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Title: Whole metagenome profiles of particulates collected from the International Space Station

Background The built environment of the International Space Station (ISS) is a highly specialized space in terms of both physical characteristics and habitation requirements. It is unique with respect to conditions of microgravity, exposure to space radiation, and increased carbon dioxide concentrations. Additionally, astronauts inhabit a large proportion of this environment. The microbial composition of ISS particulates has been reported; however, its functional genomics, which are pertinent due to potential impact of its constituents on human health and operational mission success, are not yet characterized. Methods This study examined the whole metagenome of ISS microbes at both species- and gene-level resolution. Air filter and dust samples from the ISS were analyzed and compared to samples collected in a terrestrial cleanroom environment. Furthermore, metagenome mining was carried out to characterize dominant, virulent, and novel microorganisms. The whole genome sequences of select cultivable strains isolated from these samples were extracted from the metagenome and compared. Results Species-level composition in the ISS was found to be largely dominated by Corynebacterium ihumii GD7, with overall microbial diversity being lower in the ISS relative to the cleanroom samples. When examining detection of microbial genes relevant to human health such as antimicrobial resistance and virulence genes,more » it was found that a larger number of relevant gene categories were observed in the ISS relative to the cleanroom. Strain-level cross-sample comparisons were made for Corynebacterium, Bacillus, and Aspergillus showing possible distinctions in the dominant strain between samples. Conclusion Species-level analyses demonstrated distinct differences between the ISS and cleanroom samples, indicating that the cleanroom population is not necessarily reflective of space habitation environments. Lastly, the overall population of viable microorganisms and the functional diversity inherent to this unique closed environment are of critical interest with respect to future space habitation. Observations and studies such as these will be important to evaluating the conditions required for long-term health of human occupants in such environments.« less
Authors:
 [1] ;  [2] ;  [2] ;  [3] ;  [4] ;  [1] ; ORCiD logo [5]
  1. Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States). Physical and Life Sciences Directorate
  2. Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)
  3. California Inst. of Technology (CalTech), La Canada Flintridge, CA (United States). Jet Propulsion Lab
  4. California Inst. of Technology (CalTech), La Canada Flintridge, CA (United States). Jet Propulsion Lab.; Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)
  5. California Inst. of Technology (CalTech), La Canada Flintridge, CA (United States). Jet Propulsion Lab.
Publication Date:
Grant/Contract Number:
AC52-07NA27344
Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Microbiome
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 5; Journal Issue: 1; Related Information: 10.1186/s40168-017-0330-2; Journal ID: ISSN 2049-2618
Publisher:
BioMed Central
Research Org:
Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)
Sponsoring Org:
USDOE
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
59 BASIC BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES; international Space Station; Microbiome; Functional metagenomics; Built environment; Cleanroom Propidium monoazide
OSTI Identifier:
1395309

Be, Nicholas A., Avila-Herrera, Aram, Allen, Jonathan E., Singh, Nitin, Checinska Sielaff, Aleksandra, Jaing, Crystal, and Venkateswaran, Kasthuri. Whole metagenome profiles of particulates collected from the International Space Station. United States: N. p., Web. doi:10.1186/s40168-017-0292-4.
Be, Nicholas A., Avila-Herrera, Aram, Allen, Jonathan E., Singh, Nitin, Checinska Sielaff, Aleksandra, Jaing, Crystal, & Venkateswaran, Kasthuri. Whole metagenome profiles of particulates collected from the International Space Station. United States. doi:10.1186/s40168-017-0292-4.
Be, Nicholas A., Avila-Herrera, Aram, Allen, Jonathan E., Singh, Nitin, Checinska Sielaff, Aleksandra, Jaing, Crystal, and Venkateswaran, Kasthuri. 2017. "Whole metagenome profiles of particulates collected from the International Space Station". United States. doi:10.1186/s40168-017-0292-4. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1395309.
@article{osti_1395309,
title = {Whole metagenome profiles of particulates collected from the International Space Station},
author = {Be, Nicholas A. and Avila-Herrera, Aram and Allen, Jonathan E. and Singh, Nitin and Checinska Sielaff, Aleksandra and Jaing, Crystal and Venkateswaran, Kasthuri},
abstractNote = {Background The built environment of the International Space Station (ISS) is a highly specialized space in terms of both physical characteristics and habitation requirements. It is unique with respect to conditions of microgravity, exposure to space radiation, and increased carbon dioxide concentrations. Additionally, astronauts inhabit a large proportion of this environment. The microbial composition of ISS particulates has been reported; however, its functional genomics, which are pertinent due to potential impact of its constituents on human health and operational mission success, are not yet characterized. Methods This study examined the whole metagenome of ISS microbes at both species- and gene-level resolution. Air filter and dust samples from the ISS were analyzed and compared to samples collected in a terrestrial cleanroom environment. Furthermore, metagenome mining was carried out to characterize dominant, virulent, and novel microorganisms. The whole genome sequences of select cultivable strains isolated from these samples were extracted from the metagenome and compared. Results Species-level composition in the ISS was found to be largely dominated by Corynebacterium ihumii GD7, with overall microbial diversity being lower in the ISS relative to the cleanroom samples. When examining detection of microbial genes relevant to human health such as antimicrobial resistance and virulence genes, it was found that a larger number of relevant gene categories were observed in the ISS relative to the cleanroom. Strain-level cross-sample comparisons were made for Corynebacterium, Bacillus, and Aspergillus showing possible distinctions in the dominant strain between samples. Conclusion Species-level analyses demonstrated distinct differences between the ISS and cleanroom samples, indicating that the cleanroom population is not necessarily reflective of space habitation environments. Lastly, the overall population of viable microorganisms and the functional diversity inherent to this unique closed environment are of critical interest with respect to future space habitation. Observations and studies such as these will be important to evaluating the conditions required for long-term health of human occupants in such environments.},
doi = {10.1186/s40168-017-0292-4},
journal = {Microbiome},
number = 1,
volume = 5,
place = {United States},
year = {2017},
month = {7}
}