skip to main content
DOE PAGES title logo U.S. Department of Energy
Office of Scientific and Technical Information

Title: Nearly-free-electron system of monolayer Na on the surface of single-crystal HfSe 2

Abstract

Here, the electronic structure of a single Na monolayer on the surface of single-crystal HfSe2 is investigated using angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy. We find that this system exhibits an almost perfect "nearly-free-electron" behavior with an extracted effective mass of ~1me, in contrast to heavier masses found previously for alkali-metal monolayers on other substrates. Our density-functional-theory calculations indicate that this is due to the large lattice constant, causing both exchange and correlation interactions to be suppressed, and to the weak hybridization between the overlayer and the substrate. This is therefore an ideal model system for understanding the properties of two-dimensional materials.

Authors:
 [1];  [2];  [1];  [1];  [3];  [4];  [3];  [4];  [5];  [1];  [1]
  1. Suranaree Univ. of Technology, Nakhon Ratchasima (Thailand)
  2. Suranaree Univ. of Technology, Nakhon Ratchasima (Thailand); Synchrotron Light Research Institute, Nakhon Ratchasima (Thailand)
  3. Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)
  4. Univ. of St. Andrews, Fife (United Kingdom)
  5. Univ. of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan); RIKEN Advanced Science Institute, Saitama (Japan)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC), Basic Energy Sciences (BES)
OSTI Identifier:
1398442
Alternate Identifier(s):
OSTI ID: 1333598
Grant/Contract Number:  
AC02-05CH11231
Resource Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Physical Review B
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 94; Journal Issue: 20; Journal ID: ISSN 2469-9950
Publisher:
American Physical Society (APS)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
75 CONDENSED MATTER PHYSICS, SUPERCONDUCTIVITY AND SUPERFLUIDITY

Citation Formats

Eknapakul, T., Fongkaew, I., Siriroj, S., Vidyasagar, R., Denlinger, J. D., Bawden, L., Mo, S. -K., King, P. D. C., Takagi, H., Limpijumnong, S., and Meevasana, W.. Nearly-free-electron system of monolayer Na on the surface of single-crystal HfSe2. United States: N. p., 2016. Web. https://doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevB.94.201121.
Eknapakul, T., Fongkaew, I., Siriroj, S., Vidyasagar, R., Denlinger, J. D., Bawden, L., Mo, S. -K., King, P. D. C., Takagi, H., Limpijumnong, S., & Meevasana, W.. Nearly-free-electron system of monolayer Na on the surface of single-crystal HfSe2. United States. https://doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevB.94.201121
Eknapakul, T., Fongkaew, I., Siriroj, S., Vidyasagar, R., Denlinger, J. D., Bawden, L., Mo, S. -K., King, P. D. C., Takagi, H., Limpijumnong, S., and Meevasana, W.. Tue . "Nearly-free-electron system of monolayer Na on the surface of single-crystal HfSe2". United States. https://doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevB.94.201121. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1398442.
@article{osti_1398442,
title = {Nearly-free-electron system of monolayer Na on the surface of single-crystal HfSe2},
author = {Eknapakul, T. and Fongkaew, I. and Siriroj, S. and Vidyasagar, R. and Denlinger, J. D. and Bawden, L. and Mo, S. -K. and King, P. D. C. and Takagi, H. and Limpijumnong, S. and Meevasana, W.},
abstractNote = {Here, the electronic structure of a single Na monolayer on the surface of single-crystal HfSe2 is investigated using angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy. We find that this system exhibits an almost perfect "nearly-free-electron" behavior with an extracted effective mass of ~1me, in contrast to heavier masses found previously for alkali-metal monolayers on other substrates. Our density-functional-theory calculations indicate that this is due to the large lattice constant, causing both exchange and correlation interactions to be suppressed, and to the weak hybridization between the overlayer and the substrate. This is therefore an ideal model system for understanding the properties of two-dimensional materials.},
doi = {10.1103/PhysRevB.94.201121},
journal = {Physical Review B},
number = 20,
volume = 94,
place = {United States},
year = {2016},
month = {11}
}

Works referenced in this record:

Generalized Gradient Approximation Made Simple
journal, October 1996

  • Perdew, John P.; Burke, Kieron; Ernzerhof, Matthias
  • Physical Review Letters, Vol. 77, Issue 18, p. 3865-3868
  • DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.77.3865

Sodium and potassium monolayers on Be(0001) investigated by photoemission and electronic structure calculations
journal, August 2008


Creation and control of a two-dimensional electron liquid at the bare SrTiO3 surface
journal, January 2011

  • Meevasana, W.; King, P. D. C.; He, R. H.
  • Nature Materials, Vol. 10, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1038/nmat2943

Alkali metal adsorption on graphite: a review
journal, August 2005


Topological insulator Bi 2 Te 3 films synthesized by metal organic chemical vapor deposition
journal, October 2012

  • Cao, Helin; Venkatasubramanian, Rama; Liu, Chang
  • Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 101, Issue 16
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.4760226

HfSe 2 Thin Films: 2D Transition Metal Dichalcogenides Grown by Molecular Beam Epitaxy
journal, December 2014

  • Yue, Ruoyu; Barton, Adam T.; Zhu, Hui
  • ACS Nano, Vol. 9, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1021/nn5056496

Generalized Gradient Approximation Made Simple [Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 3865 (1996)]
journal, February 1997


Projector augmented-wave method
journal, December 1994


Negative electronic compressibility and tunable spin splitting in WSe2
journal, September 2015

  • Riley, J. M.; Meevasana, W.; Bawden, L.
  • Nature Nanotechnology, Vol. 10, Issue 12
  • DOI: 10.1038/nnano.2015.217

Image states and the proper work function for a single layer of Na and K on Cu(111), Co(0001), and Fe(110)
journal, February 1993


Direct observation of the transition from indirect to direct bandgap in atomically thin epitaxial MoSe2
journal, December 2013


Electronic properties of the two-dimensional system at GaAs/AlxGa1−xAs interfaces
journal, August 1980


Surface Lattice Constants of Si(111), Ni(111) and Cu(111)
journal, March 1981

  • Nakanishi, Shigemitsu; Horiguchi, Tetsuo
  • Japanese Journal of Applied Physics, Vol. 20, Issue 3
  • DOI: 10.1143/JJAP.20.L214

Forces in Molecules
journal, August 1939


Electronic structure of a single layer of Na on Cu(111)
journal, June 1991


Special points for Brillouin-zone integrations
journal, June 1976

  • Monkhorst, Hendrik J.; Pack, James D.
  • Physical Review B, Vol. 13, Issue 12, p. 5188-5192
  • DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevB.13.5188

Physical Principles Involved in Transistor Action
journal, April 1949


Band Structures of Transition-Metal-Dichalcogenide Layer Compounds
journal, October 1973


Electronic structure of MoSe 2 , MoS 2 , and WSe 2 . I. Band-structure calculations and photoelectron spectroscopy
journal, April 1987


Novel physics in two dimensions with modulation-doped heterostructures
journal, July 1984


Nonballistic Spin-Field-Effect Transistor
journal, April 2003


Spin-orbit splitting of the Shockley surface state on Cu(111)
journal, February 2013


Na adsorption on Ru(0001): a low-energy electron-diffraction analysis of three ordered phases
journal, January 1994


Spin- and valley-coupled electronic states in monolayer WSe 2 on bilayer graphene
journal, August 2015

  • Sugawara, K.; Sato, T.; Tanaka, Y.
  • Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 107, Issue 7
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.4928658

X-Ray Photoemission from Sodium and Lithium
journal, October 1973


How the transistor emerged
journal, January 1973


Structure of Na overlayers on Ru(0001) at room temperature and above
journal, June 1989


Electronic structure of adsorbed sodium on Pt(III)
journal, December 1977


Experimental Band Structure of Na
journal, October 1985


Large Tunable Rashba Spin Splitting of a Two-Dimensional Electron Gas in Bi 2 Se 3
journal, August 2011


Ultrafast Band Structure Control of a Two-Dimensional Heterostructure
journal, May 2016

  • Ulstrup, Søren; Čabo, Antonija Grubišić; Miwa, Jill A.
  • ACS Nano, Vol. 10, Issue 6
  • DOI: 10.1021/acsnano.6b02622

Field-Effect Tunneling Transistor Based on Vertical Graphene Heterostructures
journal, February 2012


Alternate spintronic analog of the electro-optic modulator
journal, September 2004

  • Bandyopadhyay, S.; Cahay, M.
  • Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 85, Issue 10
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.1790038

Gate control of spin-valley coupling
journal, July 2013


An XPS study of the initial stages of oxidation of hafnium
journal, July 1990

  • Morant, C.; Galán, L.; Sanz, J. M.
  • Surface and Interface Analysis, Vol. 16, Issue 1-12
  • DOI: 10.1002/sia.740160163

Very Large Capacitance Enhancement in a Two-Dimensional Electron System
journal, May 2011


Low temperature scanning tunneling microscopy of Na on Cu(111)
journal, April 2001


Valley-selective circular dichroism of monolayer molybdenum disulphide
journal, January 2012

  • Cao, Ting; Wang, Gang; Han, Wenpeng
  • Nature Communications, Vol. 3, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1038/ncomms1882

Fermi surfaces of the two-dimensional surface states on vicinal Cu(111)
journal, October 2001


Spin structure of the Shockley surface state on Au ( 111 )
journal, June 2004


Observation of momentum space semi-localization in Si-doped β-Ga2O3
journal, December 2012

  • Richard, P.; Sato, T.; Souma, S.
  • Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 101, Issue 23
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.4769109

Electrical Anisotropy of Layered Compound ZrSe 2 and HfSe 2
journal, February 1989

  • Zheng, Xu-guaug; Kuriyaki, Hisao; Hirakawa, Kazuyoshi
  • Journal of the Physical Society of Japan, Vol. 58, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1143/JPSJ.58.622

Spin-orbit splitting of the L -gap surface state on Au(111) and Ag(111)
journal, December 2001


Nearly free electrons in a 5 d delafossite oxide metal
journal, October 2015

  • Kushwaha, Pallavi; Sunko, Veronika; Moll, Philip J. W.
  • Science Advances, Vol. 1, Issue 9
  • DOI: 10.1126/sciadv.1500692

Electronic Structure of a Quasi-Freestanding MoS 2 Monolayer
journal, February 2014

  • Eknapakul, T.; King, P. D. C.; Asakawa, M.
  • Nano Letters, Vol. 14, Issue 3
  • DOI: 10.1021/nl4042824

Control of valley polarization in monolayer MoS2 by optical helicity
journal, June 2012


Giant bandgap renormalization and excitonic effects in a monolayer transition metal dichalcogenide semiconductor
journal, August 2014

  • Ugeda, Miguel M.; Bradley, Aaron J.; Shi, Su-Fei
  • Nature Materials, Vol. 13, Issue 12
  • DOI: 10.1038/nmat4061

    Works referencing / citing this record:

    Photoluminescence Characteristics of Multilayer HfSe 2 Synthesized on Sapphire Using Ion Implantation
    journal, January 2018

    • Tsai, Hsu‐Sheng; Liou, Jhe‐Wei; Setiyawati, Icuk
    • Advanced Materials Interfaces, Vol. 5, Issue 8
    • DOI: 10.1002/admi.201701619

    One-dimensional nearly free electron states in borophene
    journal, January 2019

    • Kong, Longjuan; Liu, Liren; Chen, Lan
    • Nanoscale, Vol. 11, Issue 33
    • DOI: 10.1039/c9nr03792f

    Quantum Hall Effect with Composites of Magnetic Flux Tubes and Charged Particles
    journal, June 2018