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Title: Demonstrating electromagnetic control of free-surface, liquid-metal flows relevant to fusion reactors

Plasma-facing components (PFC's) made from solid materials may not be able to withstand the large heat and particle fluxes that will be produced within next-generation fusion reactors. To address the shortcomings of solid PFC's, a variety of liquid-metal (LM) PFC concepts have been proposed. Many of the suggested LM-PFC designs rely on electromagnetic restraint (Lorentz force) to keep free-surface, liquid-metal flows adhered to the interior surfaces of a fusion reactor. However, there is very little, if any, experimental data demonstrating that free-surface, LM-PFC's can actually be electromagnetically controlled. Therefore, in this study, electrical currents were injected into a free-surface liquid-metal that was flowing through a uniform magnetic field. The resultant Lorentz force generated within the liquid-metal affected the velocity and depth of the flow in a controllable manner that closely matched theoretical predictions. Furthermore, these results show the promise of electromagnetic control for LM-PFC's and suggest that electromagnetic control could be further developed to adjust liquid-metal nozzle output, prevent splashing within a tokamak, and alter heat transfer properties for a wide-range of liquid-metal systems.
Authors:
 [1] ;  [1] ;  [1] ;  [1]
  1. Princeton Univ., Princeton, NJ (United States)
Publication Date:
Grant/Contract Number:
AC02-09CH11466
Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Nuclear Fusion
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 58; Journal Issue: 1; Journal ID: ISSN 0029-5515
Publisher:
IOP Science
Research Org:
Princeton Plasma Physics Lab. (PPPL), Princeton, NJ (United States)
Sponsoring Org:
USDOE
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
70 PLASMA PHYSICS AND FUSION TECHNOLOGY
OSTI Identifier:
1399785

Hvasta, Michael George, Kolemen, Egemen, Fisher, Adam, and Ji, Hantao. Demonstrating electromagnetic control of free-surface, liquid-metal flows relevant to fusion reactors. United States: N. p., Web. doi:10.1088/1741-4326/aa9344.
Hvasta, Michael George, Kolemen, Egemen, Fisher, Adam, & Ji, Hantao. Demonstrating electromagnetic control of free-surface, liquid-metal flows relevant to fusion reactors. United States. doi:10.1088/1741-4326/aa9344.
Hvasta, Michael George, Kolemen, Egemen, Fisher, Adam, and Ji, Hantao. 2017. "Demonstrating electromagnetic control of free-surface, liquid-metal flows relevant to fusion reactors". United States. doi:10.1088/1741-4326/aa9344. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1399785.
@article{osti_1399785,
title = {Demonstrating electromagnetic control of free-surface, liquid-metal flows relevant to fusion reactors},
author = {Hvasta, Michael George and Kolemen, Egemen and Fisher, Adam and Ji, Hantao},
abstractNote = {Plasma-facing components (PFC's) made from solid materials may not be able to withstand the large heat and particle fluxes that will be produced within next-generation fusion reactors. To address the shortcomings of solid PFC's, a variety of liquid-metal (LM) PFC concepts have been proposed. Many of the suggested LM-PFC designs rely on electromagnetic restraint (Lorentz force) to keep free-surface, liquid-metal flows adhered to the interior surfaces of a fusion reactor. However, there is very little, if any, experimental data demonstrating that free-surface, LM-PFC's can actually be electromagnetically controlled. Therefore, in this study, electrical currents were injected into a free-surface liquid-metal that was flowing through a uniform magnetic field. The resultant Lorentz force generated within the liquid-metal affected the velocity and depth of the flow in a controllable manner that closely matched theoretical predictions. Furthermore, these results show the promise of electromagnetic control for LM-PFC's and suggest that electromagnetic control could be further developed to adjust liquid-metal nozzle output, prevent splashing within a tokamak, and alter heat transfer properties for a wide-range of liquid-metal systems.},
doi = {10.1088/1741-4326/aa9344},
journal = {Nuclear Fusion},
number = 1,
volume = 58,
place = {United States},
year = {2017},
month = {10}
}