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Title: The processing of enriched germanium for the Majorana Demonstrator and R&D for a next generation double-beta decay experiment

The Majorana Demonstrator is an array of point-contact Ge detectors fabricated from Ge isotopically enriched to 88% in 76Ge to search for neutrinoless double beta decay. The processing of Ge for germanium detectors is a well-known technology. However, because of the high cost of Ge enriched in 76Ge special procedures were required to maximize the yield of detector mass and to minimize exposure to cosmic rays. These procedures include careful accounting for the material; shielding it to reduce cosmogenic generation of radioactive isotopes; and development of special reprocessing techniques for contaminated solid germanium, shavings, grindings, acid etchant and cutting fluids from detector fabrication. Processing procedures were developed that resulted in a total yield in detector mass of 70%. However, none of the acid-etch solution and only 50% of the cutting fluids from detector fabrication were reprocessed. Had they been processed, the projections for the recovery yield would be between 80% and 85%. Maximizing yield is critical to justify a possible future ton-scale experiment. A process for recovery of germanium from the acid-etch solution was developed with yield of about 90%. All material was shielded or stored underground whenever possible to minimize the formation of 68Ge by cosmic rays, which contributesmore » background in the double-beta decay region of interest and cannot be removed by zone refinement and crystal growth. Formation of 68Ge was reduced by a significant factor over that in natural abundance detectors not protected from cosmic rays.« less
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Publication Date:
Report Number(s):
LA-UR-17-26439
Journal ID: ISSN 0168-9002; TRN: US1703243
Grant/Contract Number:
AC52-06NA25396; AC02-05CH11231; FG02-97ER41041; FG02-97ER41033; FG02-97ER41042,; SC0012612; FG02-10ER41715; SC0010254; FG02-97ER41020; PHY-0919270, PHY-1003940, PHY-0855314; PHY-1202950; MRI 0923142; PHY-1307204; PHY-1003399; 15-02-02919; AC05-00OR22725
Type:
Published Article
Journal Name:
Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research. Section A, Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 877; Journal Issue: C; Journal ID: ISSN 0168-9002
Publisher:
Elsevier
Research Org:
Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)
Sponsoring Org:
USDOE Office of Science (SC), Nuclear Physics (NP) (SC-26); National Science Foundation (NSF); Russian Foundation for Basic Research
Contributing Orgs:
Majorana Collaboration; GERDA Collaboration
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
72 PHYSICS OF ELEMENTARY PARTICLES AND FIELDS; Atomic and Nuclear Physics; Double-beta decay; Neutrino physics; Instrumentation
OSTI Identifier:
1402099
Alternate Identifier(s):
OSTI ID: 1402647; OSTI ID: 1419471; OSTI ID: 1454382

Abgrall, N., Arnquist, I. J., Avignone III, F. T., Barabash, A. S., Bertrand, F. E., Bradley, A. W., Brudanin, V., Busch, M., Buuck, M., Caja, J., Caja, M., Caldwell, T. S., Christofferson, C. D., Chu, P. -H., Cuesta, C., Detwiler, J. A., Dunagan, C., Dunstan, D. T., Efremenko, Yu., Ejiri, H., Elliott, S. R., Gilliss, T., Giovanetti, G. K., Goett, J., Green, M. P., Gruszko, J., Guinn, I. S., Guiseppe, V. E., Haufe, C. R. S., Henning, R., Hoppe, E. W., Jasinski, B. R., Kidd, M. F., Konovalov, S. I., Kouzes, R. T., Lopez, A. M., MacMullin, J., Martin, R. D., Massarczyk, R., Meijer, S. J., Mertens, S., Meyer, J. H., Myslik, J., O’Shaughnessy, C., Poon, A. W. P., Radford, D. C., Rager, J., Reine, A. L., Reising, J. A., Rielage, K., Robertson, R. G. H., Shanks, B., Shirchenko, M., Suriano, A. M., Tedeschi, D., Toth, L. M., Trimble, J. E., Varner, R. L., Vasilyev, S., Vetter, K., Vorren, K., White, B. R., Wilkerson, J. F., Wiseman, C., Xu, W., Yakushev, E., Yu, C. -H., Yumatov, V., Zhitnikov, I., and Zhu, B. X.. The processing of enriched germanium for the Majorana Demonstrator and R&D for a next generation double-beta decay experiment. United States: N. p., Web. doi:10.1016/j.nima.2017.09.036.
Abgrall, N., Arnquist, I. J., Avignone III, F. T., Barabash, A. S., Bertrand, F. E., Bradley, A. W., Brudanin, V., Busch, M., Buuck, M., Caja, J., Caja, M., Caldwell, T. S., Christofferson, C. D., Chu, P. -H., Cuesta, C., Detwiler, J. A., Dunagan, C., Dunstan, D. T., Efremenko, Yu., Ejiri, H., Elliott, S. R., Gilliss, T., Giovanetti, G. K., Goett, J., Green, M. P., Gruszko, J., Guinn, I. S., Guiseppe, V. E., Haufe, C. R. S., Henning, R., Hoppe, E. W., Jasinski, B. R., Kidd, M. F., Konovalov, S. I., Kouzes, R. T., Lopez, A. M., MacMullin, J., Martin, R. D., Massarczyk, R., Meijer, S. J., Mertens, S., Meyer, J. H., Myslik, J., O’Shaughnessy, C., Poon, A. W. P., Radford, D. C., Rager, J., Reine, A. L., Reising, J. A., Rielage, K., Robertson, R. G. H., Shanks, B., Shirchenko, M., Suriano, A. M., Tedeschi, D., Toth, L. M., Trimble, J. E., Varner, R. L., Vasilyev, S., Vetter, K., Vorren, K., White, B. R., Wilkerson, J. F., Wiseman, C., Xu, W., Yakushev, E., Yu, C. -H., Yumatov, V., Zhitnikov, I., & Zhu, B. X.. The processing of enriched germanium for the Majorana Demonstrator and R&D for a next generation double-beta decay experiment. United States. doi:10.1016/j.nima.2017.09.036.
Abgrall, N., Arnquist, I. J., Avignone III, F. T., Barabash, A. S., Bertrand, F. E., Bradley, A. W., Brudanin, V., Busch, M., Buuck, M., Caja, J., Caja, M., Caldwell, T. S., Christofferson, C. D., Chu, P. -H., Cuesta, C., Detwiler, J. A., Dunagan, C., Dunstan, D. T., Efremenko, Yu., Ejiri, H., Elliott, S. R., Gilliss, T., Giovanetti, G. K., Goett, J., Green, M. P., Gruszko, J., Guinn, I. S., Guiseppe, V. E., Haufe, C. R. S., Henning, R., Hoppe, E. W., Jasinski, B. R., Kidd, M. F., Konovalov, S. I., Kouzes, R. T., Lopez, A. M., MacMullin, J., Martin, R. D., Massarczyk, R., Meijer, S. J., Mertens, S., Meyer, J. H., Myslik, J., O’Shaughnessy, C., Poon, A. W. P., Radford, D. C., Rager, J., Reine, A. L., Reising, J. A., Rielage, K., Robertson, R. G. H., Shanks, B., Shirchenko, M., Suriano, A. M., Tedeschi, D., Toth, L. M., Trimble, J. E., Varner, R. L., Vasilyev, S., Vetter, K., Vorren, K., White, B. R., Wilkerson, J. F., Wiseman, C., Xu, W., Yakushev, E., Yu, C. -H., Yumatov, V., Zhitnikov, I., and Zhu, B. X.. 2017. "The processing of enriched germanium for the Majorana Demonstrator and R&D for a next generation double-beta decay experiment". United States. doi:10.1016/j.nima.2017.09.036.
@article{osti_1402099,
title = {The processing of enriched germanium for the Majorana Demonstrator and R&D for a next generation double-beta decay experiment},
author = {Abgrall, N. and Arnquist, I. J. and Avignone III, F. T. and Barabash, A. S. and Bertrand, F. E. and Bradley, A. W. and Brudanin, V. and Busch, M. and Buuck, M. and Caja, J. and Caja, M. and Caldwell, T. S. and Christofferson, C. D. and Chu, P. -H. and Cuesta, C. and Detwiler, J. A. and Dunagan, C. and Dunstan, D. T. and Efremenko, Yu. and Ejiri, H. and Elliott, S. R. and Gilliss, T. and Giovanetti, G. K. and Goett, J. and Green, M. P. and Gruszko, J. and Guinn, I. S. and Guiseppe, V. E. and Haufe, C. R. S. and Henning, R. and Hoppe, E. W. and Jasinski, B. R. and Kidd, M. F. and Konovalov, S. I. and Kouzes, R. T. and Lopez, A. M. and MacMullin, J. and Martin, R. D. and Massarczyk, R. and Meijer, S. J. and Mertens, S. and Meyer, J. H. and Myslik, J. and O’Shaughnessy, C. and Poon, A. W. P. and Radford, D. C. and Rager, J. and Reine, A. L. and Reising, J. A. and Rielage, K. and Robertson, R. G. H. and Shanks, B. and Shirchenko, M. and Suriano, A. M. and Tedeschi, D. and Toth, L. M. and Trimble, J. E. and Varner, R. L. and Vasilyev, S. and Vetter, K. and Vorren, K. and White, B. R. and Wilkerson, J. F. and Wiseman, C. and Xu, W. and Yakushev, E. and Yu, C. -H. and Yumatov, V. and Zhitnikov, I. and Zhu, B. X.},
abstractNote = {The Majorana Demonstrator is an array of point-contact Ge detectors fabricated from Ge isotopically enriched to 88% in 76Ge to search for neutrinoless double beta decay. The processing of Ge for germanium detectors is a well-known technology. However, because of the high cost of Ge enriched in 76Ge special procedures were required to maximize the yield of detector mass and to minimize exposure to cosmic rays. These procedures include careful accounting for the material; shielding it to reduce cosmogenic generation of radioactive isotopes; and development of special reprocessing techniques for contaminated solid germanium, shavings, grindings, acid etchant and cutting fluids from detector fabrication. Processing procedures were developed that resulted in a total yield in detector mass of 70%. However, none of the acid-etch solution and only 50% of the cutting fluids from detector fabrication were reprocessed. Had they been processed, the projections for the recovery yield would be between 80% and 85%. Maximizing yield is critical to justify a possible future ton-scale experiment. A process for recovery of germanium from the acid-etch solution was developed with yield of about 90%. All material was shielded or stored underground whenever possible to minimize the formation of 68Ge by cosmic rays, which contributes background in the double-beta decay region of interest and cannot be removed by zone refinement and crystal growth. Formation of 68Ge was reduced by a significant factor over that in natural abundance detectors not protected from cosmic rays.},
doi = {10.1016/j.nima.2017.09.036},
journal = {Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research. Section A, Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment},
number = C,
volume = 877,
place = {United States},
year = {2017},
month = {10}
}