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Title: Guidelines for Synthesis and Processing of Two-Dimensional [2D] Titanium Carbide (Ti3C2Tx MXene)

Abstract

Two-dimensional (2D) transition metal carbides, carbonitrides, and nitrides (MXenes) were discovered in 2011. Since the original discovery, more than 20 different compositions have been synthesized by the selective etching of MAX phase and other precursors and many more theoretically predicted. They offer a variety of different properties, making the family promising candidates in a wide range of applications, such as energy storage, electromagnetic interference shielding, water purification, electrocatalysis, and medicine. These solution-processable materials have the potential to be highly scalable, deposited by spin, spray, or dip coating, painted or printed, or fabricated in a variety of ways. Due to this promise, the amount of research on MXenes has been increasing, and methods of synthesis and processing are expanding quickly. The fast evolution of the material can also be noticed in the wide range of synthesis and processing protocols that determine the yield of delamination, as well as the quality of the 2D flakes produced. Furthermore we describe the experimental methods and best practices we use to synthesize the most studied MXene, titanium carbide (Ti3C2Tx), using different etchants and delamination methods. We also explain effects of synthesis parameters on the size and quality of Ti3C2Tx and suggest the optimal processes formore » the desired application.« less

Authors:
ORCiD logo [1]; ORCiD logo [1]; ORCiD logo [1];  [1];  [1];  [1]; ORCiD logo [1]
  1. Drexel Univ., Philadelphia, PA (United States). A.J. Drexel Nanomaterials Institute and Department of Materials Science and Engineering
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Energy Frontier Research Centers (EFRC) (United States). Fluid Interface Reactions, Structures and Transport Center (FIRST)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC), Basic Energy Sciences (BES)
OSTI Identifier:
1399240
Grant/Contract Number:  
AC05-00OR22725
Resource Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Chemistry of Materials
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 29; Journal Issue: 18; Journal ID: ISSN 0897-4756
Publisher:
American Chemical Society (ACS)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
36 MATERIALS SCIENCE; 37 INORGANIC, ORGANIC, PHYSICAL, AND ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY

Citation Formats

Alhabeb, Mohamed, Maleski, Kathleen, Anasori, Babak, Lelyukh, Pavel, Clark, Leah, Sin, Saleesha, and Gogotsi, Yury G. Guidelines for Synthesis and Processing of Two-Dimensional [2D] Titanium Carbide (Ti3C2Tx MXene). United States: N. p., 2017. Web. doi:10.1021/acs.chemmater.7b02847.
Alhabeb, Mohamed, Maleski, Kathleen, Anasori, Babak, Lelyukh, Pavel, Clark, Leah, Sin, Saleesha, & Gogotsi, Yury G. Guidelines for Synthesis and Processing of Two-Dimensional [2D] Titanium Carbide (Ti3C2Tx MXene). United States. https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.chemmater.7b02847
Alhabeb, Mohamed, Maleski, Kathleen, Anasori, Babak, Lelyukh, Pavel, Clark, Leah, Sin, Saleesha, and Gogotsi, Yury G. Fri . "Guidelines for Synthesis and Processing of Two-Dimensional [2D] Titanium Carbide (Ti3C2Tx MXene)". United States. https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.chemmater.7b02847. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1399240.
@article{osti_1399240,
title = {Guidelines for Synthesis and Processing of Two-Dimensional [2D] Titanium Carbide (Ti3C2Tx MXene)},
author = {Alhabeb, Mohamed and Maleski, Kathleen and Anasori, Babak and Lelyukh, Pavel and Clark, Leah and Sin, Saleesha and Gogotsi, Yury G.},
abstractNote = {Two-dimensional (2D) transition metal carbides, carbonitrides, and nitrides (MXenes) were discovered in 2011. Since the original discovery, more than 20 different compositions have been synthesized by the selective etching of MAX phase and other precursors and many more theoretically predicted. They offer a variety of different properties, making the family promising candidates in a wide range of applications, such as energy storage, electromagnetic interference shielding, water purification, electrocatalysis, and medicine. These solution-processable materials have the potential to be highly scalable, deposited by spin, spray, or dip coating, painted or printed, or fabricated in a variety of ways. Due to this promise, the amount of research on MXenes has been increasing, and methods of synthesis and processing are expanding quickly. The fast evolution of the material can also be noticed in the wide range of synthesis and processing protocols that determine the yield of delamination, as well as the quality of the 2D flakes produced. Furthermore we describe the experimental methods and best practices we use to synthesize the most studied MXene, titanium carbide (Ti3C2Tx), using different etchants and delamination methods. We also explain effects of synthesis parameters on the size and quality of Ti3C2Tx and suggest the optimal processes for the desired application.},
doi = {10.1021/acs.chemmater.7b02847},
journal = {Chemistry of Materials},
number = 18,
volume = 29,
place = {United States},
year = {2017},
month = {8}
}

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  • DOI: 10.3390/nano9040519

Fabrication of high-performance MXene-based all-solid-state flexible microsupercapacitor based on a facile scratch method
journal, September 2018


A facile method for synthesizing CuS decorated Ti 3 C 2 MXene with enhanced performance for asymmetric supercapacitors
journal, January 2019

  • Pan, Zhihu; Cao, Fa; Hu, Xing
  • Journal of Materials Chemistry A, Vol. 7, Issue 15
  • DOI: 10.1039/c9ta00085b

Reversible Crumpling of 2D Titanium Carbide (MXene) Nanocoatings for Stretchable Electromagnetic Shielding and Wearable Wireless Communication
journal, November 2019

  • Li, Yang; Tian, Xi; Gao, Si‐Ping
  • Advanced Functional Materials, Vol. 30, Issue 5
  • DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201907451

Ultrahigh-flux and fouling-resistant membranes based on layered silver/MXene (Ti 3 C 2 T x ) nanosheets
journal, January 2018

  • Pandey, Ravi P.; Rasool, Kashif; Madhavan, Vinod E.
  • Journal of Materials Chemistry A, Vol. 6, Issue 8
  • DOI: 10.1039/c7ta10888e

Facile Solution Processing of Stable MXene Dispersions towards Conductive Composite Fibers
journal, July 2019

  • Seyedin, Shayan; Zhang, Jizhen; Usman, Ken Aldren S.
  • Global Challenges, Vol. 3, Issue 10
  • DOI: 10.1002/gch2.201900037

On‐Chip MXene Microsupercapacitors for AC‐Line Filtering Applications
journal, May 2019


Adhesion of two-dimensional titanium carbides (MXenes) and graphene to silicon
journal, July 2019


MXene Supported Cobalt Layered Double Hydroxide Nanocrystals: Facile Synthesis Route for a Synergistic Oxygen Evolution Reaction Electrocatalyst
journal, September 2019

  • Benchakar, Mohamed; Bilyk, Thomas; Garnero, Cyril
  • Advanced Materials Interfaces, Vol. 6, Issue 23
  • DOI: 10.1002/admi.201901328

An ultrahigh discharged energy density achieved in an inhomogeneous PVDF dielectric composite filled with 2D MXene nanosheets via interface engineering
journal, January 2018

  • Feng, Yefeng; Deng, Qihuang; Peng, Cheng
  • Journal of Materials Chemistry C, Vol. 6, Issue 48
  • DOI: 10.1039/c8tc05180a

Synthesis Protocols of the Most Common Layered Carbide and Nitride MAX Phases
journal, January 2020


Fluorine-free Ti 3 C 2 T x (T = O, OH) nanosheets (∼50–100 nm) for nitrogen fixation under ambient conditions
journal, January 2019

  • Li, Tengfei; Yan, Xudong; Huang, Lujun
  • Journal of Materials Chemistry A, Vol. 7, Issue 24
  • DOI: 10.1039/c9ta03254a

Enhanced Terahertz Shielding of MXenes with Nano-Metamaterials
journal, January 2018

  • Choi, Geunchang; Shahzad, Faisal; Bahk, Young-Mi
  • Advanced Optical Materials, Vol. 6, Issue 5
  • DOI: 10.1002/adom.201701076

Highly loaded MXene/carbon nanotube yarn electrodes for improved asymmetric supercapacitor performance
journal, January 2019

  • Park, Jong Woo; Lee, Dong Yeop; Kim, Hyunsoo
  • MRS Communications, Vol. 9, Issue 01
  • DOI: 10.1557/mrc.2019.7

2D Titanium Carbide/Reduced Graphene Oxide Heterostructures for Supercapacitor Applications
journal, April 2018

  • Navarro-Suárez, Adriana M.; Maleski, Kathleen; Makaryan, Taron
  • Batteries & Supercaps, Vol. 1, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1002/batt.201800014

Solar Photothermal Electrodes for Highly Efficient Microbial Energy Harvesting at Low Ambient Temperatures
journal, November 2018


Rational design of free-standing 3D porous MXene/rGO hybrid aerogels as polysulfide reservoirs for high-energy lithium–sulfur batteries
journal, January 2019

  • Song, Jianjun; Guo, Xin; Zhang, Jinqiang
  • Journal of Materials Chemistry A, Vol. 7, Issue 11
  • DOI: 10.1039/c9ta00212j

Electronic and Optical Properties of 2D Transition Metal Carbides and Nitrides (MXenes)
journal, November 2018


Pristine Titanium Carbide MXene Films with Environmentally Stable Conductivity and Superior Mechanical Strength
journal, November 2019

  • Chen, Hongwu; Wen, Yeye; Qi, Yingyi
  • Advanced Functional Materials, Vol. 30, Issue 5
  • DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201906996

Control of MXenes’ electronic properties through termination and intercalation
journal, January 2019

  • Hart, James L.; Hantanasirisakul, Kanit; Lang, Andrew C.
  • Nature Communications, Vol. 10, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1038/s41467-018-08169-8

Ti 2 C 3 T x nanosheets as photothermal agents for near-infrared responsive hydrogels
journal, January 2018

  • Yang, Changyu; Xu, Danyun; Peng, WenChao
  • Nanoscale, Vol. 10, Issue 32
  • DOI: 10.1039/c8nr05301d

Quantifying the rigidity of 2D carbides (MXenes)
journal, January 2020

  • Hu, Tao; Yang, Jinxing; Li, Wu
  • Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics, Vol. 22, Issue 4
  • DOI: 10.1039/c9cp05412j

Layer-by-Layer Assembly of Cross-Functional Semi-transparent MXene-Carbon Nanotubes Composite Films for Next-Generation Electromagnetic Interference Shielding
journal, September 2018

  • Weng, Guo-Ming; Li, Jinyang; Alhabeb, Mohamed
  • Advanced Functional Materials, Vol. 28, Issue 44
  • DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201803360

Electrochromic Effect in Titanium Carbide MXene Thin Films Produced by Dip‐Coating
journal, February 2019

  • Salles, Pol; Pinto, David; Hantanasirisakul, Kanit
  • Advanced Functional Materials, Vol. 29, Issue 17
  • DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201809223

Additive-free MXene inks and direct printing of micro-supercapacitors
journal, April 2019


High capacity silicon anodes enabled by MXene viscous aqueous ink
journal, February 2019

  • Zhang, Chuanfang; Park, Sang-Hoon; Seral‐Ascaso, Andrés
  • Nature Communications, Vol. 10, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1038/s41467-019-08383-y

Solution-processable Ti 3 C 2 T x nanosheets as an efficient hole transport layer for high-performance and stable polymer solar cells
journal, January 2019

  • Hou, Chunli; Yu, Huangzhong; Huang, Chengwen
  • Journal of Materials Chemistry C, Vol. 7, Issue 37
  • DOI: 10.1039/c9tc03415c

Electromagnetic Shielding by MXene-Graphene-PVDF Composite with Hydrophobic, Lightweight and Flexible Graphene Coated Fabric
journal, September 2018

  • Raagulan, Kanthasamy; Braveenth, Ramanaskanda; Jang, Hee
  • Materials, Vol. 11, Issue 10
  • DOI: 10.3390/ma11101803

Mechanically strong and electrically conductive multilayer MXene nanocomposites
journal, January 2019

  • Lipton, Jason; Weng, Guo-Ming; Alhabeb, Mohamed
  • Nanoscale, Vol. 11, Issue 42
  • DOI: 10.1039/c9nr06015d

Two‐dimensional MXenes for lithium‐sulfur batteries
journal, January 2020

  • Zhang, Chuanfang (John); Cui, Linfan; Abdolhosseinzadeh, Sina
  • InfoMat, Vol. 2, Issue 4
  • DOI: 10.1002/inf2.12080

Oxidation-resistant titanium carbide MXene films
journal, January 2020

  • Lee, Yonghee; Kim, Seon Joon; Kim, Yong-Jae
  • Journal of Materials Chemistry A, Vol. 8, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1039/c9ta07036b

Microsphere‐Like SiO 2 /MXene Hybrid Material Enabling High Performance Anode for Lithium Ion Batteries
journal, December 2019


MXene‐Reinforced Cellulose Nanofibril Inks for 3D‐Printed Smart Fibres and Textiles
journal, October 2019

  • Cao, Wen‐Tao; Ma, Chang; Mao, Dong‐Sheng
  • Advanced Functional Materials, Vol. 29, Issue 51
  • DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201905898

Boosting the Electrochemical Performance of Li-S Batteries with a Dual Polysulfides Confinement Strategy
journal, September 2018


Ultrastrong and Highly Conductive MXene‐Based Films for High‐Performance Electromagnetic Interference Shielding
journal, November 2019

  • Liu, Ji; Liu, Zhangshuo; Zhang, Hao‐Bin
  • Advanced Electronic Materials, Vol. 6, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1002/aelm.201901094

Tunable Magnetic Response in 2D Materials via Reversible Intercalation of Paramagnetic Ions
journal, May 2019

  • Li, Kerui; Chang, Ting‐Hsiang; Xie, Qidong
  • Advanced Electronic Materials, Vol. 5, Issue 6
  • DOI: 10.1002/aelm.201900040

2D MXenes as Perspective Immobilization Platforms for Design of Electrochemical Nanobiosensors
journal, May 2019

  • Lorencova, Lenka; Gajdosova, Veronika; Hroncekova, Stefania
  • Electroanalysis, Vol. 31, Issue 10
  • DOI: 10.1002/elan.201900288

3D Printing of Freestanding MXene Architectures for Current‐Collector‐Free Supercapacitors
journal, July 2019


Integrated MXene&CoFe 2 O 4 electrodes with multi-level interfacial architectures for synergistic lithium-ion storage
journal, January 2019


A flexible VOCs sensor based on a 3D Mxene framework with a high sensing performance
journal, January 2018

  • Yuan, Wenjing; Yang, Kai; Peng, Huifen
  • Journal of Materials Chemistry A, Vol. 6, Issue 37
  • DOI: 10.1039/c8ta06928j

Revealing the Pseudo‐Intercalation Charge Storage Mechanism of MXenes in Acidic Electrolyte
journal, May 2019

  • Mu, Xinpeng; Wang, Dashuai; Du, Fei
  • Advanced Functional Materials, Vol. 29, Issue 29
  • DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201902953

Knittable and Washable Multifunctional MXene‐Coated Cellulose Yarns
journal, September 2019

  • Uzun, Simge; Seyedin, Shayan; Stoltzfus, Amy L.
  • Advanced Functional Materials, Vol. 29, Issue 45
  • DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201905015

Surface‐Modified Metallic Ti 3 C 2 T x MXene as Electron Transport Layer for Planar Heterojunction Perovskite Solar Cells
journal, September 2019

  • Yang, Lin; Dall'Agnese, Chunxiang; Dall'Agnese, Yohan
  • Advanced Functional Materials, Vol. 29, Issue 46
  • DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201905694

Electromagnetic Shielding of Monolayer MXene Assemblies
journal, January 2020


Magazine‐Bending‐Inspired Architecting Anti‐T of MXene Flakes with Vertical Ion Transport for High‐Performance Supercapacitors
journal, February 2019

  • Lu, Ming; Han, Wenjuan; Li, Haojie
  • Advanced Materials Interfaces, Vol. 6, Issue 8
  • DOI: 10.1002/admi.201900160

Direct Writing of Additive-Free MXene-in-Water Ink for Electronics and Energy Storage
journal, September 2018

  • Quain, Evan; Mathis, Tyler S.; Kurra, Narendra
  • Advanced Materials Technologies, Vol. 4, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1002/admt.201800256

White Photoluminescent Ti 3 C 2 MXene Quantum Dots with Two‐Photon Fluorescence
journal, March 2019


All Pseudocapacitive MXene-RuO 2 Asymmetric Supercapacitors
journal, January 2018

  • Jiang, Qiu; Kurra, Narendra; Alhabeb, Mohamed
  • Advanced Energy Materials, Vol. 8, Issue 13
  • DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201703043

Ti 3 C 2 T x (MXene)‐Silicon Heterojunction for Efficient Photovoltaic Cells
journal, July 2019

  • Yu, LePing; Bati, Abdulaziz S. R.; Grace, Tom S. L.
  • Advanced Energy Materials, Vol. 9, Issue 31
  • DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201901063

Elucidating Ultrafast Molecular Permeation through Well‐Defined 2D Nanochannels of Lamellar Membranes
journal, November 2019


Fluorine-Free Synthesis of High-Purity Ti 3 C 2 T x (T=OH, O) via Alkali Treatment
journal, April 2018

  • Li, Tengfei; Yao, Lulu; Liu, Qinglei
  • Angewandte Chemie International Edition, Vol. 57, Issue 21
  • DOI: 10.1002/anie.201800887

Computationally Driven Discovery of a Family of Layered LiNiB Polymorphs
journal, September 2019

  • Gvozdetskyi, Volodymyr; Bhaskar, Gourab; Batuk, Maria
  • Angewandte Chemie International Edition, Vol. 58, Issue 44
  • DOI: 10.1002/anie.201907499

Electrochemical Behavior of Ti 3 C 2 T x MXene in Environmentally Friendly Methanesulfonic Acid Electrolyte
journal, August 2019

  • Zhao, Xin; Dall'Agnese, Chunxiang; Chu, Xue‐Feng
  • ChemSusChem, Vol. 12, Issue 19
  • DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201901746

Two‐Dimensional Electrocatalysts for Efficient Reduction of Carbon Dioxide
journal, October 2019


Automated Scalpel Patterning of Solution Processed Thin Films for Fabrication of Transparent MXene Microsupercapacitors
journal, October 2018


Flexible 3D Porous MXene Foam for High‐Performance Lithium‐Ion Batteries
journal, October 2019


Accordion-like Ti3C2Tx MXene nanosheets as a high-performance solid phase microextraction adsorbent for determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons using GC-MS
journal, January 2020

  • Ghaemmaghami, Mostafa; Yamini, Yadollah; Mousavi, Kobra Zavar
  • Microchimica Acta, Vol. 187, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1007/s00604-020-4123-0

Synthesis of novel nanomaterials and their application in efficient removal of radionuclides
journal, June 2019


Two-dimensional Ti3C2Tx@S as cathode for room temperature sodium-sulfur batteries
journal, June 2019


Review of MXenes as new nanomaterials for energy storage/delivery and selected environmental applications
journal, October 2018


Influences from solvents on charge storage in titanium carbide MXenes
journal, March 2019


Electrochemical etching of Ti 2 AlC to Ti 2 CT x (MXene) in low-concentration hydrochloric acid solution
journal, January 2017

  • Sun, W.; Shah, S. A.; Chen, Y.
  • J. Mater. Chem. A, Vol. 5, Issue 41
  • DOI: 10.1039/c7ta05574a

Effect of glycine functionalization of 2D titanium carbide (MXene) on charge storage
journal, January 2018

  • Chen, Chi; Boota, Muhammad; Urbankowski, Patrick
  • Journal of Materials Chemistry A, Vol. 6, Issue 11
  • DOI: 10.1039/c7ta11347a

Two-dimensional MXene-reinforced robust surface superhydrophobicity with self-cleaning and photothermal-actuating binary effects
journal, January 2019

  • Cao, Wen-Tao; Feng, Wei; Jiang, Ying-Ying
  • Materials Horizons, Vol. 6, Issue 5
  • DOI: 10.1039/c8mh01566j

A nanoporous MXene film enables flexible supercapacitors with high energy storage
journal, January 2018

  • Fan, Zhimin; Wang, Youshan; Xie, Zhimin
  • Nanoscale, Vol. 10, Issue 20
  • DOI: 10.1039/c8nr01550c

Thick and freestanding MXene/PANI pseudocapacitive electrodes with ultrahigh specific capacitance
journal, January 2018

  • VahidMohammadi, Armin; Moncada, Jorge; Chen, Hengze
  • Journal of Materials Chemistry A, Vol. 6, Issue 44
  • DOI: 10.1039/c8ta05807e

Metal-based nanostructured materials for advanced lithium–sulfur batteries
journal, January 2018

  • Balach, Juan; Linnemann, Julia; Jaumann, Tony
  • Journal of Materials Chemistry A, Vol. 6, Issue 46
  • DOI: 10.1039/c8ta07220e

Sensitive electrochemical detection of l -cysteine based on a highly stable Pd@Ti 3 C 2 T x (MXene) nanocomposite modified glassy carbon electrode
journal, January 2019

  • Rasheed, P. Abdul; Pandey, Ravi P.; Jabbar, Khadeeja A.
  • Analytical Methods, Vol. 11, Issue 30
  • DOI: 10.1039/c9ay00912d

Theory-guided materials design: two-dimensional MXenes in electro- and photocatalysis
journal, January 2019

  • Handoko, Albertus D.; Steinmann, Stephan N.; Seh, Zhi Wei
  • Nanoscale Horizons, Vol. 4, Issue 4
  • DOI: 10.1039/c9nh00100j

An investigation into the factors governing the oxidation of two-dimensional Ti 3 C 2 MXene
journal, January 2019

  • Chae, Yoonjeong; Kim, Seon Joon; Cho, Soo-Yeon
  • Nanoscale, Vol. 11, Issue 17
  • DOI: 10.1039/c9nr00084d

Spontaneous MXene monolayer assembly at the liquid–air interface
journal, January 2019

  • Petukhov, D. I.; Chumakov, A. P.; Kan, A. S.
  • Nanoscale, Vol. 11, Issue 20
  • DOI: 10.1039/c9nr00525k

MXenes with tunable work functions and their application as electron- and hole-transport materials in non-fullerene organic solar cells
journal, January 2019

  • Yu, Zhimeng; Feng, Wei; Lu, Wanheng
  • Journal of Materials Chemistry A, Vol. 7, Issue 18
  • DOI: 10.1039/c9ta01195a

Recent developments in emerging two-dimensional materials and their applications
journal, January 2020

  • Khan, Karim; Tareen, Ayesha Khan; Aslam, Muhammad
  • Journal of Materials Chemistry C, Vol. 8, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1039/c9tc04187g

Are MXenes suitable as cathode materials for rechargeable Mg batteries?
journal, January 2020

  • Kaland, Henning; Hadler-Jacobsen, Jacob; Fagerli, Frode Håskjold
  • Sustainable Energy & Fuels, Vol. 4, Issue 6
  • DOI: 10.1039/d0se00087f

Tunable dextran retention of MXene-TiO 2 mesoporous membranes by adjusting the 2D MXene content
journal, July 2018


Enhanced low-temperature Li-ion storage in MXene titanium carbide by surface oxygen termination
journal, July 2019


MXenes stretch hydrogel sensor performance to new limits
journal, June 2018

  • Zhang, Yi-Zhou; Lee, Kang Hyuck; Anjum, Dalaver H.
  • Science Advances, Vol. 4, Issue 6
  • DOI: 10.1126/sciadv.aat0098

2D titanium carbide (MXene) for wireless communication
journal, September 2018


Leaf-inspired multiresponsive MXene-based actuator for programmable smart devices
journal, July 2019


Review—Two-Dimensional Titanium Carbide MXenes and Their Emerging Applications as Electrochemical Sensors
journal, January 2020

  • Yu, Tian; Breslin, Carmel B.
  • Journal of The Electrochemical Society, Vol. 167, Issue 3
  • DOI: 10.1149/2.0142003jes

MXene molecular sieving membranes for highly efficient gas separation
other, January 2018

  • Ding, Li; Wei, Yanying; Li, Libo
  • London : Nature Publishing Group
  • DOI: 10.15488/3192

Quantum‐Confined‐Superfluidics‐Enabled Moisture Actuation Based on Unilaterally Structured Graphene Oxide Papers
journal, June 2019


Fluoride‐Free Synthesis of Two‐Dimensional Titanium Carbide (MXene) Using A Binary Aqueous System
journal, November 2018


Highly conductive dodecaborate/MXene composites for high performance supercapacitors
journal, December 2019


Two-dimensional transition metal carbides and nitrides (MXenes) for biomedical applications
journal, January 2018

  • Huang, Kai; Li, Zhongjun; Lin, Jing
  • Chemical Society Reviews, Vol. 47, Issue 14
  • DOI: 10.1039/c7cs00838d

Inherent electrochemistry and charge transfer properties of few-layered two-dimensional Ti 3 C 2 T x MXene
journal, January 2018

  • Nayak, Pranati; Jiang, Qiu; Mohanraman, Rajeshkumar
  • Nanoscale, Vol. 10, Issue 36
  • DOI: 10.1039/c8nr01883a

Recent progress and advances in the environmental applications of MXene related materials
journal, January 2020

  • Chen, Junyu; Huang, Qiang; Huang, Hongye
  • Nanoscale, Vol. 12, Issue 6
  • DOI: 10.1039/c9nr08542d

Interaction of single- and double-stranded DNA with multilayer MXene by fluorescence spectroscopy and molecular dynamics simulations
journal, January 2019

  • Manzanares-Palenzuela, C. Lorena; Pourrahimi, Amir M.; Gonzalez-Julian, J.
  • Chemical Science, Vol. 10, Issue 43
  • DOI: 10.1039/c9sc03049b

MXenes and ultrasonication
journal, January 2019

  • Malaki, Massoud; Maleki, Aziz; Varma, Rajender S.
  • Journal of Materials Chemistry A, Vol. 7, Issue 18
  • DOI: 10.1039/c9ta01850f

Elastic properties of 2D Ti 3 C 2 T x MXene monolayers and bilayers
journal, June 2018

  • Lipatov, Alexey; Lu, Haidong; Alhabeb, Mohamed
  • Science Advances, Vol. 4, Issue 6
  • DOI: 10.1126/sciadv.aat0491

Investigation of chloride ion adsorption onto Ti 2 C MXene monolayers by first-principles calculations
journal, January 2017

  • Wang, Dashuai; Gao, Yu; Liu, Yanhui
  • Journal of Materials Chemistry A, Vol. 5, Issue 47
  • DOI: 10.1039/c7ta09057a

Two-dimensional transition metal carbide (Ti 3 C 2 T x ) as an efficient adsorbent to remove cesium (Cs + )
journal, January 2019

  • Khan, Abdul Rehman; Husnain, Syed M.; Shahzad, Faisal
  • Dalton Transactions, Vol. 48, Issue 31
  • DOI: 10.1039/c9dt01965k

Janus MXene nanosheets for macroscopic assemblies
journal, January 2020

  • Zhao, Sai; Li, Lulu; Zhang, Hao-Bin
  • Materials Chemistry Frontiers, Vol. 4, Issue 3
  • DOI: 10.1039/c9qm00681h

Saturable Absorption in 2D Ti 3 C 2 MXene Thin Films for Passive Photonic Diodes
journal, January 2018

  • Dong, Yongchang; Chertopalov, Sergii; Maleski, Kathleen
  • Advanced Materials, Vol. 30, Issue 10
  • DOI: 10.1002/adma.201705714

Fluorine-Free Synthesis of High-Purity Ti 3 C 2 T x (T=OH, O) via Alkali Treatment
journal, April 2018


Titanium Carbide (MXene) as a Current Collector for Lithium-Ion Batteries
journal, October 2018


MXene molecular sieving membranes for highly efficient gas separation
journal, January 2018


Control of MXenes’ electronic properties through termination and intercalation
journal, January 2019

  • Hart, James L.; Hantanasirisakul, Kanit; Lang, Andrew C.
  • Nature Communications, Vol. 10, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1038/s41467-018-08169-8

High capacity silicon anodes enabled by MXene viscous aqueous ink
journal, February 2019

  • Zhang, Chuanfang; Park, Sang-Hoon; Seral‐Ascaso, Andrés
  • Nature Communications, Vol. 10, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1038/s41467-019-08383-y

Additive-free MXene inks and direct printing of micro-supercapacitors
journal, April 2019


Fabrication of a Novel Antifouling Polysulfone Membrane with in Situ Embedment of Mxene Nanosheets
journal, November 2019

  • Shen, Zhen; Chen, Wei; Xu, Hang
  • International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, Vol. 16, Issue 23
  • DOI: 10.3390/ijerph16234659

Two-Dimensional Titanium Carbides (Ti3C2Tx) Functionalized by Poly(m-phenylenediamine) for Efficient Adsorption and Reduction of Hexavalent Chromium
journal, December 2019

  • Jin, Linfeng; Chai, Liyuan; Yang, Weichun
  • International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, Vol. 17, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.3390/ijerph17010167

Fabrication of Flexible, Lightweight, Magnetic Mushroom Gills and Coral-Like MXene–Carbon Nanotube Nanocomposites for EMI Shielding Application
journal, April 2019

  • Raagulan, Kanthasamy; Braveenth, Ramanaskanda; Ro Lee, Lee
  • Nanomaterials, Vol. 9, Issue 4
  • DOI: 10.3390/nano9040519