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Title: Long term stability of Li-S batteries using high concentration lithium nitrate electrolytes

The lithium-sulfur (Li-S) battery is a very promising candidate for the next generation of energy storage systems required for electrical vehicles and grid energy storage applications due to its very high theoretical specific energy (2500 W h kg -1). However, low Coulombic efficiency (CE) during repeated Li metal plating/stripping has severely limited the practical application of rechargeable Li-S batteries. In this work, a new electrolyte system based on a high concentration of LiNO 3 in diglyme (G2) solvent is developed which enables an exceptionally high CE for Li metal plating/stripping and thus high stability of the Li anode in the sulfur-containing electrolyte. The tailoring of electrolyte properties for the Li anode has proven to be a highly successful strategy for improving the capacity retention and cycle life of Li-S batteries. This electrolyte provides a CE of greater than 99% for over 200 cycles of Li plating/stripping. In contrast, the Li anode cycles for less than 35 cycles (with a high CE) in the state-of-the-art 1 M LiTFSI + 0.3 M LiNO 3 in 1,3-dioxolane:1,2-dimethoxyethane (DOL:DME) electrolyte under the same conditions. Lastly, the stable Li anode enabled by the new electrolyte may accelerate the applications of high energy density Li-S batteriesmore » in both electrical vehicles and large-scale grid energy storage markets.« less
Authors:
 [1] ;  [2] ;  [2] ;  [3] ;  [1] ;  [1] ;  [4] ;  [4] ;  [3] ;  [4] ;  [1]
  1. Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States). Joint Center for Energy Storage Research (JCESR); Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States). Energy & Environment Directorate
  2. Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Joint Center for Energy Storage Research (JCESR); Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Materials Science Division
  3. Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States). Joint Center for Energy Storage Research (JCESR); Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States). Physical & Computer Sciences Directorate
  4. Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States). Energy & Environment Directorate
Publication Date:
Report Number(s):
PNNL-SA-124786
Journal ID: ISSN 2211-2855; PII: S2211285517305530
Grant/Contract Number:
AC05-76RL01830
Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Nano Energy
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 40; Journal Issue: C; Journal ID: ISSN 2211-2855
Publisher:
Elsevier
Research Org:
Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)
Sponsoring Org:
USDOE Office of Science (SC), Basic Energy Sciences (BES) (SC-22)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
25 ENERGY STORAGE; 36 MATERIALS SCIENCE; Li-S battery; Lithium nitrate; Coulombic efficiency; Cycling stability; Lithium metal
OSTI Identifier:
1395291