skip to main content
DOE PAGES title logo U.S. Department of Energy
Office of Scientific and Technical Information

Title: Quantification of Sheet Resistance in Boron-Diffused Silicon Using Micro-Photoluminescence Spectroscopy at Room Temperature

Abstract

A micro-photoluminescence-based technique is presented, to quantify and map sheet resistances of boron-diffused layers in silicon solar cell precursors with micron-scale spatial resolution at room temperature. The technique utilizes bandgap narrowing effects in the heavily-doped layers, yielding a broader photoluminescence spectrum at the long-wavelength side compared to the spectrum emitted from lightly doped silicon. By choosing an appropriate spectral range as a metric to assess the doping density, the impacts of photon reabsorption on the analysis can be avoided; thus, an accurate characterization of the sheet resistance can be made. This metric is demonstrated to be better representative of the sheet resistance than the surface doping density or the total dopant concentration of the diffused layer. The technique is applied to quantify sheet resistances of 12-um-wide diffused fingers in interdigitated back-contact solar cell precursors and large diffused areas. The results are confirmed by both 4-point probe and time-of-flight secondary-ion mass spectrometry measurements. Lastly, the practical limitations associated with extending the proposed technique into an imaging mode are presented and explained.

Authors:
 [1];  [2];  [3];  [2];  [1];  [1];  [1];  [1];  [3];  [2];  [1]
  1. The Australian National Univ., Canberra, ACT (Australia)
  2. National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)
  3. The Univ. of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW (Australia)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)
OSTI Identifier:
1395105
Alternate Identifier(s):
OSTI ID: 1378116
Report Number(s):
NREL/JA-5K00-70126
Journal ID: ISSN 2367-198X
Grant/Contract Number:  
AC36-08GO28308; DE‐AC36‐08GO28308
Resource Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Solar RRL
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 1; Journal Issue: 10; Journal ID: ISSN 2367-198X
Publisher:
Wiley
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
14 SOLAR ENERGY; 36 MATERIALS SCIENCE; diffusion; heavily doped silicon; photoluminescence; solar cells; spectroscopy

Citation Formats

Nguyen, Hieu T., Johnston, Steve, Paduthol, Appu, Harvey, Steven P., Phang, Sieu Pheng, Samundsett, Christian, Sun, Chang, Yan, Di, Trupke, Thorsten, Al-Jassim, Mowafak M., and Macdonald, Daniel. Quantification of Sheet Resistance in Boron-Diffused Silicon Using Micro-Photoluminescence Spectroscopy at Room Temperature. United States: N. p., 2017. Web. https://doi.org/10.1002/solr.201700088.
Nguyen, Hieu T., Johnston, Steve, Paduthol, Appu, Harvey, Steven P., Phang, Sieu Pheng, Samundsett, Christian, Sun, Chang, Yan, Di, Trupke, Thorsten, Al-Jassim, Mowafak M., & Macdonald, Daniel. Quantification of Sheet Resistance in Boron-Diffused Silicon Using Micro-Photoluminescence Spectroscopy at Room Temperature. United States. https://doi.org/10.1002/solr.201700088
Nguyen, Hieu T., Johnston, Steve, Paduthol, Appu, Harvey, Steven P., Phang, Sieu Pheng, Samundsett, Christian, Sun, Chang, Yan, Di, Trupke, Thorsten, Al-Jassim, Mowafak M., and Macdonald, Daniel. Fri . "Quantification of Sheet Resistance in Boron-Diffused Silicon Using Micro-Photoluminescence Spectroscopy at Room Temperature". United States. https://doi.org/10.1002/solr.201700088. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1395105.
@article{osti_1395105,
title = {Quantification of Sheet Resistance in Boron-Diffused Silicon Using Micro-Photoluminescence Spectroscopy at Room Temperature},
author = {Nguyen, Hieu T. and Johnston, Steve and Paduthol, Appu and Harvey, Steven P. and Phang, Sieu Pheng and Samundsett, Christian and Sun, Chang and Yan, Di and Trupke, Thorsten and Al-Jassim, Mowafak M. and Macdonald, Daniel},
abstractNote = {A micro-photoluminescence-based technique is presented, to quantify and map sheet resistances of boron-diffused layers in silicon solar cell precursors with micron-scale spatial resolution at room temperature. The technique utilizes bandgap narrowing effects in the heavily-doped layers, yielding a broader photoluminescence spectrum at the long-wavelength side compared to the spectrum emitted from lightly doped silicon. By choosing an appropriate spectral range as a metric to assess the doping density, the impacts of photon reabsorption on the analysis can be avoided; thus, an accurate characterization of the sheet resistance can be made. This metric is demonstrated to be better representative of the sheet resistance than the surface doping density or the total dopant concentration of the diffused layer. The technique is applied to quantify sheet resistances of 12-um-wide diffused fingers in interdigitated back-contact solar cell precursors and large diffused areas. The results are confirmed by both 4-point probe and time-of-flight secondary-ion mass spectrometry measurements. Lastly, the practical limitations associated with extending the proposed technique into an imaging mode are presented and explained.},
doi = {10.1002/solr.201700088},
journal = {Solar RRL},
number = 10,
volume = 1,
place = {United States},
year = {2017},
month = {9}
}

Journal Article:
Free Publicly Available Full Text
Publisher's Version of Record

Citation Metrics:
Cited by: 4 works
Citation information provided by
Web of Science

Save / Share:

Works referenced in this record:

Uncertainty analysis for the coefficient of band-to-band absorption of crystalline silicon
journal, June 2015

  • Schinke, Carsten; Christian Peest, P.; Schmidt, Jan
  • AIP Advances, Vol. 5, Issue 6
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.4923379

Micro-photoluminescence spectroscopy on metal precipitates in silicon
journal, October 2009

  • Gundel, Paul; Schubert, Martin C.; Kwapil, Wolfram
  • physica status solidi (RRL) - Rapid Research Letters, Vol. 3, Issue 7-8
  • DOI: 10.1002/pssr.200903221

Determining lifetime in silicon blocks and wafers with accurate expressions for carrier density
journal, December 2007

  • Bowden, Stuart; Sinton, Ronald A.
  • Journal of Applied Physics, Vol. 102, Issue 12
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.2818371

Quantitative carrier lifetime measurement with micron resolution
journal, August 2010

  • Gundel, Paul; Heinz, Friedemann D.; Schubert, Martin C.
  • Journal of Applied Physics, Vol. 108, Issue 3
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.3462433

Ultralow Values of the Absorption Coefficient of Si Obtained from Luminescence
journal, February 1995


Micrometer-Scale Deep-Level Spectral Photoluminescence From Dislocations in Multicrystalline Silicon
journal, May 2015


Temperature dependence of the band-band absorption coefficient in crystalline silicon from photoluminescence
journal, January 2014

  • Nguyen, Hieu T.; Rougieux, Fiacre E.; Mitchell, Bernhard
  • Journal of Applied Physics, Vol. 115, Issue 4
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.4862912

Photoluminescence Imaging of Silicon Wafers and Solar Cells With Spatially Inhomogeneous Illumination
journal, July 2017


Deep-level photoluminescence due to dislocations and oxygen precipitates in multicrystalline Si
journal, June 2012

  • Tajima, Michio; Iwata, Yasuaki; Okayama, Futoshi
  • Journal of Applied Physics, Vol. 111, Issue 11
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.4728194

Doping Density in Silicon and Solar Cells Analyzed With Micrometer Resolution
journal, January 2013


Comprehensive Microscopic Analysis of Laser-Induced High Doping Regions in Silicon
journal, September 2011

  • Gundel, Paul; Suwito, Dominik; Jager, Ulrich
  • IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices, Vol. 58, Issue 9
  • DOI: 10.1109/TED.2011.2158649

A unified mobility model for device simulation—I. Model equations and concentration dependence
journal, July 1992


Evaluating the Aluminum-Alloyed $\hbox{p}^{+}$-Layer of Silicon Solar Cells by Emitter Saturation Current Density and Optical Microspectroscopy Measurements
journal, February 2011

  • Woehl, Robert; Gundel, Paul; Krause, Jonas
  • IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices, Vol. 58, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1109/TED.2010.2093145

Micro-photoluminescence spectroscopy on heavily-doped layers of silicon solar cells: Micro-photoluminescence spectroscopy on heavily-doped layers of silicon solar cells
journal, March 2015

  • Nguyen, Hieu T.; Yan, Di; Wang, Fan
  • physica status solidi (RRL) - Rapid Research Letters, Vol. 9, Issue 4
  • DOI: 10.1002/pssr.201510049

Modeling the Spectral Luminescence Emission of Silicon Solar Cells and Wafers
journal, July 2013


Growth of Oxygen Precipitates and Dislocations in Czochralski Silicon
journal, May 2017


Band-gap narrowing in heavily doped silicon at 20 and 300 K studied by photoluminescence
journal, July 1985


Temperature dependence of the radiative recombination coefficient of intrinsic crystalline silicon
journal, January 2003

  • Trupke, T.; Green, M. A.; Würfel, P.
  • Journal of Applied Physics, Vol. 94, Issue 8
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.1610231

Spectroscopy and Topography of Deep-Level Luminescence in Photovoltaic Silicon
journal, November 2014


Impact of Carrier Profile and Rear-Side Reflection on Photoluminescence Spectra in Planar Crystalline Silicon Wafers at Different Temperatures
journal, January 2015

  • Nguyen, Hieu T.; Rougieux, Fiacre E.; Baker-Finch, Simeon C.
  • IEEE Journal of Photovoltaics, Vol. 5, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1109/JPHOTOV.2014.2359737

Self-consistent optical parameters of intrinsic silicon at 300K including temperature coefficients
journal, November 2008


Design, fabrication and characterisation of a 24.4% efficient interdigitated back contact solar cell: 24.4% efficient interdigitated back contact solar cell
journal, October 2014

  • Franklin, Evan; Fong, Kean; McIntosh, Keith
  • Progress in Photovoltaics: Research and Applications, Vol. 24, Issue 4
  • DOI: 10.1002/pip.2556

Band‐gap narrowing from luminescence in p ‐type Si
journal, June 1983

  • Dumke, William P.
  • Journal of Applied Physics, Vol. 54, Issue 6
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.332480

Dislocations in laser-doped silicon detected by micro-photoluminescence spectroscopy
journal, July 2015

  • Nguyen, Hieu T.; Han, Young; Ernst, Marco
  • Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 107, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.4926360

Band‐gap narrowing in heavily doped silicon: A comparison of optical and electrical data
journal, January 1988

  • Wagner, Joachim; del Alamo, Jesús A.
  • Journal of Applied Physics, Vol. 63, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.340257

Fast, contactless and spatially resolved measurement of sheet resistance by an infrared method
journal, January 2004

  • Isenberg, Joerg; Biro, Daniel; Warta, Wilhelm
  • Progress in Photovoltaics: Research and Applications, Vol. 12, Issue 7
  • DOI: 10.1002/pip.548

Microscale Spatially Resolved Characterization of Highly Doped Regions in Laser-Fired Contacts for High-Efficiency Crystalline Si Solar Cells
journal, March 2015


24% efficient silicon solar cells
journal, August 1990

  • Wang, A.; Zhao, J.; Green, M. A.
  • Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 57, Issue 6
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.103610

Microscopic Distributions of Defect Luminescence From Subgrain Boundaries in Multicrystalline Silicon Wafers
journal, May 2017


On the composition of luminescence spectra from heavily doped p-type silicon under low and high excitation
journal, January 2017


Modelling silicon characterisation
journal, January 2011


Analytical expressions for spectral composition of band photoluminescence from silicon wafers and bricks
journal, September 2011


Emitter sheet resistance from photoluminescence images
conference, June 2013

  • Juhl, Mattias; Trupke, Thorsten; Augarten, Yael
  • 2013 IEEE 39th Photovoltaic Specialists Conference (PVSC)
  • DOI: 10.1109/PVSC.2013.6744130

    Works referencing / citing this record:

    Contactless, nondestructive determination of dopant profiles of localized boron-diffused regions in silicon wafers at room temperature
    journal, July 2019