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Title: Planck 2015 results: XXV. Diffuse low-frequency Galactic foregrounds

Abstract

In this paper, we discuss the Galactic foreground emission between 20 and 100 GHz based on observations by Planck and WMAP. The total intensity in this part of the spectrum is dominated by free-free and spinning dust emission, whereas the polarized intensity is dominated by synchrotron emission. The Commander component-separation tool has been used to separate the various astrophysical processes in total intensity. Comparison with radio recombination line templates verifies the recovery of the free-free emission along the Galactic plane. Comparison of the high-latitude Hα emission with our free-free map shows residuals that correlate with dust optical depth, consistent with a fraction (≈30%) of Hα having been scattered by high-latitude dust. We highlight a number of diffuse spinning dust morphological features at high latitude. There is substantial spatial variation in the spinning dust spectrum, with the emission peak (in I ν) ranging from below 20 GHz to more than 50 GHz. There is a strong tendency for the spinning dust component near many prominent H ii regions to have a higher peak frequency, suggesting that this increase in peak frequency is associated with dust in the photo-dissociation regions around the nebulae. The emissivity of spinning dust in these diffuse regionsmore » is of the same order as previous detections in the literature. Over the entire sky, the Commander solution finds more anomalous microwave emission (AME) than the WMAP component maps, at the expense of synchrotron and free-free emission. This can be explained by the difficulty in separating multiple broadband components with a limited number of frequency maps. Future surveys, particularly at 5–20 GHz, will greatly improve the separation by constraining the synchrotron spectrum. We combine Planck and WMAP data to make the highest signal-to-noise ratio maps yet of the intensity of the all-sky polarized synchrotron emission at frequencies above a few GHz. Most of the high-latitude polarized emission is associated with distinct large-scale loops and spurs, and we re-discuss their structure. We argue that nearly all the emission at 40deg > l > -90deg is part of the Loop I structure, and show that the emission extends much further in to the southern Galactic hemisphere than previously recognised, giving Loop I an ovoid rather than circular outline. However, it does not continue as far as the “Fermi bubble/microwave haze”, making it less probable that these are part of the same structure. We identify a number of new faint features in the polarized sky, including a dearth of polarized synchrotron emission directly correlated with a narrow, roughly 20deg long filament seen in Hα at high Galactic latitude. In conclusion, we look for evidence of polarized AME, however many AME regions are significantly contaminated by polarized synchrotron emission, and we find a 2σ upper limit of 1.6% in the Perseus region.« less

Authors:
; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; more »; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; « less
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC)
Contributing Org.:
Planck Collaboration
OSTI Identifier:
1398405
Grant/Contract Number:  
AC02-05CH11231
Resource Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Astronomy and Astrophysics
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 594; Journal ID: ISSN 0004-6361
Publisher:
EDP Sciences
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
79 ASTRONOMY AND ASTROPHYSICS; diffuse radiation; ISM; radiation mechanisms; radio continuum; polarization; local interstellar matter

Citation Formats

Ade, P. A. R., Aghanim, N., Alves, M. I. R., Arnaud, M., Ashdown, M., Aumont, J., Baccigalupi, C., Banday, A. J., Barreiro, R. B., Bartlett, J. G., Bartolo, N., Battaner, E., Benabed, K., Benoît, A., Benoit-Lévy, A., Bernard, J. -P., Bersanelli, M., Bielewicz, P., Bock, J. J., Bonaldi, A., Bonavera, L., Bond, J. R., Borrill, J., Bouchet, F. R., Boulanger, F., Bucher, M., Burigana, C., Butler, R. C., Calabrese, E., Cardoso, J. -F., Catalano, A., Challinor, A., Chamballu, A., Chary, R. -R., Chiang, H. C., Christensen, P. R., Colombi, S., Colombo, L. P. L., Combet, C., Couchot, F., Coulais, A., Crill, B. P., Curto, A., Cuttaia, F., Danese, L., Davies, R. D., Davis, R. J., de Bernardis, P., de Rosa, A., de Zotti, G., Delabrouille, J., Delouis, J. -M., Désert, F. -X., Dickinson, C., Diego, J. M., Dole, H., Donzelli, S., Doré, O., Douspis, M., Ducout, A., Dupac, X., Efstathiou, G., Elsner, F., Enßlin, T. A., Eriksen, H. K., Falgarone, E., Fergusson, J., Finelli, F., Forni, O., Frailis, M., Fraisse, A. A., Franceschi, E., Frejsel, A., Galeotta, S., Galli, S., Ganga, K., Ghosh, T., Giard, M., Giraud-Héraud, Y., Gjerløw, E., González-Nuevo, J., Górski, K. M., Gratton, S., Gregorio, A., Gruppuso, A., Gudmundsson, J. E., Hansen, F. K., Hanson, D., Harrison, D. L., Helou, G., Henrot-Versillé, S., Hernández-Monteagudo, C., Herranz, D., Hildebrandt, S. R., Hivon, E., Hobson, M., Holmes, W. A., Hornstrup, A., Hovest, W., Huffenberger, K. M., Hurier, G., Jaffe, A. H., Jaffe, T. R., Jones, W. C., Juvela, M., Keihänen, E., Keskitalo, R., Kisner, T. S., Kneissl, R., Knoche, J., Kunz, M., Kurki-Suonio, H., Lagache, G., Lähteenmäki, A., Lamarre, J. -M., Lasenby, A., Lattanzi, M., Lawrence, C. R., Leahy, J. P., Leonardi, R., Lesgourgues, J., Levrier, F., Liguori, M., Lilje, P. B., Linden-Vørnle, M., López-Caniego, M., Lubin, P. M., Macías-Pérez, J. F., Maggio, G., Maino, D., Mandolesi, N., Mangilli, A., Maris, M., Marshall, D. J., Martin, P. G., Martínez-González, E., Masi, S., Matarrese, S., McGehee, P., Meinhold, P. R., Melchiorri, A., Mendes, L., Mennella, A., Migliaccio, M., Mitra, S., Miville-Deschênes, M. -A., Moneti, A., Montier, L., Morgante, G., Mortlock, D., Moss, A., Munshi, D., Murphy, J. A., Nati, F., Natoli, P., Netterfield, C. B., Nørgaard-Nielsen, H. U., Noviello, F., Novikov, D., Novikov, I., Orlando, E., Oxborrow, C. A., Paci, F., Pagano, L., Pajot, F., Paladini, R., Paoletti, D., Partridge, B., Pasian, F., Patanchon, G., Pearson, T. J., Peel, M., Perdereau, O., Perotto, L., Perrotta, F., Pettorino, V., Piacentini, F., Piat, M., Pierpaoli, E., Pietrobon, D., Plaszczynski, S., Pointecouteau, E., Polenta, G., Pratt, G. W., Prézeau, G., Prunet, S., Puget, J. -L., Rachen, J. P., Reach, W. T., Rebolo, R., Reinecke, M., Remazeilles, M., Renault, C., Renzi, A., Ristorcelli, I., Rocha, G., Rosset, C., Rossetti, M., Roudier, G., Rubiño-Martín, J. A., Rusholme, B., Sandri, M., Santos, D., Savelainen, M., Savini, G., Scott, D., Seiffert, M. D., Shellard, E. P. S., Spencer, L. D., Stolyarov, V., Stompor, R., Strong, A. W., Sudiwala, R., Sunyaev, R., Sutton, D., Suur-Uski, A. -S., Sygnet, J. -F., Tauber, J. A., Terenzi, L., Toffolatti, L., Tomasi, M., Tristram, M., Tucci, M., Tuovinen, J., Umana, G., Valenziano, L., Valiviita, J., Van Tent, F., Vidal, M., Vielva, P., Villa, F., Wade, L. A., Wandelt, B. D., Watson, R., Wehus, I. K., Wilkinson, A., Yvon, D., Zacchei, A., and Zonca, A. Planck 2015 results: XXV. Diffuse low-frequency Galactic foregrounds. United States: N. p., 2016. Web. doi:10.1051/0004-6361/201526803.
Ade, P. A. R., Aghanim, N., Alves, M. I. R., Arnaud, M., Ashdown, M., Aumont, J., Baccigalupi, C., Banday, A. J., Barreiro, R. B., Bartlett, J. G., Bartolo, N., Battaner, E., Benabed, K., Benoît, A., Benoit-Lévy, A., Bernard, J. -P., Bersanelli, M., Bielewicz, P., Bock, J. J., Bonaldi, A., Bonavera, L., Bond, J. R., Borrill, J., Bouchet, F. R., Boulanger, F., Bucher, M., Burigana, C., Butler, R. C., Calabrese, E., Cardoso, J. -F., Catalano, A., Challinor, A., Chamballu, A., Chary, R. -R., Chiang, H. C., Christensen, P. R., Colombi, S., Colombo, L. P. L., Combet, C., Couchot, F., Coulais, A., Crill, B. P., Curto, A., Cuttaia, F., Danese, L., Davies, R. D., Davis, R. J., de Bernardis, P., de Rosa, A., de Zotti, G., Delabrouille, J., Delouis, J. -M., Désert, F. -X., Dickinson, C., Diego, J. M., Dole, H., Donzelli, S., Doré, O., Douspis, M., Ducout, A., Dupac, X., Efstathiou, G., Elsner, F., Enßlin, T. A., Eriksen, H. K., Falgarone, E., Fergusson, J., Finelli, F., Forni, O., Frailis, M., Fraisse, A. A., Franceschi, E., Frejsel, A., Galeotta, S., Galli, S., Ganga, K., Ghosh, T., Giard, M., Giraud-Héraud, Y., Gjerløw, E., González-Nuevo, J., Górski, K. M., Gratton, S., Gregorio, A., Gruppuso, A., Gudmundsson, J. E., Hansen, F. K., Hanson, D., Harrison, D. L., Helou, G., Henrot-Versillé, S., Hernández-Monteagudo, C., Herranz, D., Hildebrandt, S. R., Hivon, E., Hobson, M., Holmes, W. A., Hornstrup, A., Hovest, W., Huffenberger, K. M., Hurier, G., Jaffe, A. H., Jaffe, T. R., Jones, W. C., Juvela, M., Keihänen, E., Keskitalo, R., Kisner, T. S., Kneissl, R., Knoche, J., Kunz, M., Kurki-Suonio, H., Lagache, G., Lähteenmäki, A., Lamarre, J. -M., Lasenby, A., Lattanzi, M., Lawrence, C. R., Leahy, J. P., Leonardi, R., Lesgourgues, J., Levrier, F., Liguori, M., Lilje, P. B., Linden-Vørnle, M., López-Caniego, M., Lubin, P. M., Macías-Pérez, J. F., Maggio, G., Maino, D., Mandolesi, N., Mangilli, A., Maris, M., Marshall, D. J., Martin, P. G., Martínez-González, E., Masi, S., Matarrese, S., McGehee, P., Meinhold, P. R., Melchiorri, A., Mendes, L., Mennella, A., Migliaccio, M., Mitra, S., Miville-Deschênes, M. -A., Moneti, A., Montier, L., Morgante, G., Mortlock, D., Moss, A., Munshi, D., Murphy, J. A., Nati, F., Natoli, P., Netterfield, C. B., Nørgaard-Nielsen, H. U., Noviello, F., Novikov, D., Novikov, I., Orlando, E., Oxborrow, C. A., Paci, F., Pagano, L., Pajot, F., Paladini, R., Paoletti, D., Partridge, B., Pasian, F., Patanchon, G., Pearson, T. J., Peel, M., Perdereau, O., Perotto, L., Perrotta, F., Pettorino, V., Piacentini, F., Piat, M., Pierpaoli, E., Pietrobon, D., Plaszczynski, S., Pointecouteau, E., Polenta, G., Pratt, G. W., Prézeau, G., Prunet, S., Puget, J. -L., Rachen, J. P., Reach, W. T., Rebolo, R., Reinecke, M., Remazeilles, M., Renault, C., Renzi, A., Ristorcelli, I., Rocha, G., Rosset, C., Rossetti, M., Roudier, G., Rubiño-Martín, J. A., Rusholme, B., Sandri, M., Santos, D., Savelainen, M., Savini, G., Scott, D., Seiffert, M. D., Shellard, E. P. S., Spencer, L. D., Stolyarov, V., Stompor, R., Strong, A. W., Sudiwala, R., Sunyaev, R., Sutton, D., Suur-Uski, A. -S., Sygnet, J. -F., Tauber, J. A., Terenzi, L., Toffolatti, L., Tomasi, M., Tristram, M., Tucci, M., Tuovinen, J., Umana, G., Valenziano, L., Valiviita, J., Van Tent, F., Vidal, M., Vielva, P., Villa, F., Wade, L. A., Wandelt, B. D., Watson, R., Wehus, I. K., Wilkinson, A., Yvon, D., Zacchei, A., & Zonca, A. Planck 2015 results: XXV. Diffuse low-frequency Galactic foregrounds. United States. doi:10.1051/0004-6361/201526803.
Ade, P. A. R., Aghanim, N., Alves, M. I. R., Arnaud, M., Ashdown, M., Aumont, J., Baccigalupi, C., Banday, A. J., Barreiro, R. B., Bartlett, J. G., Bartolo, N., Battaner, E., Benabed, K., Benoît, A., Benoit-Lévy, A., Bernard, J. -P., Bersanelli, M., Bielewicz, P., Bock, J. J., Bonaldi, A., Bonavera, L., Bond, J. R., Borrill, J., Bouchet, F. R., Boulanger, F., Bucher, M., Burigana, C., Butler, R. C., Calabrese, E., Cardoso, J. -F., Catalano, A., Challinor, A., Chamballu, A., Chary, R. -R., Chiang, H. C., Christensen, P. R., Colombi, S., Colombo, L. P. L., Combet, C., Couchot, F., Coulais, A., Crill, B. P., Curto, A., Cuttaia, F., Danese, L., Davies, R. D., Davis, R. J., de Bernardis, P., de Rosa, A., de Zotti, G., Delabrouille, J., Delouis, J. -M., Désert, F. -X., Dickinson, C., Diego, J. M., Dole, H., Donzelli, S., Doré, O., Douspis, M., Ducout, A., Dupac, X., Efstathiou, G., Elsner, F., Enßlin, T. A., Eriksen, H. K., Falgarone, E., Fergusson, J., Finelli, F., Forni, O., Frailis, M., Fraisse, A. A., Franceschi, E., Frejsel, A., Galeotta, S., Galli, S., Ganga, K., Ghosh, T., Giard, M., Giraud-Héraud, Y., Gjerløw, E., González-Nuevo, J., Górski, K. M., Gratton, S., Gregorio, A., Gruppuso, A., Gudmundsson, J. E., Hansen, F. K., Hanson, D., Harrison, D. L., Helou, G., Henrot-Versillé, S., Hernández-Monteagudo, C., Herranz, D., Hildebrandt, S. R., Hivon, E., Hobson, M., Holmes, W. A., Hornstrup, A., Hovest, W., Huffenberger, K. M., Hurier, G., Jaffe, A. H., Jaffe, T. R., Jones, W. C., Juvela, M., Keihänen, E., Keskitalo, R., Kisner, T. S., Kneissl, R., Knoche, J., Kunz, M., Kurki-Suonio, H., Lagache, G., Lähteenmäki, A., Lamarre, J. -M., Lasenby, A., Lattanzi, M., Lawrence, C. R., Leahy, J. P., Leonardi, R., Lesgourgues, J., Levrier, F., Liguori, M., Lilje, P. B., Linden-Vørnle, M., López-Caniego, M., Lubin, P. M., Macías-Pérez, J. F., Maggio, G., Maino, D., Mandolesi, N., Mangilli, A., Maris, M., Marshall, D. J., Martin, P. G., Martínez-González, E., Masi, S., Matarrese, S., McGehee, P., Meinhold, P. R., Melchiorri, A., Mendes, L., Mennella, A., Migliaccio, M., Mitra, S., Miville-Deschênes, M. -A., Moneti, A., Montier, L., Morgante, G., Mortlock, D., Moss, A., Munshi, D., Murphy, J. A., Nati, F., Natoli, P., Netterfield, C. B., Nørgaard-Nielsen, H. U., Noviello, F., Novikov, D., Novikov, I., Orlando, E., Oxborrow, C. A., Paci, F., Pagano, L., Pajot, F., Paladini, R., Paoletti, D., Partridge, B., Pasian, F., Patanchon, G., Pearson, T. J., Peel, M., Perdereau, O., Perotto, L., Perrotta, F., Pettorino, V., Piacentini, F., Piat, M., Pierpaoli, E., Pietrobon, D., Plaszczynski, S., Pointecouteau, E., Polenta, G., Pratt, G. W., Prézeau, G., Prunet, S., Puget, J. -L., Rachen, J. P., Reach, W. T., Rebolo, R., Reinecke, M., Remazeilles, M., Renault, C., Renzi, A., Ristorcelli, I., Rocha, G., Rosset, C., Rossetti, M., Roudier, G., Rubiño-Martín, J. A., Rusholme, B., Sandri, M., Santos, D., Savelainen, M., Savini, G., Scott, D., Seiffert, M. D., Shellard, E. P. S., Spencer, L. D., Stolyarov, V., Stompor, R., Strong, A. W., Sudiwala, R., Sunyaev, R., Sutton, D., Suur-Uski, A. -S., Sygnet, J. -F., Tauber, J. A., Terenzi, L., Toffolatti, L., Tomasi, M., Tristram, M., Tucci, M., Tuovinen, J., Umana, G., Valenziano, L., Valiviita, J., Van Tent, F., Vidal, M., Vielva, P., Villa, F., Wade, L. A., Wandelt, B. D., Watson, R., Wehus, I. K., Wilkinson, A., Yvon, D., Zacchei, A., and Zonca, A. Tue . "Planck 2015 results: XXV. Diffuse low-frequency Galactic foregrounds". United States. doi:10.1051/0004-6361/201526803. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1398405.
@article{osti_1398405,
title = {Planck 2015 results: XXV. Diffuse low-frequency Galactic foregrounds},
author = {Ade, P. A. R. and Aghanim, N. and Alves, M. I. R. and Arnaud, M. and Ashdown, M. and Aumont, J. and Baccigalupi, C. and Banday, A. J. and Barreiro, R. B. and Bartlett, J. G. and Bartolo, N. and Battaner, E. and Benabed, K. and Benoît, A. and Benoit-Lévy, A. and Bernard, J. -P. and Bersanelli, M. and Bielewicz, P. and Bock, J. J. and Bonaldi, A. and Bonavera, L. and Bond, J. R. and Borrill, J. and Bouchet, F. R. and Boulanger, F. and Bucher, M. and Burigana, C. and Butler, R. C. and Calabrese, E. and Cardoso, J. -F. and Catalano, A. and Challinor, A. and Chamballu, A. and Chary, R. -R. and Chiang, H. C. and Christensen, P. R. and Colombi, S. and Colombo, L. P. L. and Combet, C. and Couchot, F. and Coulais, A. and Crill, B. P. and Curto, A. and Cuttaia, F. and Danese, L. and Davies, R. D. and Davis, R. J. and de Bernardis, P. and de Rosa, A. and de Zotti, G. and Delabrouille, J. and Delouis, J. -M. and Désert, F. -X. and Dickinson, C. and Diego, J. M. and Dole, H. and Donzelli, S. and Doré, O. and Douspis, M. and Ducout, A. and Dupac, X. and Efstathiou, G. and Elsner, F. and Enßlin, T. A. and Eriksen, H. K. and Falgarone, E. and Fergusson, J. and Finelli, F. and Forni, O. and Frailis, M. and Fraisse, A. A. and Franceschi, E. and Frejsel, A. and Galeotta, S. and Galli, S. and Ganga, K. and Ghosh, T. and Giard, M. and Giraud-Héraud, Y. and Gjerløw, E. and González-Nuevo, J. and Górski, K. M. and Gratton, S. and Gregorio, A. and Gruppuso, A. and Gudmundsson, J. E. and Hansen, F. K. and Hanson, D. and Harrison, D. L. and Helou, G. and Henrot-Versillé, S. and Hernández-Monteagudo, C. and Herranz, D. and Hildebrandt, S. R. and Hivon, E. and Hobson, M. and Holmes, W. A. and Hornstrup, A. and Hovest, W. and Huffenberger, K. M. and Hurier, G. and Jaffe, A. H. and Jaffe, T. R. and Jones, W. C. and Juvela, M. and Keihänen, E. and Keskitalo, R. and Kisner, T. S. and Kneissl, R. and Knoche, J. and Kunz, M. and Kurki-Suonio, H. and Lagache, G. and Lähteenmäki, A. and Lamarre, J. -M. and Lasenby, A. and Lattanzi, M. and Lawrence, C. R. and Leahy, J. P. and Leonardi, R. and Lesgourgues, J. and Levrier, F. and Liguori, M. and Lilje, P. B. and Linden-Vørnle, M. and López-Caniego, M. and Lubin, P. M. and Macías-Pérez, J. F. and Maggio, G. and Maino, D. and Mandolesi, N. and Mangilli, A. and Maris, M. and Marshall, D. J. and Martin, P. G. and Martínez-González, E. and Masi, S. and Matarrese, S. and McGehee, P. and Meinhold, P. R. and Melchiorri, A. and Mendes, L. and Mennella, A. and Migliaccio, M. and Mitra, S. and Miville-Deschênes, M. -A. and Moneti, A. and Montier, L. and Morgante, G. and Mortlock, D. and Moss, A. and Munshi, D. and Murphy, J. A. and Nati, F. and Natoli, P. and Netterfield, C. B. and Nørgaard-Nielsen, H. U. and Noviello, F. and Novikov, D. and Novikov, I. and Orlando, E. and Oxborrow, C. A. and Paci, F. and Pagano, L. and Pajot, F. and Paladini, R. and Paoletti, D. and Partridge, B. and Pasian, F. and Patanchon, G. and Pearson, T. J. and Peel, M. and Perdereau, O. and Perotto, L. and Perrotta, F. and Pettorino, V. and Piacentini, F. and Piat, M. and Pierpaoli, E. and Pietrobon, D. and Plaszczynski, S. and Pointecouteau, E. and Polenta, G. and Pratt, G. W. and Prézeau, G. and Prunet, S. and Puget, J. -L. and Rachen, J. P. and Reach, W. T. and Rebolo, R. and Reinecke, M. and Remazeilles, M. and Renault, C. and Renzi, A. and Ristorcelli, I. and Rocha, G. and Rosset, C. and Rossetti, M. and Roudier, G. and Rubiño-Martín, J. A. and Rusholme, B. and Sandri, M. and Santos, D. and Savelainen, M. and Savini, G. and Scott, D. and Seiffert, M. D. and Shellard, E. P. S. and Spencer, L. D. and Stolyarov, V. and Stompor, R. and Strong, A. W. and Sudiwala, R. and Sunyaev, R. and Sutton, D. and Suur-Uski, A. -S. and Sygnet, J. -F. and Tauber, J. A. and Terenzi, L. and Toffolatti, L. and Tomasi, M. and Tristram, M. and Tucci, M. and Tuovinen, J. and Umana, G. and Valenziano, L. and Valiviita, J. and Van Tent, F. and Vidal, M. and Vielva, P. and Villa, F. and Wade, L. A. and Wandelt, B. D. and Watson, R. and Wehus, I. K. and Wilkinson, A. and Yvon, D. and Zacchei, A. and Zonca, A.},
abstractNote = {In this paper, we discuss the Galactic foreground emission between 20 and 100 GHz based on observations by Planck and WMAP. The total intensity in this part of the spectrum is dominated by free-free and spinning dust emission, whereas the polarized intensity is dominated by synchrotron emission. The Commander component-separation tool has been used to separate the various astrophysical processes in total intensity. Comparison with radio recombination line templates verifies the recovery of the free-free emission along the Galactic plane. Comparison of the high-latitude Hα emission with our free-free map shows residuals that correlate with dust optical depth, consistent with a fraction (≈30%) of Hα having been scattered by high-latitude dust. We highlight a number of diffuse spinning dust morphological features at high latitude. There is substantial spatial variation in the spinning dust spectrum, with the emission peak (in Iν) ranging from below 20 GHz to more than 50 GHz. There is a strong tendency for the spinning dust component near many prominent H ii regions to have a higher peak frequency, suggesting that this increase in peak frequency is associated with dust in the photo-dissociation regions around the nebulae. The emissivity of spinning dust in these diffuse regions is of the same order as previous detections in the literature. Over the entire sky, the Commander solution finds more anomalous microwave emission (AME) than the WMAP component maps, at the expense of synchrotron and free-free emission. This can be explained by the difficulty in separating multiple broadband components with a limited number of frequency maps. Future surveys, particularly at 5–20 GHz, will greatly improve the separation by constraining the synchrotron spectrum. We combine Planck and WMAP data to make the highest signal-to-noise ratio maps yet of the intensity of the all-sky polarized synchrotron emission at frequencies above a few GHz. Most of the high-latitude polarized emission is associated with distinct large-scale loops and spurs, and we re-discuss their structure. We argue that nearly all the emission at 40deg > l > -90deg is part of the Loop I structure, and show that the emission extends much further in to the southern Galactic hemisphere than previously recognised, giving Loop I an ovoid rather than circular outline. However, it does not continue as far as the “Fermi bubble/microwave haze”, making it less probable that these are part of the same structure. We identify a number of new faint features in the polarized sky, including a dearth of polarized synchrotron emission directly correlated with a narrow, roughly 20deg long filament seen in Hα at high Galactic latitude. In conclusion, we look for evidence of polarized AME, however many AME regions are significantly contaminated by polarized synchrotron emission, and we find a 2σ upper limit of 1.6% in the Perseus region.},
doi = {10.1051/0004-6361/201526803},
journal = {Astronomy and Astrophysics},
number = ,
volume = 594,
place = {United States},
year = {2016},
month = {9}
}

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