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Title: High performance terahertz metasurface quantum-cascade VECSEL with an intra-cryostat cavity

A terahertz quantum-cascade (QC) vertical-external-cavity surface-emitting-laser (VECSEL) is demonstrated with over 5 mW power in continuous-wave and single-mode operation above 77 K, in combination with a near-Gaussian beam pattern with full-width half-max divergence as narrow as ~5° × 5°, with no evidence of thermal lensing. This is realized by creating an intra-cryostat VECSEL cavity to reduce the cavity loss and designing an active focusing metasurface reflector with low power dissipation for efficient heat removal. Compared with a conventional quantumcascade laser based on a metal-metal waveguide, the intra-cryostat QC-VECSEL exhibits significant improvements in both output power level and beam pattern. Also, the intra-cryostat configuration newly allows evaluation of QC-VECSEL operation vs. temperature, showing a maximum pulsed mode operating temperature of 129 K. While the threshold current density in the QC-VECSEL is worse in comparison to a conventional edge-emitting metal-metal waveguide QClaser, the beam quality, slope efficiency, maximum power, and thermal resistance are all significantly improved.
Authors:
ORCiD logo [1] ;  [1] ;  [2] ; ORCiD logo [1]
  1. Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States)
  2. Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)
Publication Date:
Report Number(s):
SAND-2017-6878J
Journal ID: ISSN 0003-6951; 654903
Grant/Contract Number:
AC04-94AL85000
Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Applied Physics Letters
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 111; Journal Issue: 10; Journal ID: ISSN 0003-6951
Publisher:
American Institute of Physics (AIP)
Research Org:
Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)
Sponsoring Org:
USDOE Office of Science (SC), Basic Energy Sciences (BES) (SC-22)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
47 OTHER INSTRUMENTATION
OSTI Identifier:
1399509

Xu, Luyao, Curwen, Christopher A., Reno, John L., and Williams, Benjamin S.. High performance terahertz metasurface quantum-cascade VECSEL with an intra-cryostat cavity. United States: N. p., Web. doi:10.1063/1.4993600.
Xu, Luyao, Curwen, Christopher A., Reno, John L., & Williams, Benjamin S.. High performance terahertz metasurface quantum-cascade VECSEL with an intra-cryostat cavity. United States. doi:10.1063/1.4993600.
Xu, Luyao, Curwen, Christopher A., Reno, John L., and Williams, Benjamin S.. 2017. "High performance terahertz metasurface quantum-cascade VECSEL with an intra-cryostat cavity". United States. doi:10.1063/1.4993600. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1399509.
@article{osti_1399509,
title = {High performance terahertz metasurface quantum-cascade VECSEL with an intra-cryostat cavity},
author = {Xu, Luyao and Curwen, Christopher A. and Reno, John L. and Williams, Benjamin S.},
abstractNote = {A terahertz quantum-cascade (QC) vertical-external-cavity surface-emitting-laser (VECSEL) is demonstrated with over 5 mW power in continuous-wave and single-mode operation above 77 K, in combination with a near-Gaussian beam pattern with full-width half-max divergence as narrow as ~5° × 5°, with no evidence of thermal lensing. This is realized by creating an intra-cryostat VECSEL cavity to reduce the cavity loss and designing an active focusing metasurface reflector with low power dissipation for efficient heat removal. Compared with a conventional quantumcascade laser based on a metal-metal waveguide, the intra-cryostat QC-VECSEL exhibits significant improvements in both output power level and beam pattern. Also, the intra-cryostat configuration newly allows evaluation of QC-VECSEL operation vs. temperature, showing a maximum pulsed mode operating temperature of 129 K. While the threshold current density in the QC-VECSEL is worse in comparison to a conventional edge-emitting metal-metal waveguide QClaser, the beam quality, slope efficiency, maximum power, and thermal resistance are all significantly improved.},
doi = {10.1063/1.4993600},
journal = {Applied Physics Letters},
number = 10,
volume = 111,
place = {United States},
year = {2017},
month = {9}
}