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Title: Planck 2015 results: VI. LFI mapmaking

This article describes the mapmaking procedure applied to Planck Low Frequency Instrument (LFI) data. The mapmaking step takes as input the calibrated timelines and pointing information. The main products are sky maps of I, Q, and U Stokes components. For the first time, we present polarization maps at LFI frequencies. The mapmaking algorithm is based on a destriping technique, which is enhanced with a noise prior. The Galactic region is masked to reduce errors arising from bandpass mismatch and high signal gradients. We apply horn-uniform radiometer weights to reduce the effects of beam-shape mismatch. The algorithm is the same as used for the 2013 release, apart from small changes in parameter settings. We validate the procedure through simulations. Special emphasis is put on the control of systematics, which is particularly important for accurate polarization analysis. We also produce low-resolution versions of the maps and corresponding noise covariance matrices. These serve as input in later analysis steps and parameter estimation. The noise covariance matrices are validated through noise Monte Carlo simulations. The residual noise in the map products is characterized through analysis of half-ring maps, noise covariance matrices, and simulations.
Authors:
; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; more »; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; « less
Publication Date:
Grant/Contract Number:
AC02-05CH11231
Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Astronomy and Astrophysics
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 594; Journal ID: ISSN 0004-6361
Publisher:
EDP Sciences
Research Org:
Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)
Sponsoring Org:
USDOE Office of Science (SC)
Contributing Orgs:
Planck Collaboration
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
79 ASTRONOMY AND ASTROPHYSICS; methods data analysis; cosmic microwave background; numerical methods
OSTI Identifier:
1398427

Ade, P. A. R., Aghanim, N., Ashdown, M., Aumont, J., Baccigalupi, C., Banday, A. J., Barreiro, R. B., Bartolo, N., Battaner, E., Benabed, K., Benoît, A., Benoit-Lévy, A., Bernard, J. -P., Bersanelli, M., Bielewicz, P., Bonaldi, A., Bonavera, L., Bond, J. R., Borrill, J., Bouchet, F. R., Bucher, M., Burigana, C., Butler, R. C., Calabrese, E., Cardoso, J. -F., Catalano, A., Chamballu, A., Chary, R. -R., Christensen, P. R., Colombi, S., Colombo, L. P. L., Crill, B. P., Curto, A., Cuttaia, F., Danese, L., Davies, R. D., Davis, R. J., de Bernardis, P., de Rosa, A., de Zotti, G., Delabrouille, J., Dickinson, C., Diego, J. M., Dole, H., Donzelli, S., Doré, O., Douspis, M., Ducout, A., Dupac, X., Efstathiou, G., Elsner, F., Enßlin, T. A., Eriksen, H. K., Fergusson, J., Finelli, F., Forni, O., Frailis, M., Franceschi, E., Frejsel, A., Galeotta, S., Galli, S., Ganga, K., Giard, M., Giraud-Héraud, Y., Gjerløw, E., González-Nuevo, J., Górski, K. M., Gratton, S., Gregorio, A., Gruppuso, A., Hansen, F. K., Hanson, D., Harrison, D. L., Henrot-Versillé, S., Herranz, D., Hildebrandt, S. R., Hivon, E., Hobson, M., Holmes, W. A., Hornstrup, A., Hovest, W., Huffenberger, K. M., Hurier, G., Jaffe, A. H., Jaffe, T. R., Juvela, M., Keihänen, E., Keskitalo, R., Kiiveri, K., Kisner, T. S., Knoche, J., Kunz, M., Kurki-Suonio, H., Lähteenmäki, A., Lamarre, J. -M., Lasenby, A., Lattanzi, M., Lawrence, C. R., Leahy, J. P., Leonardi, R., Lesgourgues, J., Levrier, F., Liguori, M., Lilje, P. B., Linden-Vørnle, M., Lindholm, V., López-Caniego, M., Lubin, P. M., Macías-Pérez, J. F., Maggio, G., Maino, D., Mandolesi, N., Mangilli, A., Martin, P. G., Martínez-González, E., Masi, S., Matarrese, S., Mazzotta, P., McGehee, P., Meinhold, P. R., Melchiorri, A., Mendes, L., Mennella, A., Migliaccio, M., Mitra, S., Montier, L., Morgante, G., Mortlock, D., Moss, A., Munshi, D., Murphy, J. A., Naselsky, P., Nati, F., Natoli, P., Netterfield, C. B., Nørgaard-Nielsen, H. U., Novikov, D., Novikov, I., Paci, F., Pagano, L., Paoletti, D., Partridge, B., Pasian, F., Patanchon, G., Pearson, T. J., Perdereau, O., Perotto, L., Perrotta, F., Pettorino, V., Pierpaoli, E., Pietrobon, D., Pointecouteau, E., Polenta, G., Pratt, G. W., Prézeau, G., Prunet, S., Puget, J. -L., Rachen, J. P., Rebolo, R., Reinecke, M., Remazeilles, M., Renzi, A., Rocha, G., Rosset, C., Rossetti, M., Roudier, G., Rubiño-Martín, J. A., Rusholme, B., Sandri, M., Santos, D., Savelainen, M., Scott, D., Seiffert, M. D., Shellard, E. P. S., Spencer, L. D., Stolyarov, V., Stompor, R., Sutton, D., Suur-Uski, A. -S., Sygnet, J. -F., Tauber, J. A., Terenzi, L., Toffolatti, L., Tomasi, M., Tristram, M., Tucci, M., Tuovinen, J., Valenziano, L., Valiviita, J., Van Tent, B., Vassallo, T., Vielva, P., Villa, F., Wade, L. A., Wandelt, B. D., Watson, R., Wehus, I. K., Yvon, D., Zacchei, A., and Zonca, A.. Planck 2015 results: VI. LFI mapmaking. United States: N. p., Web. doi:10.1051/0004-6361/201525813.
Ade, P. A. R., Aghanim, N., Ashdown, M., Aumont, J., Baccigalupi, C., Banday, A. J., Barreiro, R. B., Bartolo, N., Battaner, E., Benabed, K., Benoît, A., Benoit-Lévy, A., Bernard, J. -P., Bersanelli, M., Bielewicz, P., Bonaldi, A., Bonavera, L., Bond, J. R., Borrill, J., Bouchet, F. R., Bucher, M., Burigana, C., Butler, R. C., Calabrese, E., Cardoso, J. -F., Catalano, A., Chamballu, A., Chary, R. -R., Christensen, P. R., Colombi, S., Colombo, L. P. L., Crill, B. P., Curto, A., Cuttaia, F., Danese, L., Davies, R. D., Davis, R. J., de Bernardis, P., de Rosa, A., de Zotti, G., Delabrouille, J., Dickinson, C., Diego, J. M., Dole, H., Donzelli, S., Doré, O., Douspis, M., Ducout, A., Dupac, X., Efstathiou, G., Elsner, F., Enßlin, T. A., Eriksen, H. K., Fergusson, J., Finelli, F., Forni, O., Frailis, M., Franceschi, E., Frejsel, A., Galeotta, S., Galli, S., Ganga, K., Giard, M., Giraud-Héraud, Y., Gjerløw, E., González-Nuevo, J., Górski, K. M., Gratton, S., Gregorio, A., Gruppuso, A., Hansen, F. K., Hanson, D., Harrison, D. L., Henrot-Versillé, S., Herranz, D., Hildebrandt, S. R., Hivon, E., Hobson, M., Holmes, W. A., Hornstrup, A., Hovest, W., Huffenberger, K. M., Hurier, G., Jaffe, A. H., Jaffe, T. R., Juvela, M., Keihänen, E., Keskitalo, R., Kiiveri, K., Kisner, T. S., Knoche, J., Kunz, M., Kurki-Suonio, H., Lähteenmäki, A., Lamarre, J. -M., Lasenby, A., Lattanzi, M., Lawrence, C. R., Leahy, J. P., Leonardi, R., Lesgourgues, J., Levrier, F., Liguori, M., Lilje, P. B., Linden-Vørnle, M., Lindholm, V., López-Caniego, M., Lubin, P. M., Macías-Pérez, J. F., Maggio, G., Maino, D., Mandolesi, N., Mangilli, A., Martin, P. G., Martínez-González, E., Masi, S., Matarrese, S., Mazzotta, P., McGehee, P., Meinhold, P. R., Melchiorri, A., Mendes, L., Mennella, A., Migliaccio, M., Mitra, S., Montier, L., Morgante, G., Mortlock, D., Moss, A., Munshi, D., Murphy, J. A., Naselsky, P., Nati, F., Natoli, P., Netterfield, C. B., Nørgaard-Nielsen, H. U., Novikov, D., Novikov, I., Paci, F., Pagano, L., Paoletti, D., Partridge, B., Pasian, F., Patanchon, G., Pearson, T. J., Perdereau, O., Perotto, L., Perrotta, F., Pettorino, V., Pierpaoli, E., Pietrobon, D., Pointecouteau, E., Polenta, G., Pratt, G. W., Prézeau, G., Prunet, S., Puget, J. -L., Rachen, J. P., Rebolo, R., Reinecke, M., Remazeilles, M., Renzi, A., Rocha, G., Rosset, C., Rossetti, M., Roudier, G., Rubiño-Martín, J. A., Rusholme, B., Sandri, M., Santos, D., Savelainen, M., Scott, D., Seiffert, M. D., Shellard, E. P. S., Spencer, L. D., Stolyarov, V., Stompor, R., Sutton, D., Suur-Uski, A. -S., Sygnet, J. -F., Tauber, J. A., Terenzi, L., Toffolatti, L., Tomasi, M., Tristram, M., Tucci, M., Tuovinen, J., Valenziano, L., Valiviita, J., Van Tent, B., Vassallo, T., Vielva, P., Villa, F., Wade, L. A., Wandelt, B. D., Watson, R., Wehus, I. K., Yvon, D., Zacchei, A., & Zonca, A.. Planck 2015 results: VI. LFI mapmaking. United States. doi:10.1051/0004-6361/201525813.
Ade, P. A. R., Aghanim, N., Ashdown, M., Aumont, J., Baccigalupi, C., Banday, A. J., Barreiro, R. B., Bartolo, N., Battaner, E., Benabed, K., Benoît, A., Benoit-Lévy, A., Bernard, J. -P., Bersanelli, M., Bielewicz, P., Bonaldi, A., Bonavera, L., Bond, J. R., Borrill, J., Bouchet, F. R., Bucher, M., Burigana, C., Butler, R. C., Calabrese, E., Cardoso, J. -F., Catalano, A., Chamballu, A., Chary, R. -R., Christensen, P. R., Colombi, S., Colombo, L. P. L., Crill, B. P., Curto, A., Cuttaia, F., Danese, L., Davies, R. D., Davis, R. J., de Bernardis, P., de Rosa, A., de Zotti, G., Delabrouille, J., Dickinson, C., Diego, J. M., Dole, H., Donzelli, S., Doré, O., Douspis, M., Ducout, A., Dupac, X., Efstathiou, G., Elsner, F., Enßlin, T. A., Eriksen, H. K., Fergusson, J., Finelli, F., Forni, O., Frailis, M., Franceschi, E., Frejsel, A., Galeotta, S., Galli, S., Ganga, K., Giard, M., Giraud-Héraud, Y., Gjerløw, E., González-Nuevo, J., Górski, K. M., Gratton, S., Gregorio, A., Gruppuso, A., Hansen, F. K., Hanson, D., Harrison, D. L., Henrot-Versillé, S., Herranz, D., Hildebrandt, S. R., Hivon, E., Hobson, M., Holmes, W. A., Hornstrup, A., Hovest, W., Huffenberger, K. M., Hurier, G., Jaffe, A. H., Jaffe, T. R., Juvela, M., Keihänen, E., Keskitalo, R., Kiiveri, K., Kisner, T. S., Knoche, J., Kunz, M., Kurki-Suonio, H., Lähteenmäki, A., Lamarre, J. -M., Lasenby, A., Lattanzi, M., Lawrence, C. R., Leahy, J. P., Leonardi, R., Lesgourgues, J., Levrier, F., Liguori, M., Lilje, P. B., Linden-Vørnle, M., Lindholm, V., López-Caniego, M., Lubin, P. M., Macías-Pérez, J. F., Maggio, G., Maino, D., Mandolesi, N., Mangilli, A., Martin, P. G., Martínez-González, E., Masi, S., Matarrese, S., Mazzotta, P., McGehee, P., Meinhold, P. R., Melchiorri, A., Mendes, L., Mennella, A., Migliaccio, M., Mitra, S., Montier, L., Morgante, G., Mortlock, D., Moss, A., Munshi, D., Murphy, J. A., Naselsky, P., Nati, F., Natoli, P., Netterfield, C. B., Nørgaard-Nielsen, H. U., Novikov, D., Novikov, I., Paci, F., Pagano, L., Paoletti, D., Partridge, B., Pasian, F., Patanchon, G., Pearson, T. J., Perdereau, O., Perotto, L., Perrotta, F., Pettorino, V., Pierpaoli, E., Pietrobon, D., Pointecouteau, E., Polenta, G., Pratt, G. W., Prézeau, G., Prunet, S., Puget, J. -L., Rachen, J. P., Rebolo, R., Reinecke, M., Remazeilles, M., Renzi, A., Rocha, G., Rosset, C., Rossetti, M., Roudier, G., Rubiño-Martín, J. A., Rusholme, B., Sandri, M., Santos, D., Savelainen, M., Scott, D., Seiffert, M. D., Shellard, E. P. S., Spencer, L. D., Stolyarov, V., Stompor, R., Sutton, D., Suur-Uski, A. -S., Sygnet, J. -F., Tauber, J. A., Terenzi, L., Toffolatti, L., Tomasi, M., Tristram, M., Tucci, M., Tuovinen, J., Valenziano, L., Valiviita, J., Van Tent, B., Vassallo, T., Vielva, P., Villa, F., Wade, L. A., Wandelt, B. D., Watson, R., Wehus, I. K., Yvon, D., Zacchei, A., and Zonca, A.. 2016. "Planck 2015 results: VI. LFI mapmaking". United States. doi:10.1051/0004-6361/201525813. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1398427.
@article{osti_1398427,
title = {Planck 2015 results: VI. LFI mapmaking},
author = {Ade, P. A. R. and Aghanim, N. and Ashdown, M. and Aumont, J. and Baccigalupi, C. and Banday, A. J. and Barreiro, R. B. and Bartolo, N. and Battaner, E. and Benabed, K. and Benoît, A. and Benoit-Lévy, A. and Bernard, J. -P. and Bersanelli, M. and Bielewicz, P. and Bonaldi, A. and Bonavera, L. and Bond, J. R. and Borrill, J. and Bouchet, F. R. and Bucher, M. and Burigana, C. and Butler, R. C. and Calabrese, E. and Cardoso, J. -F. and Catalano, A. and Chamballu, A. and Chary, R. -R. and Christensen, P. R. and Colombi, S. and Colombo, L. P. L. and Crill, B. P. and Curto, A. and Cuttaia, F. and Danese, L. and Davies, R. D. and Davis, R. J. and de Bernardis, P. and de Rosa, A. and de Zotti, G. and Delabrouille, J. and Dickinson, C. and Diego, J. M. and Dole, H. and Donzelli, S. and Doré, O. and Douspis, M. and Ducout, A. and Dupac, X. and Efstathiou, G. and Elsner, F. and Enßlin, T. A. and Eriksen, H. K. and Fergusson, J. and Finelli, F. and Forni, O. and Frailis, M. and Franceschi, E. and Frejsel, A. and Galeotta, S. and Galli, S. and Ganga, K. and Giard, M. and Giraud-Héraud, Y. and Gjerløw, E. and González-Nuevo, J. and Górski, K. M. and Gratton, S. and Gregorio, A. and Gruppuso, A. and Hansen, F. K. and Hanson, D. and Harrison, D. L. and Henrot-Versillé, S. and Herranz, D. and Hildebrandt, S. R. and Hivon, E. and Hobson, M. and Holmes, W. A. and Hornstrup, A. and Hovest, W. and Huffenberger, K. M. and Hurier, G. and Jaffe, A. H. and Jaffe, T. R. and Juvela, M. and Keihänen, E. and Keskitalo, R. and Kiiveri, K. and Kisner, T. S. and Knoche, J. and Kunz, M. and Kurki-Suonio, H. and Lähteenmäki, A. and Lamarre, J. -M. and Lasenby, A. and Lattanzi, M. and Lawrence, C. R. and Leahy, J. P. and Leonardi, R. and Lesgourgues, J. and Levrier, F. and Liguori, M. and Lilje, P. B. and Linden-Vørnle, M. and Lindholm, V. and López-Caniego, M. and Lubin, P. M. and Macías-Pérez, J. F. and Maggio, G. and Maino, D. and Mandolesi, N. and Mangilli, A. and Martin, P. G. and Martínez-González, E. and Masi, S. and Matarrese, S. and Mazzotta, P. and McGehee, P. and Meinhold, P. R. and Melchiorri, A. and Mendes, L. and Mennella, A. and Migliaccio, M. and Mitra, S. and Montier, L. and Morgante, G. and Mortlock, D. and Moss, A. and Munshi, D. and Murphy, J. A. and Naselsky, P. and Nati, F. and Natoli, P. and Netterfield, C. B. and Nørgaard-Nielsen, H. U. and Novikov, D. and Novikov, I. and Paci, F. and Pagano, L. and Paoletti, D. and Partridge, B. and Pasian, F. and Patanchon, G. and Pearson, T. J. and Perdereau, O. and Perotto, L. and Perrotta, F. and Pettorino, V. and Pierpaoli, E. and Pietrobon, D. and Pointecouteau, E. and Polenta, G. and Pratt, G. W. and Prézeau, G. and Prunet, S. and Puget, J. -L. and Rachen, J. P. and Rebolo, R. and Reinecke, M. and Remazeilles, M. and Renzi, A. and Rocha, G. and Rosset, C. and Rossetti, M. and Roudier, G. and Rubiño-Martín, J. A. and Rusholme, B. and Sandri, M. and Santos, D. and Savelainen, M. and Scott, D. and Seiffert, M. D. and Shellard, E. P. S. and Spencer, L. D. and Stolyarov, V. and Stompor, R. and Sutton, D. and Suur-Uski, A. -S. and Sygnet, J. -F. and Tauber, J. A. and Terenzi, L. and Toffolatti, L. and Tomasi, M. and Tristram, M. and Tucci, M. and Tuovinen, J. and Valenziano, L. and Valiviita, J. and Van Tent, B. and Vassallo, T. and Vielva, P. and Villa, F. and Wade, L. A. and Wandelt, B. D. and Watson, R. and Wehus, I. K. and Yvon, D. and Zacchei, A. and Zonca, A.},
abstractNote = {This article describes the mapmaking procedure applied to Planck Low Frequency Instrument (LFI) data. The mapmaking step takes as input the calibrated timelines and pointing information. The main products are sky maps of I, Q, and U Stokes components. For the first time, we present polarization maps at LFI frequencies. The mapmaking algorithm is based on a destriping technique, which is enhanced with a noise prior. The Galactic region is masked to reduce errors arising from bandpass mismatch and high signal gradients. We apply horn-uniform radiometer weights to reduce the effects of beam-shape mismatch. The algorithm is the same as used for the 2013 release, apart from small changes in parameter settings. We validate the procedure through simulations. Special emphasis is put on the control of systematics, which is particularly important for accurate polarization analysis. We also produce low-resolution versions of the maps and corresponding noise covariance matrices. These serve as input in later analysis steps and parameter estimation. The noise covariance matrices are validated through noise Monte Carlo simulations. The residual noise in the map products is characterized through analysis of half-ring maps, noise covariance matrices, and simulations.},
doi = {10.1051/0004-6361/201525813},
journal = {Astronomy and Astrophysics},
number = ,
volume = 594,
place = {United States},
year = {2016},
month = {9}
}