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Title: Guidelines for Synthesis and Processing of Two-Dimensional [2D] Titanium Carbide (Ti3C2Tx MXene)

Abstract

Two-dimensional (2D) transition metal carbides, carbonitrides, and nitrides (MXenes) were discovered in 2011. Since the original discovery, more than 20 different compositions have been synthesized by the selective etching of MAX phase and other precursors and many more theoretically predicted. They offer a variety of different properties, making the family promising candidates in a wide range of applications, such as energy storage, electromagnetic interference shielding, water purification, electrocatalysis, and medicine. These solution-processable materials have the potential to be highly scalable, deposited by spin, spray, or dip coating, painted or printed, or fabricated in a variety of ways. Due to this promise, the amount of research on MXenes has been increasing, and methods of synthesis and processing are expanding quickly. The fast evolution of the material can also be noticed in the wide range of synthesis and processing protocols that determine the yield of delamination, as well as the quality of the 2D flakes produced. Furthermore we describe the experimental methods and best practices we use to synthesize the most studied MXene, titanium carbide (Ti3C2Tx), using different etchants and delamination methods. We also explain effects of synthesis parameters on the size and quality of Ti3C2Tx and suggest the optimal processes formore » the desired application.« less

Authors:
ORCiD logo [1]; ORCiD logo [1]; ORCiD logo [1];  [1];  [1];  [1]; ORCiD logo [1]
  1. Drexel Univ., Philadelphia, PA (United States). A.J. Drexel Nanomaterials Institute and Department of Materials Science and Engineering
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Energy Frontier Research Centers (EFRC) (United States). Fluid Interface Reactions, Structures and Transport Center (FIRST)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC), Basic Energy Sciences (BES)
OSTI Identifier:
1399240
Grant/Contract Number:  
AC05-00OR22725
Resource Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Chemistry of Materials
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 29; Journal Issue: 18; Journal ID: ISSN 0897-4756
Publisher:
American Chemical Society (ACS)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
36 MATERIALS SCIENCE; 37 INORGANIC, ORGANIC, PHYSICAL, AND ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY

Citation Formats

Alhabeb, Mohamed, Maleski, Kathleen, Anasori, Babak, Lelyukh, Pavel, Clark, Leah, Sin, Saleesha, and Gogotsi, Yury G. Guidelines for Synthesis and Processing of Two-Dimensional [2D] Titanium Carbide (Ti3C2Tx MXene). United States: N. p., 2017. Web. https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.chemmater.7b02847.
Alhabeb, Mohamed, Maleski, Kathleen, Anasori, Babak, Lelyukh, Pavel, Clark, Leah, Sin, Saleesha, & Gogotsi, Yury G. Guidelines for Synthesis and Processing of Two-Dimensional [2D] Titanium Carbide (Ti3C2Tx MXene). United States. https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.chemmater.7b02847
Alhabeb, Mohamed, Maleski, Kathleen, Anasori, Babak, Lelyukh, Pavel, Clark, Leah, Sin, Saleesha, and Gogotsi, Yury G. Fri . "Guidelines for Synthesis and Processing of Two-Dimensional [2D] Titanium Carbide (Ti3C2Tx MXene)". United States. https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.chemmater.7b02847. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1399240.
@article{osti_1399240,
title = {Guidelines for Synthesis and Processing of Two-Dimensional [2D] Titanium Carbide (Ti3C2Tx MXene)},
author = {Alhabeb, Mohamed and Maleski, Kathleen and Anasori, Babak and Lelyukh, Pavel and Clark, Leah and Sin, Saleesha and Gogotsi, Yury G.},
abstractNote = {Two-dimensional (2D) transition metal carbides, carbonitrides, and nitrides (MXenes) were discovered in 2011. Since the original discovery, more than 20 different compositions have been synthesized by the selective etching of MAX phase and other precursors and many more theoretically predicted. They offer a variety of different properties, making the family promising candidates in a wide range of applications, such as energy storage, electromagnetic interference shielding, water purification, electrocatalysis, and medicine. These solution-processable materials have the potential to be highly scalable, deposited by spin, spray, or dip coating, painted or printed, or fabricated in a variety of ways. Due to this promise, the amount of research on MXenes has been increasing, and methods of synthesis and processing are expanding quickly. The fast evolution of the material can also be noticed in the wide range of synthesis and processing protocols that determine the yield of delamination, as well as the quality of the 2D flakes produced. Furthermore we describe the experimental methods and best practices we use to synthesize the most studied MXene, titanium carbide (Ti3C2Tx), using different etchants and delamination methods. We also explain effects of synthesis parameters on the size and quality of Ti3C2Tx and suggest the optimal processes for the desired application.},
doi = {10.1021/acs.chemmater.7b02847},
journal = {Chemistry of Materials},
number = 18,
volume = 29,
place = {United States},
year = {2017},
month = {8}
}

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    Layered BiOBr/Ti3C2 MXene composite with improved visible-light photocatalytic activity
    journal, October 2018


    Fabrication of Flexible, Lightweight, Magnetic Mushroom Gills and Coral-Like MXene–Carbon Nanotube Nanocomposites for EMI Shielding Application
    journal, April 2019

    • Raagulan, Kanthasamy; Braveenth, Ramanaskanda; Ro Lee, Lee
    • Nanomaterials, Vol. 9, Issue 4
    • DOI: 10.3390/nano9040519

    Fabrication of high-performance MXene-based all-solid-state flexible microsupercapacitor based on a facile scratch method
    journal, September 2018


    A facile method for synthesizing CuS decorated Ti 3 C 2 MXene with enhanced performance for asymmetric supercapacitors
    journal, January 2019

    • Pan, Zhihu; Cao, Fa; Hu, Xing
    • Journal of Materials Chemistry A, Vol. 7, Issue 15
    • DOI: 10.1039/c9ta00085b

    Reversible Crumpling of 2D Titanium Carbide (MXene) Nanocoatings for Stretchable Electromagnetic Shielding and Wearable Wireless Communication
    journal, November 2019

    • Li, Yang; Tian, Xi; Gao, Si‐Ping
    • Advanced Functional Materials, Vol. 30, Issue 5
    • DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201907451

    Ultrahigh-flux and fouling-resistant membranes based on layered silver/MXene (Ti 3 C 2 T x ) nanosheets
    journal, January 2018

    • Pandey, Ravi P.; Rasool, Kashif; Madhavan, Vinod E.
    • Journal of Materials Chemistry A, Vol. 6, Issue 8
    • DOI: 10.1039/c7ta10888e

    Facile Solution Processing of Stable MXene Dispersions towards Conductive Composite Fibers
    journal, July 2019

    • Seyedin, Shayan; Zhang, Jizhen; Usman, Ken Aldren S.
    • Global Challenges, Vol. 3, Issue 10
    • DOI: 10.1002/gch2.201900037

    On‐Chip MXene Microsupercapacitors for AC‐Line Filtering Applications
    journal, May 2019


    Adhesion of two-dimensional titanium carbides (MXenes) and graphene to silicon
    journal, July 2019


    MXene Supported Cobalt Layered Double Hydroxide Nanocrystals: Facile Synthesis Route for a Synergistic Oxygen Evolution Reaction Electrocatalyst
    journal, September 2019

    • Benchakar, Mohamed; Bilyk, Thomas; Garnero, Cyril
    • Advanced Materials Interfaces, Vol. 6, Issue 23
    • DOI: 10.1002/admi.201901328

    An ultrahigh discharged energy density achieved in an inhomogeneous PVDF dielectric composite filled with 2D MXene nanosheets via interface engineering
    journal, January 2018

    • Feng, Yefeng; Deng, Qihuang; Peng, Cheng
    • Journal of Materials Chemistry C, Vol. 6, Issue 48
    • DOI: 10.1039/c8tc05180a

    Synthesis Protocols of the Most Common Layered Carbide and Nitride MAX Phases
    journal, January 2020


    Fluorine-free Ti 3 C 2 T x (T = O, OH) nanosheets (∼50–100 nm) for nitrogen fixation under ambient conditions
    journal, January 2019

    • Li, Tengfei; Yan, Xudong; Huang, Lujun
    • Journal of Materials Chemistry A, Vol. 7, Issue 24
    • DOI: 10.1039/c9ta03254a

    Enhanced Terahertz Shielding of MXenes with Nano-Metamaterials
    journal, January 2018

    • Choi, Geunchang; Shahzad, Faisal; Bahk, Young-Mi
    • Advanced Optical Materials, Vol. 6, Issue 5
    • DOI: 10.1002/adom.201701076

    Highly loaded MXene/carbon nanotube yarn electrodes for improved asymmetric supercapacitor performance
    journal, January 2019

    • Park, Jong Woo; Lee, Dong Yeop; Kim, Hyunsoo
    • MRS Communications, Vol. 9, Issue 01
    • DOI: 10.1557/mrc.2019.7

    2D Titanium Carbide/Reduced Graphene Oxide Heterostructures for Supercapacitor Applications
    journal, April 2018

    • Navarro-Suárez, Adriana M.; Maleski, Kathleen; Makaryan, Taron
    • Batteries & Supercaps, Vol. 1, Issue 1
    • DOI: 10.1002/batt.201800014

    Solar Photothermal Electrodes for Highly Efficient Microbial Energy Harvesting at Low Ambient Temperatures
    journal, November 2018


    Rational design of free-standing 3D porous MXene/rGO hybrid aerogels as polysulfide reservoirs for high-energy lithium–sulfur batteries
    journal, January 2019

    • Song, Jianjun; Guo, Xin; Zhang, Jinqiang
    • Journal of Materials Chemistry A, Vol. 7, Issue 11
    • DOI: 10.1039/c9ta00212j

    Electronic and Optical Properties of 2D Transition Metal Carbides and Nitrides (MXenes)
    journal, November 2018


    Pristine Titanium Carbide MXene Films with Environmentally Stable Conductivity and Superior Mechanical Strength
    journal, November 2019

    • Chen, Hongwu; Wen, Yeye; Qi, Yingyi
    • Advanced Functional Materials, Vol. 30, Issue 5
    • DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201906996

    Control of MXenes’ electronic properties through termination and intercalation
    journal, January 2019

    • Hart, James L.; Hantanasirisakul, Kanit; Lang, Andrew C.
    • Nature Communications, Vol. 10, Issue 1
    • DOI: 10.1038/s41467-018-08169-8

    Ti 2 C 3 T x nanosheets as photothermal agents for near-infrared responsive hydrogels
    journal, January 2018

    • Yang, Changyu; Xu, Danyun; Peng, WenChao
    • Nanoscale, Vol. 10, Issue 32
    • DOI: 10.1039/c8nr05301d

    Quantifying the rigidity of 2D carbides (MXenes)
    journal, January 2020

    • Hu, Tao; Yang, Jinxing; Li, Wu
    • Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics, Vol. 22, Issue 4
    • DOI: 10.1039/c9cp05412j

    Layer-by-Layer Assembly of Cross-Functional Semi-transparent MXene-Carbon Nanotubes Composite Films for Next-Generation Electromagnetic Interference Shielding
    journal, September 2018

    • Weng, Guo-Ming; Li, Jinyang; Alhabeb, Mohamed
    • Advanced Functional Materials, Vol. 28, Issue 44
    • DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201803360

    Electrochromic Effect in Titanium Carbide MXene Thin Films Produced by Dip‐Coating
    journal, February 2019

    • Salles, Pol; Pinto, David; Hantanasirisakul, Kanit
    • Advanced Functional Materials, Vol. 29, Issue 17
    • DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201809223

    Additive-free MXene inks and direct printing of micro-supercapacitors
    journal, April 2019


    High capacity silicon anodes enabled by MXene viscous aqueous ink
    journal, February 2019

    • Zhang, Chuanfang; Park, Sang-Hoon; Seral‐Ascaso, Andrés
    • Nature Communications, Vol. 10, Issue 1
    • DOI: 10.1038/s41467-019-08383-y

    Solution-processable Ti 3 C 2 T x nanosheets as an efficient hole transport layer for high-performance and stable polymer solar cells
    journal, January 2019

    • Hou, Chunli; Yu, Huangzhong; Huang, Chengwen
    • Journal of Materials Chemistry C, Vol. 7, Issue 37
    • DOI: 10.1039/c9tc03415c

    Electromagnetic Shielding by MXene-Graphene-PVDF Composite with Hydrophobic, Lightweight and Flexible Graphene Coated Fabric
    journal, September 2018

    • Raagulan, Kanthasamy; Braveenth, Ramanaskanda; Jang, Hee
    • Materials, Vol. 11, Issue 10
    • DOI: 10.3390/ma11101803

    Mechanically strong and electrically conductive multilayer MXene nanocomposites
    journal, January 2019

    • Lipton, Jason; Weng, Guo-Ming; Alhabeb, Mohamed
    • Nanoscale, Vol. 11, Issue 42
    • DOI: 10.1039/c9nr06015d

    Two‐dimensional MXenes for lithium‐sulfur batteries
    journal, January 2020

    • Zhang, Chuanfang (John); Cui, Linfan; Abdolhosseinzadeh, Sina
    • InfoMat, Vol. 2, Issue 4
    • DOI: 10.1002/inf2.12080

    Oxidation-resistant titanium carbide MXene films
    journal, January 2020

    • Lee, Yonghee; Kim, Seon Joon; Kim, Yong-Jae
    • Journal of Materials Chemistry A, Vol. 8, Issue 2
    • DOI: 10.1039/c9ta07036b

    Microsphere‐Like SiO 2 /MXene Hybrid Material Enabling High Performance Anode for Lithium Ion Batteries
    journal, December 2019


    MXene‐Reinforced Cellulose Nanofibril Inks for 3D‐Printed Smart Fibres and Textiles
    journal, October 2019

    • Cao, Wen‐Tao; Ma, Chang; Mao, Dong‐Sheng
    • Advanced Functional Materials, Vol. 29, Issue 51
    • DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201905898

    Boosting the Electrochemical Performance of Li-S Batteries with a Dual Polysulfides Confinement Strategy
    journal, September 2018


    Ultrastrong and Highly Conductive MXene‐Based Films for High‐Performance Electromagnetic Interference Shielding
    journal, November 2019

    • Liu, Ji; Liu, Zhangshuo; Zhang, Hao‐Bin
    • Advanced Electronic Materials, Vol. 6, Issue 1
    • DOI: 10.1002/aelm.201901094

    Tunable Magnetic Response in 2D Materials via Reversible Intercalation of Paramagnetic Ions
    journal, May 2019

    • Li, Kerui; Chang, Ting‐Hsiang; Xie, Qidong
    • Advanced Electronic Materials, Vol. 5, Issue 6
    • DOI: 10.1002/aelm.201900040

    2D MXenes as Perspective Immobilization Platforms for Design of Electrochemical Nanobiosensors
    journal, May 2019

    • Lorencova, Lenka; Gajdosova, Veronika; Hroncekova, Stefania
    • Electroanalysis, Vol. 31, Issue 10
    • DOI: 10.1002/elan.201900288

    3D Printing of Freestanding MXene Architectures for Current‐Collector‐Free Supercapacitors
    journal, July 2019


    Integrated MXene&CoFe 2 O 4 electrodes with multi-level interfacial architectures for synergistic lithium-ion storage
    journal, January 2019


    A flexible VOCs sensor based on a 3D Mxene framework with a high sensing performance
    journal, January 2018

    • Yuan, Wenjing; Yang, Kai; Peng, Huifen
    • Journal of Materials Chemistry A, Vol. 6, Issue 37
    • DOI: 10.1039/c8ta06928j

    Revealing the Pseudo‐Intercalation Charge Storage Mechanism of MXenes in Acidic Electrolyte
    journal, May 2019

    • Mu, Xinpeng; Wang, Dashuai; Du, Fei
    • Advanced Functional Materials, Vol. 29, Issue 29
    • DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201902953

    Knittable and Washable Multifunctional MXene‐Coated Cellulose Yarns
    journal, September 2019

    • Uzun, Simge; Seyedin, Shayan; Stoltzfus, Amy L.
    • Advanced Functional Materials, Vol. 29, Issue 45
    • DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201905015

    Surface‐Modified Metallic Ti 3 C 2 T x MXene as Electron Transport Layer for Planar Heterojunction Perovskite Solar Cells
    journal, September 2019

    • Yang, Lin; Dall'Agnese, Chunxiang; Dall'Agnese, Yohan
    • Advanced Functional Materials, Vol. 29, Issue 46
    • DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201905694

    Electromagnetic Shielding of Monolayer MXene Assemblies
    journal, January 2020


    Magazine‐Bending‐Inspired Architecting Anti‐T of MXene Flakes with Vertical Ion Transport for High‐Performance Supercapacitors
    journal, February 2019

    • Lu, Ming; Han, Wenjuan; Li, Haojie
    • Advanced Materials Interfaces, Vol. 6, Issue 8
    • DOI: 10.1002/admi.201900160

    Direct Writing of Additive-Free MXene-in-Water Ink for Electronics and Energy Storage
    journal, September 2018

    • Quain, Evan; Mathis, Tyler S.; Kurra, Narendra
    • Advanced Materials Technologies, Vol. 4, Issue 1
    • DOI: 10.1002/admt.201800256

    White Photoluminescent Ti 3 C 2 MXene Quantum Dots with Two‐Photon Fluorescence
    journal, March 2019


    All Pseudocapacitive MXene-RuO 2 Asymmetric Supercapacitors
    journal, January 2018

    • Jiang, Qiu; Kurra, Narendra; Alhabeb, Mohamed
    • Advanced Energy Materials, Vol. 8, Issue 13
    • DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201703043

    Ti 3 C 2 T x (MXene)‐Silicon Heterojunction for Efficient Photovoltaic Cells
    journal, July 2019

    • Yu, LePing; Bati, Abdulaziz S. R.; Grace, Tom S. L.
    • Advanced Energy Materials, Vol. 9, Issue 31
    • DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201901063

    Elucidating Ultrafast Molecular Permeation through Well‐Defined 2D Nanochannels of Lamellar Membranes
    journal, November 2019


    Fluorine-Free Synthesis of High-Purity Ti 3 C 2 T x (T=OH, O) via Alkali Treatment
    journal, April 2018

    • Li, Tengfei; Yao, Lulu; Liu, Qinglei
    • Angewandte Chemie International Edition, Vol. 57, Issue 21
    • DOI: 10.1002/anie.201800887

    Computationally Driven Discovery of a Family of Layered LiNiB Polymorphs
    journal, September 2019

    • Gvozdetskyi, Volodymyr; Bhaskar, Gourab; Batuk, Maria
    • Angewandte Chemie International Edition, Vol. 58, Issue 44
    • DOI: 10.1002/anie.201907499

    Electrochemical Behavior of Ti 3 C 2 T x MXene in Environmentally Friendly Methanesulfonic Acid Electrolyte
    journal, August 2019

    • Zhao, Xin; Dall'Agnese, Chunxiang; Chu, Xue‐Feng
    • ChemSusChem, Vol. 12, Issue 19
    • DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201901746

    Two‐Dimensional Electrocatalysts for Efficient Reduction of Carbon Dioxide
    journal, October 2019


    Automated Scalpel Patterning of Solution Processed Thin Films for Fabrication of Transparent MXene Microsupercapacitors
    journal, October 2018


    Flexible 3D Porous MXene Foam for High‐Performance Lithium‐Ion Batteries
    journal, October 2019


    Accordion-like Ti3C2Tx MXene nanosheets as a high-performance solid phase microextraction adsorbent for determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons using GC-MS
    journal, January 2020

    • Ghaemmaghami, Mostafa; Yamini, Yadollah; Mousavi, Kobra Zavar
    • Microchimica Acta, Vol. 187, Issue 2
    • DOI: 10.1007/s00604-020-4123-0

    Synthesis of novel nanomaterials and their application in efficient removal of radionuclides
    journal, June 2019


    Two-dimensional Ti3C2Tx@S as cathode for room temperature sodium-sulfur batteries
    journal, June 2019


    Review of MXenes as new nanomaterials for energy storage/delivery and selected environmental applications
    journal, October 2018


    Influences from solvents on charge storage in titanium carbide MXenes
    journal, March 2019


    Electrochemical etching of Ti 2 AlC to Ti 2 CT x (MXene) in low-concentration hydrochloric acid solution
    journal, January 2017

    • Sun, W.; Shah, S. A.; Chen, Y.
    • J. Mater. Chem. A, Vol. 5, Issue 41
    • DOI: 10.1039/c7ta05574a

    Effect of glycine functionalization of 2D titanium carbide (MXene) on charge storage
    journal, January 2018

    • Chen, Chi; Boota, Muhammad; Urbankowski, Patrick
    • Journal of Materials Chemistry A, Vol. 6, Issue 11
    • DOI: 10.1039/c7ta11347a

    Two-dimensional MXene-reinforced robust surface superhydrophobicity with self-cleaning and photothermal-actuating binary effects
    journal, January 2019

    • Cao, Wen-Tao; Feng, Wei; Jiang, Ying-Ying
    • Materials Horizons, Vol. 6, Issue 5
    • DOI: 10.1039/c8mh01566j

    A nanoporous MXene film enables flexible supercapacitors with high energy storage
    journal, January 2018

    • Fan, Zhimin; Wang, Youshan; Xie, Zhimin
    • Nanoscale, Vol. 10, Issue 20
    • DOI: 10.1039/c8nr01550c

    Thick and freestanding MXene/PANI pseudocapacitive electrodes with ultrahigh specific capacitance
    journal, January 2018

    • VahidMohammadi, Armin; Moncada, Jorge; Chen, Hengze
    • Journal of Materials Chemistry A, Vol. 6, Issue 44
    • DOI: 10.1039/c8ta05807e

    Metal-based nanostructured materials for advanced lithium–sulfur batteries
    journal, January 2018

    • Balach, Juan; Linnemann, Julia; Jaumann, Tony
    • Journal of Materials Chemistry A, Vol. 6, Issue 46
    • DOI: 10.1039/c8ta07220e

    Sensitive electrochemical detection of l -cysteine based on a highly stable Pd@Ti 3 C 2 T x (MXene) nanocomposite modified glassy carbon electrode
    journal, January 2019

    • Rasheed, P. Abdul; Pandey, Ravi P.; Jabbar, Khadeeja A.
    • Analytical Methods, Vol. 11, Issue 30
    • DOI: 10.1039/c9ay00912d

    Theory-guided materials design: two-dimensional MXenes in electro- and photocatalysis
    journal, January 2019

    • Handoko, Albertus D.; Steinmann, Stephan N.; Seh, Zhi Wei
    • Nanoscale Horizons, Vol. 4, Issue 4
    • DOI: 10.1039/c9nh00100j

    An investigation into the factors governing the oxidation of two-dimensional Ti 3 C 2 MXene
    journal, January 2019

    • Chae, Yoonjeong; Kim, Seon Joon; Cho, Soo-Yeon
    • Nanoscale, Vol. 11, Issue 17
    • DOI: 10.1039/c9nr00084d

    Spontaneous MXene monolayer assembly at the liquid–air interface
    journal, January 2019

    • Petukhov, D. I.; Chumakov, A. P.; Kan, A. S.
    • Nanoscale, Vol. 11, Issue 20
    • DOI: 10.1039/c9nr00525k

    MXenes with tunable work functions and their application as electron- and hole-transport materials in non-fullerene organic solar cells
    journal, January 2019

    • Yu, Zhimeng; Feng, Wei; Lu, Wanheng
    • Journal of Materials Chemistry A, Vol. 7, Issue 18
    • DOI: 10.1039/c9ta01195a

    Recent developments in emerging two-dimensional materials and their applications
    journal, January 2020

    • Khan, Karim; Tareen, Ayesha Khan; Aslam, Muhammad
    • Journal of Materials Chemistry C, Vol. 8, Issue 2
    • DOI: 10.1039/c9tc04187g

    Are MXenes suitable as cathode materials for rechargeable Mg batteries?
    journal, January 2020

    • Kaland, Henning; Hadler-Jacobsen, Jacob; Fagerli, Frode Håskjold
    • Sustainable Energy & Fuels, Vol. 4, Issue 6
    • DOI: 10.1039/d0se00087f

    Tunable dextran retention of MXene-TiO 2 mesoporous membranes by adjusting the 2D MXene content
    journal, July 2018


    Enhanced low-temperature Li-ion storage in MXene titanium carbide by surface oxygen termination
    journal, July 2019


    MXenes stretch hydrogel sensor performance to new limits
    journal, June 2018

    • Zhang, Yi-Zhou; Lee, Kang Hyuck; Anjum, Dalaver H.
    • Science Advances, Vol. 4, Issue 6
    • DOI: 10.1126/sciadv.aat0098

    2D titanium carbide (MXene) for wireless communication
    journal, September 2018


    Leaf-inspired multiresponsive MXene-based actuator for programmable smart devices
    journal, July 2019


    Review—Two-Dimensional Titanium Carbide MXenes and Their Emerging Applications as Electrochemical Sensors
    journal, January 2020

    • Yu, Tian; Breslin, Carmel B.
    • Journal of The Electrochemical Society, Vol. 167, Issue 3
    • DOI: 10.1149/2.0142003jes

    MXene molecular sieving membranes for highly efficient gas separation
    other, January 2018

    • Ding, Li; Wei, Yanying; Li, Libo
    • London : Nature Publishing Group
    • DOI: 10.15488/3192