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Title: Quantifying Apparent Groundwater Ages near Managed Aquifer Recharge Operations Using Radio-Sulfur ( 35S) as an Intrinsic Tracer

The application of the cosmogenic radioisotope sulfur-35 ( 35S) as a chronometer near spreading basins is evaluated at two well-established Managed Aquifer Recharge (MAR) sites: the Atlantis facility (South Africa) and Orange County Water District’s (OCWD’s) Kraemer Basin (Northern Orange County, CA, USA). Source water for both of these sites includes recycled wastewater. Despite lying nearer to the outlet end of their respective watersheds than to the headwaters, 35S was detected in most of the water sampled, including from wells found close to the spreading ponds and in the source water. Dilution with 35S-dead continental SO 4 was minimal, a surprising finding given its short ~3 month half-life. The initial work at the Atlantis MAR site demonstrated that remote laboratories could be set up and that small volume samples—saline solutions collected after the resin elution step from the recently developed batch method described below—can be stored and transported to the counting laboratory. This study also showed that the batch method needed to be altered to remove unknown compounds eluted from the resin along with SO 4. Using the improved batch method, times series measurements of both source and well water from OCWD’s MAR site showed significant temporal variations. Finally, thismore » result indicates that during future studies, monthly to semi-monthly sampling should be conducted. Nevertheless, both of these initial studies suggest the 35S chronometer may become a valuable tool for managing MAR sites where regulations require minimum retention times.« less
Authors:
 [1] ;  [2] ;  [3] ; ORCiD logo [3] ;  [4]
  1. Univ. of California, Santa Barbara, CA (United States). Dept. of Earth Science
  2. Univ. of California, Santa Barbara, CA (United States). Dept. of Earth Science; Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States). Environmental Support and Programmatic Outreach; Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States). Nuclear and Chemical Sciences Division
  3. Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States). Nuclear and Chemical Sciences Division
  4. CSIR Natural Resources and the Environment, Stellenbosch (South Africa)
Publication Date:
Report Number(s):
LLNL-JRNL-705912
Journal ID: ISSN 2073-4441; WATEGH; PII: w8110474
Grant/Contract Number:
AC52-07NA27344; WRRF-09-11
Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Water (Basel)
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Name: Water (Basel); Journal Volume: 8; Journal Issue: 11; Journal ID: ISSN 2073-4441
Publisher:
MDPI
Research Org:
Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)
Sponsoring Org:
USDOE; WaterReuse Research Foundation, Alexandria, VA (United States)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
58 GEOSCIENCES; 37 INORGANIC, ORGANIC, PHYSICAL, AND ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY; 54 ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES; hydrologic tracers; travel time; retention time; radio-sulfur (35S); Atlantis MAR Facility (South Africa); Orange County Water District MAR Facility (California; USA); Environmental sciences, Geosciences
OSTI Identifier:
1395315
Alternate Identifier(s):
OSTI ID: 1474375

Clark, Jordan, Urióstegui, Stephanie, Bibby, Richard, Esser, Bradley, and Tredoux, Gideon. Quantifying Apparent Groundwater Ages near Managed Aquifer Recharge Operations Using Radio-Sulfur (35S) as an Intrinsic Tracer. United States: N. p., Web. doi:10.3390/w8110474.
Clark, Jordan, Urióstegui, Stephanie, Bibby, Richard, Esser, Bradley, & Tredoux, Gideon. Quantifying Apparent Groundwater Ages near Managed Aquifer Recharge Operations Using Radio-Sulfur (35S) as an Intrinsic Tracer. United States. doi:10.3390/w8110474.
Clark, Jordan, Urióstegui, Stephanie, Bibby, Richard, Esser, Bradley, and Tredoux, Gideon. 2016. "Quantifying Apparent Groundwater Ages near Managed Aquifer Recharge Operations Using Radio-Sulfur (35S) as an Intrinsic Tracer". United States. doi:10.3390/w8110474. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1395315.
@article{osti_1395315,
title = {Quantifying Apparent Groundwater Ages near Managed Aquifer Recharge Operations Using Radio-Sulfur (35S) as an Intrinsic Tracer},
author = {Clark, Jordan and Urióstegui, Stephanie and Bibby, Richard and Esser, Bradley and Tredoux, Gideon},
abstractNote = {The application of the cosmogenic radioisotope sulfur-35 (35S) as a chronometer near spreading basins is evaluated at two well-established Managed Aquifer Recharge (MAR) sites: the Atlantis facility (South Africa) and Orange County Water District’s (OCWD’s) Kraemer Basin (Northern Orange County, CA, USA). Source water for both of these sites includes recycled wastewater. Despite lying nearer to the outlet end of their respective watersheds than to the headwaters, 35S was detected in most of the water sampled, including from wells found close to the spreading ponds and in the source water. Dilution with 35S-dead continental SO4 was minimal, a surprising finding given its short ~3 month half-life. The initial work at the Atlantis MAR site demonstrated that remote laboratories could be set up and that small volume samples—saline solutions collected after the resin elution step from the recently developed batch method described below—can be stored and transported to the counting laboratory. This study also showed that the batch method needed to be altered to remove unknown compounds eluted from the resin along with SO4. Using the improved batch method, times series measurements of both source and well water from OCWD’s MAR site showed significant temporal variations. Finally, this result indicates that during future studies, monthly to semi-monthly sampling should be conducted. Nevertheless, both of these initial studies suggest the 35S chronometer may become a valuable tool for managing MAR sites where regulations require minimum retention times.},
doi = {10.3390/w8110474},
journal = {Water (Basel)},
number = 11,
volume = 8,
place = {United States},
year = {2016},
month = {10}
}