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Title: Planck intermediate results: XL. The Sunyaev-Zeldovich signal from the Virgo cluster

The Virgo cluster is the largest Sunyaev-Zeldovich (SZ) source in the sky, both in terms of angular size and total integrated flux. Planck’s wide angular scale and frequency coverage, together with its high sensitivity, enable a detailed study of this big object through the SZ effect. Virgo is well resolved by Planck, showing an elongated structure that correlates well with the morphology observed from X-rays, but extends beyond the observed X-ray signal. We find good agreement between the SZ signal (or Compton parameter, y c) observed by Planck and the expected signal inferred from X-ray observations and simple analytical models. Owing to its proximity to us, the gas beyond the virial radius in Virgo can be studied with unprecedented sensitivity by integrating the SZ signal over tens of square degrees. In this paper, we study the signal in the outskirts of Virgo and compare it with analytical models and a constrained simulation of the environment of Virgo. Planck data suggest that significant amounts of low-density plasma surround Virgo, out to twice the virial radius. We find the SZ signal in the outskirts of Virgo to be consistent with a simple model that extrapolates the inferred pressure at lower radii, whilemore » assuming that the temperature stays in the keV range beyond the virial radius. The observed signal is also consistent with simulations and points to a shallow pressure profile in the outskirts of the cluster. This reservoir of gas at large radii can be linked with the hottest phase of the elusivewarm/hot intergalactic medium. Taking the lack of symmetry of Virgo into account, we find that a prolate model is favoured by the combination of SZ and X-ray data, in agreement with predictions. In conclusion, based on the combination of the same SZ and X-ray data, we constrain the total amount of gas in Virgo. Under the hypothesis that the abundance of baryons in Virgo is representative of the cosmic average, we also infer a distance for Virgo of approximately 18 Mpc, in good agreement with previous estimates.« less
Authors:
; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; more »; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; « less
Publication Date:
Grant/Contract Number:
AC02-05CH11231
Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Astronomy and Astrophysics
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 596; Journal ID: ISSN 0004-6361
Publisher:
EDP Sciences
Research Org:
Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)
Sponsoring Org:
USDOE Office of Science (SC)
Contributing Orgs:
Planck Collaboration
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
79 ASTRONOMY AND ASTROPHYSICS; ISM; galaxies; Virgo cluster; intracluster medium; cosmic background radiation; large-scale structure of Universe
OSTI Identifier:
1398448

Ade, P. A. R., Aghanim, N., Arnaud, M., Ashdown, M., Aumont, J., Baccigalupi, C., Banday, A. J., Barreiro, R. B., Bartolo, N., Battaner, E., Benabed, K., Benoit-Lévy, A., Bernard, J. -P., Bersanelli, M., Bielewicz, P., Bonaldi, A., Bonavera, L., Bond, J. R., Borrill, J., Bouchet, F. R., Burigana, C., Butler, R. C., Calabrese, E., Cardoso, J. -F., Catalano, A., Chamballu, A., Chiang, H. C., Christensen, P. R., Churazov, E., Clements, D. L., Colombo, L. P. L., Combet, C., Comis, B., Couchot, F., Coulais, A., Crill, B. P., Curto, A., Cuttaia, F., Danese, L., Davies, R. D., Davis, R. J., de Bernardis, P., de Rosa, A., de Zotti, G., Delabrouille, J., Dickinson, C., Diego, J. M., Dolag, K., Dole, H., Donzelli, S., Doré, O., Douspis, M., Ducout, A., Dupac, X., Efstathiou, G., Elsner, F., Enßlin, T. A., Eriksen, H. K., Finelli, F., Forni, O., Frailis, M., Fraisse, A. A., Franceschi, E., Galeotta, S., Galli, S., Ganga, K., Giard, M., Giraud-Héraud, Y., Gjerløw, E., González-Nuevo, J., Górski, K. M., Gregorio, A., Gruppuso, A., Gudmundsson, J. E., Hansen, F. K., Harrison, D. L., Helou, G., Hernández-Monteagudo, C., Herranz, D., Hildebrandt, S. R., Hivon, E., Hobson, M., Hornstrup, A., Hovest, W., Huffenberger, K. M., Hurier, G., Jaffe, A. H., Jaffe, T. R., Jones, W. C., Keihänen, E., Keskitalo, R., Kisner, T. S., Kneissl, R., Knoche, J., Kunz, M., Kurki-Suonio, H., Lagache, G., Lamarre, J. -M., Lasenby, A., Lattanzi, M., Lawrence, C. R., Leonardi, R., Levrier, F., Liguori, M., Lilje, P. B., Linden-Vørnle, M., López-Caniego, M., Lubin, P. M., Macías-Pérez, J. F., Maffei, B., Maggio, G., Maino, D., Mandolesi, N., Mangilli, A., Marcos-Caballero, A., Maris, M., Martin, P. G., Martínez-González, E., Masi, S., Matarrese, S., Mazzotta, P., Meinhold, P. R., Melchiorri, A., Mennella, A., Migliaccio, M., Mitra, S., Miville-Deschênes, M. -A., Moneti, A., Montier, L., Morgante, G., Mortlock, D., Munshi, D., Murphy, J. A., Naselsky, P., Nati, F., Natoli, P., Noviello, F., Novikov, D., Novikov, I., Oppermann, N., Oxborrow, C. A., Pagano, L., Pajot, F., Paoletti, D., Pasian, F., Pearson, T. J., Perdereau, O., Perotto, L., Pettorino, V., Piacentini, F., Piat, M., Pierpaoli, E., Plaszczynski, S., Pointecouteau, E., Polenta, G., Ponthieu, N., Pratt, G. W., Prunet, S., Puget, J. -L., Rachen, J. P., Reinecke, M., Remazeilles, M., Renault, C., Renzi, A., Ristorcelli, I., Rocha, G., Rosset, C., Rossetti, M., Roudier, G., Rubiño-Martín, J. A., Rusholme, B., Sandri, M., Santos, D., Savelainen, M., Savini, G., Schaefer, B. M., Scott, D., Soler, J. D., Stolyarov, V., Stompor, R., Sudiwala, R., Sunyaev, R., Sutton, D., Suur-Uski, A. -S., Sygnet, J. -F., Tauber, J. A., Terenzi, L., Toffolatti, L., Tomasi, M., Tristram, M., Tucci, M., Umana, G., Valenziano, L., Valiviita, J., Van Tent, B., Vielva, P., Villa, F., Wade, L. A., Wandelt, B. D., Wehus, I. K., Weller, J., Yvon, D., Zacchei, A., and Zonca, A.. Planck intermediate results: XL. The Sunyaev-Zeldovich signal from the Virgo cluster. United States: N. p., Web. doi:10.1051/0004-6361/201527743.
Ade, P. A. R., Aghanim, N., Arnaud, M., Ashdown, M., Aumont, J., Baccigalupi, C., Banday, A. J., Barreiro, R. B., Bartolo, N., Battaner, E., Benabed, K., Benoit-Lévy, A., Bernard, J. -P., Bersanelli, M., Bielewicz, P., Bonaldi, A., Bonavera, L., Bond, J. R., Borrill, J., Bouchet, F. R., Burigana, C., Butler, R. C., Calabrese, E., Cardoso, J. -F., Catalano, A., Chamballu, A., Chiang, H. C., Christensen, P. R., Churazov, E., Clements, D. L., Colombo, L. P. L., Combet, C., Comis, B., Couchot, F., Coulais, A., Crill, B. P., Curto, A., Cuttaia, F., Danese, L., Davies, R. D., Davis, R. J., de Bernardis, P., de Rosa, A., de Zotti, G., Delabrouille, J., Dickinson, C., Diego, J. M., Dolag, K., Dole, H., Donzelli, S., Doré, O., Douspis, M., Ducout, A., Dupac, X., Efstathiou, G., Elsner, F., Enßlin, T. A., Eriksen, H. K., Finelli, F., Forni, O., Frailis, M., Fraisse, A. A., Franceschi, E., Galeotta, S., Galli, S., Ganga, K., Giard, M., Giraud-Héraud, Y., Gjerløw, E., González-Nuevo, J., Górski, K. M., Gregorio, A., Gruppuso, A., Gudmundsson, J. E., Hansen, F. K., Harrison, D. L., Helou, G., Hernández-Monteagudo, C., Herranz, D., Hildebrandt, S. R., Hivon, E., Hobson, M., Hornstrup, A., Hovest, W., Huffenberger, K. M., Hurier, G., Jaffe, A. H., Jaffe, T. R., Jones, W. C., Keihänen, E., Keskitalo, R., Kisner, T. S., Kneissl, R., Knoche, J., Kunz, M., Kurki-Suonio, H., Lagache, G., Lamarre, J. -M., Lasenby, A., Lattanzi, M., Lawrence, C. R., Leonardi, R., Levrier, F., Liguori, M., Lilje, P. B., Linden-Vørnle, M., López-Caniego, M., Lubin, P. M., Macías-Pérez, J. F., Maffei, B., Maggio, G., Maino, D., Mandolesi, N., Mangilli, A., Marcos-Caballero, A., Maris, M., Martin, P. G., Martínez-González, E., Masi, S., Matarrese, S., Mazzotta, P., Meinhold, P. R., Melchiorri, A., Mennella, A., Migliaccio, M., Mitra, S., Miville-Deschênes, M. -A., Moneti, A., Montier, L., Morgante, G., Mortlock, D., Munshi, D., Murphy, J. A., Naselsky, P., Nati, F., Natoli, P., Noviello, F., Novikov, D., Novikov, I., Oppermann, N., Oxborrow, C. A., Pagano, L., Pajot, F., Paoletti, D., Pasian, F., Pearson, T. J., Perdereau, O., Perotto, L., Pettorino, V., Piacentini, F., Piat, M., Pierpaoli, E., Plaszczynski, S., Pointecouteau, E., Polenta, G., Ponthieu, N., Pratt, G. W., Prunet, S., Puget, J. -L., Rachen, J. P., Reinecke, M., Remazeilles, M., Renault, C., Renzi, A., Ristorcelli, I., Rocha, G., Rosset, C., Rossetti, M., Roudier, G., Rubiño-Martín, J. A., Rusholme, B., Sandri, M., Santos, D., Savelainen, M., Savini, G., Schaefer, B. M., Scott, D., Soler, J. D., Stolyarov, V., Stompor, R., Sudiwala, R., Sunyaev, R., Sutton, D., Suur-Uski, A. -S., Sygnet, J. -F., Tauber, J. A., Terenzi, L., Toffolatti, L., Tomasi, M., Tristram, M., Tucci, M., Umana, G., Valenziano, L., Valiviita, J., Van Tent, B., Vielva, P., Villa, F., Wade, L. A., Wandelt, B. D., Wehus, I. K., Weller, J., Yvon, D., Zacchei, A., & Zonca, A.. Planck intermediate results: XL. The Sunyaev-Zeldovich signal from the Virgo cluster. United States. doi:10.1051/0004-6361/201527743.
Ade, P. A. R., Aghanim, N., Arnaud, M., Ashdown, M., Aumont, J., Baccigalupi, C., Banday, A. J., Barreiro, R. B., Bartolo, N., Battaner, E., Benabed, K., Benoit-Lévy, A., Bernard, J. -P., Bersanelli, M., Bielewicz, P., Bonaldi, A., Bonavera, L., Bond, J. R., Borrill, J., Bouchet, F. R., Burigana, C., Butler, R. C., Calabrese, E., Cardoso, J. -F., Catalano, A., Chamballu, A., Chiang, H. C., Christensen, P. R., Churazov, E., Clements, D. L., Colombo, L. P. L., Combet, C., Comis, B., Couchot, F., Coulais, A., Crill, B. P., Curto, A., Cuttaia, F., Danese, L., Davies, R. D., Davis, R. J., de Bernardis, P., de Rosa, A., de Zotti, G., Delabrouille, J., Dickinson, C., Diego, J. M., Dolag, K., Dole, H., Donzelli, S., Doré, O., Douspis, M., Ducout, A., Dupac, X., Efstathiou, G., Elsner, F., Enßlin, T. A., Eriksen, H. K., Finelli, F., Forni, O., Frailis, M., Fraisse, A. A., Franceschi, E., Galeotta, S., Galli, S., Ganga, K., Giard, M., Giraud-Héraud, Y., Gjerløw, E., González-Nuevo, J., Górski, K. M., Gregorio, A., Gruppuso, A., Gudmundsson, J. E., Hansen, F. K., Harrison, D. L., Helou, G., Hernández-Monteagudo, C., Herranz, D., Hildebrandt, S. R., Hivon, E., Hobson, M., Hornstrup, A., Hovest, W., Huffenberger, K. M., Hurier, G., Jaffe, A. H., Jaffe, T. R., Jones, W. C., Keihänen, E., Keskitalo, R., Kisner, T. S., Kneissl, R., Knoche, J., Kunz, M., Kurki-Suonio, H., Lagache, G., Lamarre, J. -M., Lasenby, A., Lattanzi, M., Lawrence, C. R., Leonardi, R., Levrier, F., Liguori, M., Lilje, P. B., Linden-Vørnle, M., López-Caniego, M., Lubin, P. M., Macías-Pérez, J. F., Maffei, B., Maggio, G., Maino, D., Mandolesi, N., Mangilli, A., Marcos-Caballero, A., Maris, M., Martin, P. G., Martínez-González, E., Masi, S., Matarrese, S., Mazzotta, P., Meinhold, P. R., Melchiorri, A., Mennella, A., Migliaccio, M., Mitra, S., Miville-Deschênes, M. -A., Moneti, A., Montier, L., Morgante, G., Mortlock, D., Munshi, D., Murphy, J. A., Naselsky, P., Nati, F., Natoli, P., Noviello, F., Novikov, D., Novikov, I., Oppermann, N., Oxborrow, C. A., Pagano, L., Pajot, F., Paoletti, D., Pasian, F., Pearson, T. J., Perdereau, O., Perotto, L., Pettorino, V., Piacentini, F., Piat, M., Pierpaoli, E., Plaszczynski, S., Pointecouteau, E., Polenta, G., Ponthieu, N., Pratt, G. W., Prunet, S., Puget, J. -L., Rachen, J. P., Reinecke, M., Remazeilles, M., Renault, C., Renzi, A., Ristorcelli, I., Rocha, G., Rosset, C., Rossetti, M., Roudier, G., Rubiño-Martín, J. A., Rusholme, B., Sandri, M., Santos, D., Savelainen, M., Savini, G., Schaefer, B. M., Scott, D., Soler, J. D., Stolyarov, V., Stompor, R., Sudiwala, R., Sunyaev, R., Sutton, D., Suur-Uski, A. -S., Sygnet, J. -F., Tauber, J. A., Terenzi, L., Toffolatti, L., Tomasi, M., Tristram, M., Tucci, M., Umana, G., Valenziano, L., Valiviita, J., Van Tent, B., Vielva, P., Villa, F., Wade, L. A., Wandelt, B. D., Wehus, I. K., Weller, J., Yvon, D., Zacchei, A., and Zonca, A.. 2016. "Planck intermediate results: XL. The Sunyaev-Zeldovich signal from the Virgo cluster". United States. doi:10.1051/0004-6361/201527743. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1398448.
@article{osti_1398448,
title = {Planck intermediate results: XL. The Sunyaev-Zeldovich signal from the Virgo cluster},
author = {Ade, P. A. R. and Aghanim, N. and Arnaud, M. and Ashdown, M. and Aumont, J. and Baccigalupi, C. and Banday, A. J. and Barreiro, R. B. and Bartolo, N. and Battaner, E. and Benabed, K. and Benoit-Lévy, A. and Bernard, J. -P. and Bersanelli, M. and Bielewicz, P. and Bonaldi, A. and Bonavera, L. and Bond, J. R. and Borrill, J. and Bouchet, F. R. and Burigana, C. and Butler, R. C. and Calabrese, E. and Cardoso, J. -F. and Catalano, A. and Chamballu, A. and Chiang, H. C. and Christensen, P. R. and Churazov, E. and Clements, D. L. and Colombo, L. P. L. and Combet, C. and Comis, B. and Couchot, F. and Coulais, A. and Crill, B. P. and Curto, A. and Cuttaia, F. and Danese, L. and Davies, R. D. and Davis, R. J. and de Bernardis, P. and de Rosa, A. and de Zotti, G. and Delabrouille, J. and Dickinson, C. and Diego, J. M. and Dolag, K. and Dole, H. and Donzelli, S. and Doré, O. and Douspis, M. and Ducout, A. and Dupac, X. and Efstathiou, G. and Elsner, F. and Enßlin, T. A. and Eriksen, H. K. and Finelli, F. and Forni, O. and Frailis, M. and Fraisse, A. A. and Franceschi, E. and Galeotta, S. and Galli, S. and Ganga, K. and Giard, M. and Giraud-Héraud, Y. and Gjerløw, E. and González-Nuevo, J. and Górski, K. M. and Gregorio, A. and Gruppuso, A. and Gudmundsson, J. E. and Hansen, F. K. and Harrison, D. L. and Helou, G. and Hernández-Monteagudo, C. and Herranz, D. and Hildebrandt, S. R. and Hivon, E. and Hobson, M. and Hornstrup, A. and Hovest, W. and Huffenberger, K. M. and Hurier, G. and Jaffe, A. H. and Jaffe, T. R. and Jones, W. C. and Keihänen, E. and Keskitalo, R. and Kisner, T. S. and Kneissl, R. and Knoche, J. and Kunz, M. and Kurki-Suonio, H. and Lagache, G. and Lamarre, J. -M. and Lasenby, A. and Lattanzi, M. and Lawrence, C. R. and Leonardi, R. and Levrier, F. and Liguori, M. and Lilje, P. B. and Linden-Vørnle, M. and López-Caniego, M. and Lubin, P. M. and Macías-Pérez, J. F. and Maffei, B. and Maggio, G. and Maino, D. and Mandolesi, N. and Mangilli, A. and Marcos-Caballero, A. and Maris, M. and Martin, P. G. and Martínez-González, E. and Masi, S. and Matarrese, S. and Mazzotta, P. and Meinhold, P. R. and Melchiorri, A. and Mennella, A. and Migliaccio, M. and Mitra, S. and Miville-Deschênes, M. -A. and Moneti, A. and Montier, L. and Morgante, G. and Mortlock, D. and Munshi, D. and Murphy, J. A. and Naselsky, P. and Nati, F. and Natoli, P. and Noviello, F. and Novikov, D. and Novikov, I. and Oppermann, N. and Oxborrow, C. A. and Pagano, L. and Pajot, F. and Paoletti, D. and Pasian, F. and Pearson, T. J. and Perdereau, O. and Perotto, L. and Pettorino, V. and Piacentini, F. and Piat, M. and Pierpaoli, E. and Plaszczynski, S. and Pointecouteau, E. and Polenta, G. and Ponthieu, N. and Pratt, G. W. and Prunet, S. and Puget, J. -L. and Rachen, J. P. and Reinecke, M. and Remazeilles, M. and Renault, C. and Renzi, A. and Ristorcelli, I. and Rocha, G. and Rosset, C. and Rossetti, M. and Roudier, G. and Rubiño-Martín, J. A. and Rusholme, B. and Sandri, M. and Santos, D. and Savelainen, M. and Savini, G. and Schaefer, B. M. and Scott, D. and Soler, J. D. and Stolyarov, V. and Stompor, R. and Sudiwala, R. and Sunyaev, R. and Sutton, D. and Suur-Uski, A. -S. and Sygnet, J. -F. and Tauber, J. A. and Terenzi, L. and Toffolatti, L. and Tomasi, M. and Tristram, M. and Tucci, M. and Umana, G. and Valenziano, L. and Valiviita, J. and Van Tent, B. and Vielva, P. and Villa, F. and Wade, L. A. and Wandelt, B. D. and Wehus, I. K. and Weller, J. and Yvon, D. and Zacchei, A. and Zonca, A.},
abstractNote = {The Virgo cluster is the largest Sunyaev-Zeldovich (SZ) source in the sky, both in terms of angular size and total integrated flux. Planck’s wide angular scale and frequency coverage, together with its high sensitivity, enable a detailed study of this big object through the SZ effect. Virgo is well resolved by Planck, showing an elongated structure that correlates well with the morphology observed from X-rays, but extends beyond the observed X-ray signal. We find good agreement between the SZ signal (or Compton parameter, yc) observed by Planck and the expected signal inferred from X-ray observations and simple analytical models. Owing to its proximity to us, the gas beyond the virial radius in Virgo can be studied with unprecedented sensitivity by integrating the SZ signal over tens of square degrees. In this paper, we study the signal in the outskirts of Virgo and compare it with analytical models and a constrained simulation of the environment of Virgo. Planck data suggest that significant amounts of low-density plasma surround Virgo, out to twice the virial radius. We find the SZ signal in the outskirts of Virgo to be consistent with a simple model that extrapolates the inferred pressure at lower radii, while assuming that the temperature stays in the keV range beyond the virial radius. The observed signal is also consistent with simulations and points to a shallow pressure profile in the outskirts of the cluster. This reservoir of gas at large radii can be linked with the hottest phase of the elusivewarm/hot intergalactic medium. Taking the lack of symmetry of Virgo into account, we find that a prolate model is favoured by the combination of SZ and X-ray data, in agreement with predictions. In conclusion, based on the combination of the same SZ and X-ray data, we constrain the total amount of gas in Virgo. Under the hypothesis that the abundance of baryons in Virgo is representative of the cosmic average, we also infer a distance for Virgo of approximately 18 Mpc, in good agreement with previous estimates.},
doi = {10.1051/0004-6361/201527743},
journal = {Astronomy and Astrophysics},
number = ,
volume = 596,
place = {United States},
year = {2016},
month = {12}
}