • Rodger, Craig J.; Hendry, Aaron T.; Clilverd, Mark A.
  • Geophysical Research Letters, Vol. 42, Issue 22
  • DOI: 10.1002/2015GL066581

Testing linear theory of EMIC waves in the inner magnetosphere: Cluster observations: Testing linear theory of EMIC waves
journal, February 2014

  • Lin, R. -L.; Zhang, J. -C.; Allen, R. C.
  • Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics, Vol. 119, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1002/2013JA019541

A summary of the BARREL campaigns: Technique for studying electron precipitation
journal, June 2015

  • Woodger, L. A.; Halford, A. J.; Millan, R. M.
  • Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics, Vol. 120, Issue 6
  • DOI: 10.1002/2014JA020874

Multiple bidirectional EMIC waves observed by Cluster at middle magnetic latitudes in the dayside magnetosphere: MULTIPLE BIDIRECTIONAL EMIC WAVES
journal, October 2013

  • Allen, R. C.; Zhang, J. -C.; Kistler, L. M.
  • Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics, Vol. 118, Issue 10
  • DOI: 10.1002/jgra.50600

Is the plasmapause a preferred source region of electromagnetic ion cyclotron waves in the magnetosphere?
journal, July 2001


Van Allen probes, NOAA, GOES, and ground observations of an intense EMIC wave event extending over 12 h in magnetic local time: EMIC WAVES AND THE RADIATION BELTS
journal, July 2015

  • Engebretson, M. J.; Posch, J. L.; Wygant, J. R.
  • Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics, Vol. 120, Issue 7
  • DOI: 10.1002/2015JA021227

Fully adiabatic changes in storm time relativistic electron fluxes
journal, October 1997

  • Kim, Hee-Jeong; Chan, Anthony A.
  • Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics, Vol. 102, Issue A10
  • DOI: 10.1029/97JA01814

What is a geomagnetic storm?
journal, January 1994

  • Gonzalez, W. D.; Joselyn, J. A.; Kamide, Y.
  • Journal of Geophysical Research, Vol. 99, Issue A4
  • DOI: 10.1029/93JA02867

Review of modeling of losses and sources of relativistic electrons in the outer radiation belt II: Local acceleration and loss
journal, November 2008

  • Shprits, Yuri Y.; Subbotin, Dmitriy A.; Meredith, Nigel P.
  • Journal of Atmospheric and Solar-Terrestrial Physics, Vol. 70, Issue 14
  • DOI: 10.1016/J.Jastp.2008.06.014

Review of radiation belt relativistic electron losses
journal, March 2007


Radiation Around the Earth to a Radial Distance of 107,400 km.
journal, February 1959

  • Van Allen, James A.; Frank, Louis A.
  • Nature, Vol. 183, Issue 4659
  • DOI: 10.1038/183430a0

“Trunk-like” heavy ion structures observed by the Van Allen Probes: TRUNK ION STRUCTURES
journal, October 2015

  • Zhang, J. -C.; Kistler, L. M.; Spence, H. E.
  • Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics, Vol. 120, Issue 10
  • DOI: 10.1002/2015JA021822

Propagation of electromagnetic ion cyclotron wave energy in the magnetosphere
journal, January 2005


Ion observations from geosynchronous orbit as a proxy for ion cyclotron wave growth during storm times: PLASMA-BASED PROXY FOR EMIC WAVES AT GEOSYNCHRONOUS ORBIT
journal, October 2009

  • Blum, Lauren W.; MacDonald, Elizabeth A.; Gary, S. Peter
  • Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics, Vol. 114, Issue A10
  • DOI: 10.1029/2009JA014396

Wave-particle interactions near Ω He + observed on GEOS 1 and 2 1. Propagation of ion cyclotron waves in He + -rich plasma
journal, January 1981

  • Young, D. T.; Perraut, S.; Roux, A.
  • Journal of Geophysical Research, Vol. 86, Issue A8
  • DOI: 10.1029/JA086iA08p06755

Direct observations in the dusk hours of the characteristics of the storm time ring current particles during the beginning of magnetic storms
journal, March 1974


Precipitating electron events in October 2003 as observed in the polar atmosphere
journal, January 2006

  • Makhmutov, V. S.; Bazilevskaya, G. A.; Desorgher, L.
  • Advances in Space Research, Vol. 38, Issue 8
  • DOI: 10.1016/J.Asr.2006.01.016

Improved calculations of interplanetary magnetic field phase front angles and propagation time delays: CALCULATIONS OF IMF PHASE FRONT ANGLES
journal, January 2008

  • Weimer, Daniel R.; King, Joseph H.
  • Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics, Vol. 113, Issue A1
  • DOI: 10.1029/2007JA012452

Electron pitch-angle diffusion: resonant scattering by waves vs. nonadiabatic effects
journal, January 2013


Space-time structure of ion-cyclotron waves in the topside ionosphere as observed onboard the ST-5 satellites
journal, September 2012


Helium, Oxygen, Proton, and Electron (HOPE) Mass Spectrometer for the Radiation Belt Storm Probes Mission
journal, March 2013


Relativistic electron precipitation by EMIC waves from self-consistent global simulations: EMIC WAVES AND RELATIVISTIC ELECTRONS
journal, March 2008

  • Jordanova, V. K.; Albert, J.; Miyoshi, Y.
  • Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics, Vol. 113, Issue A3
  • DOI: 10.1029/2008JA013239

Review of modeling of losses and sources of relativistic electrons in the outer radiation belt I: Radial transport
journal, November 2008

  • Shprits, Yuri Y.; Elkington, Scot R.; Meredith, Nigel P.
  • Journal of Atmospheric and Solar-Terrestrial Physics, Vol. 70, Issue 14
  • DOI: 10.1016/J.Jastp.2008.06.008

Relativistic electron precipitation during magnetic storm main phase
journal, July 1971


Statistical analysis of relativistic electron energies for cyclotron resonance with EMIC waves observed on CRRES
journal, January 2003


A statistical study of EMIC waves observed by Cluster: 1. Wave properties: EMIC Wave Properties
journal, July 2015

  • Allen, R. C.; Zhang, J. -C.; Kistler, L. M.
  • Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics, Vol. 120, Issue 7
  • DOI: 10.1002/2015JA021333

Precipitation of radiation belt electrons by EMIC waves, observed from ground and space
journal, January 2008

  • Miyoshi, Y.; Sakaguchi, K.; Shiokawa, K.
  • Geophysical Research Letters, Vol. 35, Issue 23
  • DOI: 10.1029/2008GL035727

The Electric and Magnetic Field Instrument Suite and Integrated Science (EMFISIS) on RBSP
journal, June 2013


A case study of EMIC wave-associated He + energization in the outer magnetosphere: Cluster and Double Star 1 observations : He
journal, June 2010

  • Zhang, J. -C.; Kistler, L. M.; Mouikis, C. G.
  • Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics, Vol. 115, Issue A6
  • DOI: 10.1029/2009JA014784

A Long-Lived Relativistic Electron Storage Ring Embedded in Earth's Outer Van Allen Belt
journal, February 2013


Electron precipitation from EMIC waves: A case study from 31 May 2013: ELECTRON PRECIPITATION FROM EMIC-IPDP
journal, May 2015

  • Clilverd, Mark A.; Duthie, Roger; Hardman, Rachael
  • Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics, Vol. 120, Issue 5
  • DOI: 10.1002/2015JA021090

Dynamic evolution of energetic outer zone electrons due to wave-particle interactions during storms: EVOLUTION OF ENERGETIC ELECTRONS
journal, October 2007

  • Li, W.; Shprits, Y. Y.; Thorne, R. M.
  • Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics, Vol. 112, Issue A10
  • DOI: 10.1029/2007JA012368

Quantifying the radiation belt seed population in the 17 March 2013 electron acceleration event
journal, April 2014

  • Boyd, A. J.; Spence, H. E.; Claudepierre, S. G.
  • Geophysical Research Letters, Vol. 41, Issue 7
  • DOI: 10.1002/2014GL059626

    Works referencing / citing this record:

    Rapid Loss of Radiation Belt Relativistic Electrons by EMIC Waves
    journal, October 2017

    • Su, Zhenpeng; Gao, Zhonglei; Zheng, Huinan
    • Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics, Vol. 122, Issue 10
    • DOI: 10.1002/2017ja024169

    A Statistical Survey of Radiation Belt Dropouts Observed by Van Allen Probes
    journal, August 2018

    • Xiang, Zheng; Tu, Weichao; Ni, Binbin
    • Geophysical Research Letters, Vol. 45, Issue 16
    • DOI: 10.1029/2018gl078907

    Precipitation of Radiation Belt Electrons by EMIC Waves With Conjugated Observations of NOAA and Van Allen Satellites
    journal, December 2018

    • Yuan, Zhigang; Liu, Kun; Yu, Xiongdong
    • Geophysical Research Letters, Vol. 45, Issue 23
    • DOI: 10.1029/2018gl080481

    Pitch Angle Scattering of Sub‐MeV Relativistic Electrons by Electromagnetic Ion Cyclotron Waves
    journal, July 2019

    • Denton, R. E.; Ofman, L.; Shprits, Y. Y.
    • Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics, Vol. 124, Issue 7
    • DOI: 10.1029/2018ja026384

    On the Contribution of EMIC Waves to the Reconfiguration of the Relativistic Electron Butterfly Pitch Angle Distribution Shape on 2014 September 12—A Case Study
    journal, February 2019

    • Medeiros, Claudia; Souza, V. M.; Vieira, L. E. A.
    • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 872, Issue 1
    • DOI: 10.3847/1538-4357/aaf970