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Title: Electric-field-induced structural changes in multilayer piezoelectric actuators during electrical and mechanical loading

The effects of electrical and mechanical loading on the behavior of domains and phases in Multilayer Piezoelectric Actuators (MAs) is studied using in situ high-energy X-ray diffraction (XRD) and macroscopic property measurements. Rietveld refinement is carried out on measured diffraction patterns using a two-phase tetragonal (P4mm) and rhombohedral (R3m) model. Applying an electric field promotes the rhombohedral phase, while increasing compressive uniaxial pre-stress prior to electric field application favors the tetragonal phase. The competition between electrical and mechanical energy leads to a maximal difference between electric-field-induced phase fractions at 70 MPa pre-stress. Additionally, the available volume fraction of non-180° domain reorientation that can be accessed during electric field application increases with compressive pre-stress up to 70 MPa. The origin for enhanced strain and polarization with applied pre-stress is attributed to a combination of enhanced non-180° domain reorientation and electric-field-induced phase transitions. The suppression of both the electric-field-induced phase transitions and domain reorientation at high pre-stresses (>70 MPa) is attributed to a large mechanical energy barrier, and alludes to the competition of the electrical and mechanical energy within the MA during applied stimuli.
 [1] ;  [1] ;  [2] ;  [3] ;  [1] ;  [4]
  1. North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States). Department of Materials Science and Engineering
  2. Voestalpine Schienen GmbH, Leoben (Austria)
  3. Materials Center Leoben Forschung GmbH, Leoben (Austria)
  4. Materials Center Leoben Forschung GmbH, Leoben (Austria); Institut fur Struktur- und Funktionskeramik, Montanuniversitat Leoben (Austria)
Publication Date:
Grant/Contract Number:
AC05-00OR22725; AC02-06CH11357
Published Article
Journal Name:
Acta Materialia
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 132; Journal Issue: C; Journal ID: ISSN 1359-6454
Research Org:
Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)
Sponsoring Org:
USDOE Office of Science (SC)
Country of Publication:
United States
36 MATERIALS SCIENCE; X-ray diffraction; Ferroelectrics; Electric field-induced phase transitions; PZT; Piezoactuator
OSTI Identifier:
Alternate Identifier(s):
OSTI ID: 1356949