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Title: Guidelines for Synthesis and Processing of Two-Dimensional [2D] Titanium Carbide (Ti 3C 2T x MXene)

Two-dimensional (2D) transition metal carbides, carbonitrides, and nitrides (MXenes) were discovered in 2011. Since the original discovery, more than 20 different compositions have been synthesized by the selective etching of MAX phase and other precursors and many more theoretically predicted. They offer a variety of different properties, making the family promising candidates in a wide range of applications, such as energy storage, electromagnetic interference shielding, water purification, electrocatalysis, and medicine. These solution-processable materials have the potential to be highly scalable, deposited by spin, spray, or dip coating, painted or printed, or fabricated in a variety of ways. Due to this promise, the amount of research on MXenes has been increasing, and methods of synthesis and processing are expanding quickly. The fast evolution of the material can also be noticed in the wide range of synthesis and processing protocols that determine the yield of delamination, as well as the quality of the 2D flakes produced. Furthermore we describe the experimental methods and best practices we use to synthesize the most studied MXene, titanium carbide (Ti 3C 2T x), using different etchants and delamination methods. We also explain effects of synthesis parameters on the size and quality of Ti 3C 2T xmore » and suggest the optimal processes for the desired application.« less
Authors:
ORCiD logo [1] ; ORCiD logo [1] ; ORCiD logo [1] ;  [1] ;  [1] ;  [1] ; ORCiD logo [1]
  1. Drexel Univ., Philadelphia, PA (United States). A.J. Drexel Nanomaterials Institute and Department of Materials Science and Engineering
Publication Date:
Grant/Contract Number:
AC05-00OR22725
Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Chemistry of Materials
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 29; Journal Issue: 18; Journal ID: ISSN 0897-4756
Publisher:
American Chemical Society (ACS)
Research Org:
Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Energy Frontier Research Centers (EFRC) (United States). Fluid Interface Reactions, Structures and Transport Center (FIRST)
Sponsoring Org:
USDOE Office of Science (SC), Basic Energy Sciences (BES) (SC-22)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
36 MATERIALS SCIENCE; 37 INORGANIC, ORGANIC, PHYSICAL, AND ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY
OSTI Identifier:
1399240

Alhabeb, Mohamed, Maleski, Kathleen, Anasori, Babak, Lelyukh, Pavel, Clark, Leah, Sin, Saleesha, and Gogotsi, Yury G. Guidelines for Synthesis and Processing of Two-Dimensional [2D] Titanium Carbide (Ti3C2Tx MXene). United States: N. p., Web. doi:10.1021/acs.chemmater.7b02847.
Alhabeb, Mohamed, Maleski, Kathleen, Anasori, Babak, Lelyukh, Pavel, Clark, Leah, Sin, Saleesha, & Gogotsi, Yury G. Guidelines for Synthesis and Processing of Two-Dimensional [2D] Titanium Carbide (Ti3C2Tx MXene). United States. doi:10.1021/acs.chemmater.7b02847.
Alhabeb, Mohamed, Maleski, Kathleen, Anasori, Babak, Lelyukh, Pavel, Clark, Leah, Sin, Saleesha, and Gogotsi, Yury G. 2017. "Guidelines for Synthesis and Processing of Two-Dimensional [2D] Titanium Carbide (Ti3C2Tx MXene)". United States. doi:10.1021/acs.chemmater.7b02847. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1399240.
@article{osti_1399240,
title = {Guidelines for Synthesis and Processing of Two-Dimensional [2D] Titanium Carbide (Ti3C2Tx MXene)},
author = {Alhabeb, Mohamed and Maleski, Kathleen and Anasori, Babak and Lelyukh, Pavel and Clark, Leah and Sin, Saleesha and Gogotsi, Yury G.},
abstractNote = {Two-dimensional (2D) transition metal carbides, carbonitrides, and nitrides (MXenes) were discovered in 2011. Since the original discovery, more than 20 different compositions have been synthesized by the selective etching of MAX phase and other precursors and many more theoretically predicted. They offer a variety of different properties, making the family promising candidates in a wide range of applications, such as energy storage, electromagnetic interference shielding, water purification, electrocatalysis, and medicine. These solution-processable materials have the potential to be highly scalable, deposited by spin, spray, or dip coating, painted or printed, or fabricated in a variety of ways. Due to this promise, the amount of research on MXenes has been increasing, and methods of synthesis and processing are expanding quickly. The fast evolution of the material can also be noticed in the wide range of synthesis and processing protocols that determine the yield of delamination, as well as the quality of the 2D flakes produced. Furthermore we describe the experimental methods and best practices we use to synthesize the most studied MXene, titanium carbide (Ti3C2Tx), using different etchants and delamination methods. We also explain effects of synthesis parameters on the size and quality of Ti3C2Tx and suggest the optimal processes for the desired application.},
doi = {10.1021/acs.chemmater.7b02847},
journal = {Chemistry of Materials},
number = 18,
volume = 29,
place = {United States},
year = {2017},
month = {8}
}