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Title: Planck intermediate results: XXXIX. The Planck list of high-redshift source candidates

The Planck mission, thanks to its large frequency range and all-sky coverage, has a unique potential for systematically detecting the brightest, and rarest, submillimetre sources on the sky, including distant objects in the high-redshift Universe traced by their dust emission. In this paper, a novel method, based on a component-separation procedure using a combination of Planck and IRAS data, has been validated and characterized on numerous simulations, and applied to select the most luminous cold submillimetre sources with spectral energy distributions peaking between 353 and 857 GHz at 5' resolution. A total of 2151 Planck high-z source candidates (the PHZ) have been detected in the cleanest 26% of the sky, with flux density at 545 GHz above 500 mJy. Embedded in the cosmic infrared background close to the confusion limit, these high-z candidates exhibit colder colours than their surroundings, consistent with redshifts z > 2, assuming a dust temperature of T xgal = 35 K and a spectral index of β xgal = 1.5. Exhibiting extremely high luminosities, larger than 10 14L , the PHZ objects may be made of multiple galaxies or clumps at high redshift, as suggested by a first statistical analysis based on a comparison with numbermore » count models. Furthermore, first follow-up observations obtained from optical to submillimetre wavelengths, which can be found in companion papers, have confirmed that this list consists of two distinct populations. A small fraction (around 3%) of the sources have been identified as strongly gravitationally lensed star-forming galaxies at redshift 2 to 4, while the vast majority of the PHZ sources appear as overdensities of dusty star-forming galaxies, having colours consistent with being at z > 2, and may be considered as proto-cluster candidates. The PHZ provides an original sample, which is complementary to the Planck Sunyaev-Zeldovich Catalogue (PSZ2); by extending the population of virialized massive galaxy clusters detected below z < 1.5 through their SZ signal to a population of sources at z > 1.5, the PHZ may contain the progenitors of today’s clusters. Therefore the Planck list of high-redshift source candidates opens a new window on the study of the early stages of structure formation, particularly understanding the intensively star-forming phase at high-z.« less
Authors:
; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; more »; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; « less
Publication Date:
Grant/Contract Number:
AC02-05CH11231
Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Astronomy and Astrophysics
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 596; Journal ID: ISSN 0004-6361
Publisher:
EDP Sciences
Research Org:
Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)
Sponsoring Org:
USDOE Office of Science (SC)
Contributing Orgs:
Planck Collaboration
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
79 ASTRONOMY AND ASTROPHYSICS; catalogs; submillimeter; galaxies; high-redshift; clusters; large-scale structure of Universe
OSTI Identifier:
1398454

Ade, P. A. R., Aghanim, N., Arnaud, M., Aumont, J., Baccigalupi, C., Banday, A. J., Barreiro, R. B., Bartolo, N., Battaner, E., Benabed, K., Benoit-Lévy, A., Bernard, J. -P., Bersanelli, M., Bielewicz, P., Bonaldi, A., Bonavera, L., Bond, J. R., Borrill, J., Bouchet, F. R., Boulanger, F., Burigana, C., Butler, R. C., Calabrese, E., Catalano, A., Chiang, H. C., Christensen, P. R., Clements, D. L., Colombo, L. P. L., Couchot, F., Coulais, A., Crill, B. P., Curto, A., Cuttaia, F., Danese, L., Davies, R. D., Davis, R. J., de Bernardis, P., de Rosa, A., de Zotti, G., Delabrouille, J., Dickinson, C., Diego, J. M., Dole, H., Doré, O., Douspis, M., Ducout, A., Dupac, X., Elsner, F., Enßlin, T. A., Eriksen, H. K., Falgarone, E., Finelli, F., Flores-Cacho, I., Frailis, M., Fraisse, A. A., Franceschi, E., Galeotta, S., Galli, S., Ganga, K., Giard, M., Giraud-Héraud, Y., Gjerløw, E., González-Nuevo, J., Górski, K. M., Gregorio, A., Gruppuso, A., Gudmundsson, J. E., Hansen, F. K., Harrison, D. L., Helou, G., Hernández-Monteagudo, C., Herranz, D., Hildebrandt, S. R., Hivon, E., Hobson, M., Hornstrup, A., Hovest, W., Huffenberger, K. M., Hurier, G., Jaffe, A. H., Jaffe, T. R., Keihänen, E., Keskitalo, R., Kisner, T. S., Kneissl, R., Knoche, J., Kunz, M., Kurki-Suonio, H., Lagache, G., Lamarre, J. -M., Lasenby, A., Lattanzi, M., Lawrence, C. R., Leonardi, R., Levrier, F., Liguori, M., Lilje, P. B., Linden-Vørnle, M., López-Caniego, M., Lubin, P. M., Macías-Pérez, J. F., Maffei, B., Maggio, G., Maino, D., Mandolesi, N., Mangilli, A., Maris, M., Martin, P. G., Martínez-González, E., Masi, S., Matarrese, S., Melchiorri, A., Mennella, A., Migliaccio, M., Mitra, S., Miville-Deschênes, M. -A., Moneti, A., Montier, L., Morgante, G., Mortlock, D., Munshi, D., Murphy, J. A., Nati, F., Natoli, P., Nesvadba, N. P. H., Noviello, F., Novikov, D., Novikov, I., Oxborrow, C. A., Pagano, L., Pajot, F., Paoletti, D., Partridge, B., Pasian, F., Pearson, T. J., Perdereau, O., Perotto, L., Pettorino, V., Piacentini, F., Piat, M., Plaszczynski, S., Pointecouteau, E., Polenta, G., Pratt, G. W., Prunet, S., Puget, J. -L., Rachen, J. P., Reinecke, M., Remazeilles, M., Renault, C., Renzi, A., Ristorcelli, I., Rocha, G., Rosset, C., Rossetti, M., Roudier, G., Rubiño-Martín, J. A., Rusholme, B., Sandri, M., Santos, D., Savelainen, M., Savini, G., Scott, D., Spencer, L. D., Stolyarov, V., Stompor, R., Sudiwala, R., Sunyaev, R., Suur-Uski, A. -S., Sygnet, J. -F., Tauber, J. A., Terenzi, L., Toffolatti, L., Tomasi, M., Tristram, M., Tucci, M., Türler, M., Umana, G., Valenziano, L., Valiviita, J., Van Tent, F., Vielva, P., Villa, F., Wade, L. A., Wandelt, B. D., Wehus, I. K., Welikala, N., Yvon, D., Zacchei, A., and Zonca, A.. Planck intermediate results: XXXIX. The Planck list of high-redshift source candidates. United States: N. p., Web. doi:10.1051/0004-6361/201527206.
Ade, P. A. R., Aghanim, N., Arnaud, M., Aumont, J., Baccigalupi, C., Banday, A. J., Barreiro, R. B., Bartolo, N., Battaner, E., Benabed, K., Benoit-Lévy, A., Bernard, J. -P., Bersanelli, M., Bielewicz, P., Bonaldi, A., Bonavera, L., Bond, J. R., Borrill, J., Bouchet, F. R., Boulanger, F., Burigana, C., Butler, R. C., Calabrese, E., Catalano, A., Chiang, H. C., Christensen, P. R., Clements, D. L., Colombo, L. P. L., Couchot, F., Coulais, A., Crill, B. P., Curto, A., Cuttaia, F., Danese, L., Davies, R. D., Davis, R. J., de Bernardis, P., de Rosa, A., de Zotti, G., Delabrouille, J., Dickinson, C., Diego, J. M., Dole, H., Doré, O., Douspis, M., Ducout, A., Dupac, X., Elsner, F., Enßlin, T. A., Eriksen, H. K., Falgarone, E., Finelli, F., Flores-Cacho, I., Frailis, M., Fraisse, A. A., Franceschi, E., Galeotta, S., Galli, S., Ganga, K., Giard, M., Giraud-Héraud, Y., Gjerløw, E., González-Nuevo, J., Górski, K. M., Gregorio, A., Gruppuso, A., Gudmundsson, J. E., Hansen, F. K., Harrison, D. L., Helou, G., Hernández-Monteagudo, C., Herranz, D., Hildebrandt, S. R., Hivon, E., Hobson, M., Hornstrup, A., Hovest, W., Huffenberger, K. M., Hurier, G., Jaffe, A. H., Jaffe, T. R., Keihänen, E., Keskitalo, R., Kisner, T. S., Kneissl, R., Knoche, J., Kunz, M., Kurki-Suonio, H., Lagache, G., Lamarre, J. -M., Lasenby, A., Lattanzi, M., Lawrence, C. R., Leonardi, R., Levrier, F., Liguori, M., Lilje, P. B., Linden-Vørnle, M., López-Caniego, M., Lubin, P. M., Macías-Pérez, J. F., Maffei, B., Maggio, G., Maino, D., Mandolesi, N., Mangilli, A., Maris, M., Martin, P. G., Martínez-González, E., Masi, S., Matarrese, S., Melchiorri, A., Mennella, A., Migliaccio, M., Mitra, S., Miville-Deschênes, M. -A., Moneti, A., Montier, L., Morgante, G., Mortlock, D., Munshi, D., Murphy, J. A., Nati, F., Natoli, P., Nesvadba, N. P. H., Noviello, F., Novikov, D., Novikov, I., Oxborrow, C. A., Pagano, L., Pajot, F., Paoletti, D., Partridge, B., Pasian, F., Pearson, T. J., Perdereau, O., Perotto, L., Pettorino, V., Piacentini, F., Piat, M., Plaszczynski, S., Pointecouteau, E., Polenta, G., Pratt, G. W., Prunet, S., Puget, J. -L., Rachen, J. P., Reinecke, M., Remazeilles, M., Renault, C., Renzi, A., Ristorcelli, I., Rocha, G., Rosset, C., Rossetti, M., Roudier, G., Rubiño-Martín, J. A., Rusholme, B., Sandri, M., Santos, D., Savelainen, M., Savini, G., Scott, D., Spencer, L. D., Stolyarov, V., Stompor, R., Sudiwala, R., Sunyaev, R., Suur-Uski, A. -S., Sygnet, J. -F., Tauber, J. A., Terenzi, L., Toffolatti, L., Tomasi, M., Tristram, M., Tucci, M., Türler, M., Umana, G., Valenziano, L., Valiviita, J., Van Tent, F., Vielva, P., Villa, F., Wade, L. A., Wandelt, B. D., Wehus, I. K., Welikala, N., Yvon, D., Zacchei, A., & Zonca, A.. Planck intermediate results: XXXIX. The Planck list of high-redshift source candidates. United States. doi:10.1051/0004-6361/201527206.
Ade, P. A. R., Aghanim, N., Arnaud, M., Aumont, J., Baccigalupi, C., Banday, A. J., Barreiro, R. B., Bartolo, N., Battaner, E., Benabed, K., Benoit-Lévy, A., Bernard, J. -P., Bersanelli, M., Bielewicz, P., Bonaldi, A., Bonavera, L., Bond, J. R., Borrill, J., Bouchet, F. R., Boulanger, F., Burigana, C., Butler, R. C., Calabrese, E., Catalano, A., Chiang, H. C., Christensen, P. R., Clements, D. L., Colombo, L. P. L., Couchot, F., Coulais, A., Crill, B. P., Curto, A., Cuttaia, F., Danese, L., Davies, R. D., Davis, R. J., de Bernardis, P., de Rosa, A., de Zotti, G., Delabrouille, J., Dickinson, C., Diego, J. M., Dole, H., Doré, O., Douspis, M., Ducout, A., Dupac, X., Elsner, F., Enßlin, T. A., Eriksen, H. K., Falgarone, E., Finelli, F., Flores-Cacho, I., Frailis, M., Fraisse, A. A., Franceschi, E., Galeotta, S., Galli, S., Ganga, K., Giard, M., Giraud-Héraud, Y., Gjerløw, E., González-Nuevo, J., Górski, K. M., Gregorio, A., Gruppuso, A., Gudmundsson, J. E., Hansen, F. K., Harrison, D. L., Helou, G., Hernández-Monteagudo, C., Herranz, D., Hildebrandt, S. R., Hivon, E., Hobson, M., Hornstrup, A., Hovest, W., Huffenberger, K. M., Hurier, G., Jaffe, A. H., Jaffe, T. R., Keihänen, E., Keskitalo, R., Kisner, T. S., Kneissl, R., Knoche, J., Kunz, M., Kurki-Suonio, H., Lagache, G., Lamarre, J. -M., Lasenby, A., Lattanzi, M., Lawrence, C. R., Leonardi, R., Levrier, F., Liguori, M., Lilje, P. B., Linden-Vørnle, M., López-Caniego, M., Lubin, P. M., Macías-Pérez, J. F., Maffei, B., Maggio, G., Maino, D., Mandolesi, N., Mangilli, A., Maris, M., Martin, P. G., Martínez-González, E., Masi, S., Matarrese, S., Melchiorri, A., Mennella, A., Migliaccio, M., Mitra, S., Miville-Deschênes, M. -A., Moneti, A., Montier, L., Morgante, G., Mortlock, D., Munshi, D., Murphy, J. A., Nati, F., Natoli, P., Nesvadba, N. P. H., Noviello, F., Novikov, D., Novikov, I., Oxborrow, C. A., Pagano, L., Pajot, F., Paoletti, D., Partridge, B., Pasian, F., Pearson, T. J., Perdereau, O., Perotto, L., Pettorino, V., Piacentini, F., Piat, M., Plaszczynski, S., Pointecouteau, E., Polenta, G., Pratt, G. W., Prunet, S., Puget, J. -L., Rachen, J. P., Reinecke, M., Remazeilles, M., Renault, C., Renzi, A., Ristorcelli, I., Rocha, G., Rosset, C., Rossetti, M., Roudier, G., Rubiño-Martín, J. A., Rusholme, B., Sandri, M., Santos, D., Savelainen, M., Savini, G., Scott, D., Spencer, L. D., Stolyarov, V., Stompor, R., Sudiwala, R., Sunyaev, R., Suur-Uski, A. -S., Sygnet, J. -F., Tauber, J. A., Terenzi, L., Toffolatti, L., Tomasi, M., Tristram, M., Tucci, M., Türler, M., Umana, G., Valenziano, L., Valiviita, J., Van Tent, F., Vielva, P., Villa, F., Wade, L. A., Wandelt, B. D., Wehus, I. K., Welikala, N., Yvon, D., Zacchei, A., and Zonca, A.. 2016. "Planck intermediate results: XXXIX. The Planck list of high-redshift source candidates". United States. doi:10.1051/0004-6361/201527206. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1398454.
@article{osti_1398454,
title = {Planck intermediate results: XXXIX. The Planck list of high-redshift source candidates},
author = {Ade, P. A. R. and Aghanim, N. and Arnaud, M. and Aumont, J. and Baccigalupi, C. and Banday, A. J. and Barreiro, R. B. and Bartolo, N. and Battaner, E. and Benabed, K. and Benoit-Lévy, A. and Bernard, J. -P. and Bersanelli, M. and Bielewicz, P. and Bonaldi, A. and Bonavera, L. and Bond, J. R. and Borrill, J. and Bouchet, F. R. and Boulanger, F. and Burigana, C. and Butler, R. C. and Calabrese, E. and Catalano, A. and Chiang, H. C. and Christensen, P. R. and Clements, D. L. and Colombo, L. P. L. and Couchot, F. and Coulais, A. and Crill, B. P. and Curto, A. and Cuttaia, F. and Danese, L. and Davies, R. D. and Davis, R. J. and de Bernardis, P. and de Rosa, A. and de Zotti, G. and Delabrouille, J. and Dickinson, C. and Diego, J. M. and Dole, H. and Doré, O. and Douspis, M. and Ducout, A. and Dupac, X. and Elsner, F. and Enßlin, T. A. and Eriksen, H. K. and Falgarone, E. and Finelli, F. and Flores-Cacho, I. and Frailis, M. and Fraisse, A. A. and Franceschi, E. and Galeotta, S. and Galli, S. and Ganga, K. and Giard, M. and Giraud-Héraud, Y. and Gjerløw, E. and González-Nuevo, J. and Górski, K. M. and Gregorio, A. and Gruppuso, A. and Gudmundsson, J. E. and Hansen, F. K. and Harrison, D. L. and Helou, G. and Hernández-Monteagudo, C. and Herranz, D. and Hildebrandt, S. R. and Hivon, E. and Hobson, M. and Hornstrup, A. and Hovest, W. and Huffenberger, K. M. and Hurier, G. and Jaffe, A. H. and Jaffe, T. R. and Keihänen, E. and Keskitalo, R. and Kisner, T. S. and Kneissl, R. and Knoche, J. and Kunz, M. and Kurki-Suonio, H. and Lagache, G. and Lamarre, J. -M. and Lasenby, A. and Lattanzi, M. and Lawrence, C. R. and Leonardi, R. and Levrier, F. and Liguori, M. and Lilje, P. B. and Linden-Vørnle, M. and López-Caniego, M. and Lubin, P. M. and Macías-Pérez, J. F. and Maffei, B. and Maggio, G. and Maino, D. and Mandolesi, N. and Mangilli, A. and Maris, M. and Martin, P. G. and Martínez-González, E. and Masi, S. and Matarrese, S. and Melchiorri, A. and Mennella, A. and Migliaccio, M. and Mitra, S. and Miville-Deschênes, M. -A. and Moneti, A. and Montier, L. and Morgante, G. and Mortlock, D. and Munshi, D. and Murphy, J. A. and Nati, F. and Natoli, P. and Nesvadba, N. P. H. and Noviello, F. and Novikov, D. and Novikov, I. and Oxborrow, C. A. and Pagano, L. and Pajot, F. and Paoletti, D. and Partridge, B. and Pasian, F. and Pearson, T. J. and Perdereau, O. and Perotto, L. and Pettorino, V. and Piacentini, F. and Piat, M. and Plaszczynski, S. and Pointecouteau, E. and Polenta, G. and Pratt, G. W. and Prunet, S. and Puget, J. -L. and Rachen, J. P. and Reinecke, M. and Remazeilles, M. and Renault, C. and Renzi, A. and Ristorcelli, I. and Rocha, G. and Rosset, C. and Rossetti, M. and Roudier, G. and Rubiño-Martín, J. A. and Rusholme, B. and Sandri, M. and Santos, D. and Savelainen, M. and Savini, G. and Scott, D. and Spencer, L. D. and Stolyarov, V. and Stompor, R. and Sudiwala, R. and Sunyaev, R. and Suur-Uski, A. -S. and Sygnet, J. -F. and Tauber, J. A. and Terenzi, L. and Toffolatti, L. and Tomasi, M. and Tristram, M. and Tucci, M. and Türler, M. and Umana, G. and Valenziano, L. and Valiviita, J. and Van Tent, F. and Vielva, P. and Villa, F. and Wade, L. A. and Wandelt, B. D. and Wehus, I. K. and Welikala, N. and Yvon, D. and Zacchei, A. and Zonca, A.},
abstractNote = {The Planck mission, thanks to its large frequency range and all-sky coverage, has a unique potential for systematically detecting the brightest, and rarest, submillimetre sources on the sky, including distant objects in the high-redshift Universe traced by their dust emission. In this paper, a novel method, based on a component-separation procedure using a combination of Planck and IRAS data, has been validated and characterized on numerous simulations, and applied to select the most luminous cold submillimetre sources with spectral energy distributions peaking between 353 and 857 GHz at 5' resolution. A total of 2151 Planck high-z source candidates (the PHZ) have been detected in the cleanest 26% of the sky, with flux density at 545 GHz above 500 mJy. Embedded in the cosmic infrared background close to the confusion limit, these high-z candidates exhibit colder colours than their surroundings, consistent with redshifts z > 2, assuming a dust temperature of Txgal = 35 K and a spectral index of βxgal = 1.5. Exhibiting extremely high luminosities, larger than 1014L⊙, the PHZ objects may be made of multiple galaxies or clumps at high redshift, as suggested by a first statistical analysis based on a comparison with number count models. Furthermore, first follow-up observations obtained from optical to submillimetre wavelengths, which can be found in companion papers, have confirmed that this list consists of two distinct populations. A small fraction (around 3%) of the sources have been identified as strongly gravitationally lensed star-forming galaxies at redshift 2 to 4, while the vast majority of the PHZ sources appear as overdensities of dusty star-forming galaxies, having colours consistent with being at z > 2, and may be considered as proto-cluster candidates. The PHZ provides an original sample, which is complementary to the Planck Sunyaev-Zeldovich Catalogue (PSZ2); by extending the population of virialized massive galaxy clusters detected below z < 1.5 through their SZ signal to a population of sources at z > 1.5, the PHZ may contain the progenitors of today’s clusters. Therefore the Planck list of high-redshift source candidates opens a new window on the study of the early stages of structure formation, particularly understanding the intensively star-forming phase at high-z.},
doi = {10.1051/0004-6361/201527206},
journal = {Astronomy and Astrophysics},
number = ,
volume = 596,
place = {United States},
year = {2016},
month = {12}
}