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Title: Single-Electron and Single-Photon Sensitivity with a Silicon Skipper CCD

Here, we have developed ultralow-noise electronics in combination with repetitive, nondestructive readout of a thick, fully depleted charge-coupled device (CCD) to achieve an unprecedented noise level of 0.068 e - rms/pixel. This is the first time that discrete subelectron readout noise has been achieved reproducible over millions of pixels on a stable, large-area detector. This enables the contemporaneous, discrete, and quantized measurement of charge in pixels, irrespective of whether they contain zero electrons or thousands of electrons. Thus, the resulting CCD detector is an ultra-sensitive calorimeter. It is also capable of counting single photons in the optical and near-infrared regime. Implementing this innovative non-destructive readout system has a negligible impact on CCD design and fabrication, and there are nearly immediate scientific applications. As a particle detector, this CCD will have unprecedented sensitivity to low-mass dark matter particles and coherent neutrino-nucleus scattering, while future astronomical applications may include direct imaging and spectroscopy of exoplanets.
Authors:
 [1] ;  [2] ;  [1] ;  [3] ;  [1] ;  [4] ;  [5] ;  [6]
  1. Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States)
  2. Centro Atomico Bariloche, Bariloche (Argentina); Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States)
  3. Stony Brook Univ., Stony Brook, NY (United States)
  4. Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)
  5. Tel-Aviv Univ., Tel-Aviv (Israel)
  6. European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva (Switzerland)
Publication Date:
Report Number(s):
FERMILAB-PUB-17-183-AE-E-PPD; YITP-SB-16-25; CERN-TH-2017-114; arXiv:1706.00028
Journal ID: ISSN 0031-9007; PRLTAO; 1602144
Grant/Contract Number:
AC02-07CH11359; SC0008061; AC02-05CH11231
Type:
Published Article
Journal Name:
Physical Review Letters
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 119; Journal Issue: 13; Journal ID: ISSN 0031-9007
Publisher:
American Physical Society (APS)
Research Org:
Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States)
Sponsoring Org:
USDOE Office of Science (SC), High Energy Physics (HEP) (SC-25)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
79 ASTRONOMY AND ASTROPHYSICS; 46 INSTRUMENTATION RELATED TO NUCLEAR SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY; 72 PHYSICS OF ELEMENTARY PARTICLES AND FIELDS
OSTI Identifier:
1394868
Alternate Identifier(s):
OSTI ID: 1367900; OSTI ID: 1416927