skip to main content


Title: Freeze Tape Cast Thick Mo Doped Li 4Ti 5O 12 Electrodes for Lithium-Ion Batteries

Lithium titanate (Li 4Ti 5O 12) powders with and without molybdenum doping (LTO and MoLTO respectively) were synthesized by a solid-state method and used to fabricate electrodes on Cu foil using a normal tape-cast method and a novel freeze-tape-cast method. Modest molybdenum doping produces a significant electronic conductivity increase (e.g. 1 mS cm -1 for MoLTO vs 10 -7 mS cm -1 for LTO) that is thought to reflect a partial Ti 4+ reduction to Ti 3+ with charge compensation by the Mo 6+ dopant, producing a stable mixed-valent Ti 4+/3+ state. Freeze-tape-cast electrodes were fabricated by a variant of the normal tape-cast method that includes a rapid freezing step in which the solvent in the Cu-foil-supported slurry is rapidly frozen on a cold finger then subsequently sublimed to create unidirectional columnar macropores in the electrode. The resulting electrodes exhibit high porosity and low tortuosity which enhances electrolyte accessibility throughout the full electrode thickness. Freeze-tape-cast electrodes subjected to galvanostatic charge-discharge testing as cathodes in cells vs. a lithium metal anode exhibit higher specific capacity and lower capacity loss at high discharge rates compared with normal-tape-cast electrodes of the same mass loading, despite the fact that the freeze-tape-cast electrodes are nearlymore » twice as thick as the normal tape cast electrodes.« less
 [1] ;  [1] ;  [2] ;  [1]
  1. Clemson Univ., SC (United States)
  2. Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)
Publication Date:
Grant/Contract Number:
AC05-00OR22725; CMMI 1502392
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Journal of the Electrochemical Society
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 164; Journal Issue: 12; Journal ID: ISSN 0013-4651
The Electrochemical Society
Research Org:
Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)
Sponsoring Org:
USDOE Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Vehicle Technologies Office (EE-3V); National Science Foundation (NSF)
Country of Publication:
United States
25 ENERGY STORAGE; electronic conductivity; lithium battery; lithium titanate
OSTI Identifier: