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Title: Organ and effective dose rate coefficients for submersion exposure in occupational settings

Abstract

External dose coefficients for environmental exposure scenarios are often computed using assumption on infinite or semi-infinite radiation sources. For example, in the case of a person standing on contaminated ground, the source is assumed to be distributed at a given depth (or between various depths) and extending outwards to an essentially infinite distance. In the case of exposure to contaminated air, the person is modeled as standing within a cloud of infinite, or semi-infinite, source distribution. However, these scenarios do not mimic common workplace environments where scatter off walls and ceilings may significantly alter the energy spectrum and dose coefficients. In this study, dose rate coefficients were calculated using the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) reference voxel phantoms positioned in rooms of three sizes representing an office, laboratory, and warehouse. For each room size calculations using the reference phantoms were performed for photons, electrons, and positrons as the source particles to derive mono-energetic dose rate coefficients. Since the voxel phantoms lack the resolution to perform dose calculations at the sensitive depth for the skin, a mathematical phantom was developed and calculations were performed in each room size with the three source particle types. Coefficients for the noble gas radionuclidesmore » of ICRP Publication 107 (e.g., Ne, Ar, Kr, Xe, and Rn) were generated by folding the corresponding photon, electron, and positron emissions over the mono-energetic dose rate coefficients. Finally, results indicate that the smaller room sizes have a significant impact on the dose rate per unit air concentration compared to the semi-infinite cloud case. For example, for Kr-85 the warehouse dose rate coefficient is 7% higher than the office dose rate coefficient while it is 71% higher for Xe-133.« less

Authors:
 [1];  [2];  [3];  [3];  [1];  [1]
  1. Easterly Scientific, Knoxville, TN (United States)
  2. (United States)
  3. Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE
OSTI Identifier:
1394390
Grant/Contract Number:  
AC05-00OR22725
Resource Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Radiation and Environmental Biophysics
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 56; Journal Issue: 4; Journal ID: ISSN 0301-634X
Publisher:
Springer
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
61 RADIATION PROTECTION AND DOSIMETRY; organ dose; effective dose; room submersion; air submersion

Citation Formats

Veinot, K. G., Y-12 National Security Complex, Oak Ridge, TN, Dewji, S. A., Hiller, M. M., Eckerman, K. F., and Easterly, C. E. Organ and effective dose rate coefficients for submersion exposure in occupational settings. United States: N. p., 2017. Web. doi:10.1007/s00411-017-0705-6.
Veinot, K. G., Y-12 National Security Complex, Oak Ridge, TN, Dewji, S. A., Hiller, M. M., Eckerman, K. F., & Easterly, C. E. Organ and effective dose rate coefficients for submersion exposure in occupational settings. United States. doi:10.1007/s00411-017-0705-6.
Veinot, K. G., Y-12 National Security Complex, Oak Ridge, TN, Dewji, S. A., Hiller, M. M., Eckerman, K. F., and Easterly, C. E. Thu . "Organ and effective dose rate coefficients for submersion exposure in occupational settings". United States. doi:10.1007/s00411-017-0705-6. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1394390.
@article{osti_1394390,
title = {Organ and effective dose rate coefficients for submersion exposure in occupational settings},
author = {Veinot, K. G. and Y-12 National Security Complex, Oak Ridge, TN and Dewji, S. A. and Hiller, M. M. and Eckerman, K. F. and Easterly, C. E.},
abstractNote = {External dose coefficients for environmental exposure scenarios are often computed using assumption on infinite or semi-infinite radiation sources. For example, in the case of a person standing on contaminated ground, the source is assumed to be distributed at a given depth (or between various depths) and extending outwards to an essentially infinite distance. In the case of exposure to contaminated air, the person is modeled as standing within a cloud of infinite, or semi-infinite, source distribution. However, these scenarios do not mimic common workplace environments where scatter off walls and ceilings may significantly alter the energy spectrum and dose coefficients. In this study, dose rate coefficients were calculated using the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) reference voxel phantoms positioned in rooms of three sizes representing an office, laboratory, and warehouse. For each room size calculations using the reference phantoms were performed for photons, electrons, and positrons as the source particles to derive mono-energetic dose rate coefficients. Since the voxel phantoms lack the resolution to perform dose calculations at the sensitive depth for the skin, a mathematical phantom was developed and calculations were performed in each room size with the three source particle types. Coefficients for the noble gas radionuclides of ICRP Publication 107 (e.g., Ne, Ar, Kr, Xe, and Rn) were generated by folding the corresponding photon, electron, and positron emissions over the mono-energetic dose rate coefficients. Finally, results indicate that the smaller room sizes have a significant impact on the dose rate per unit air concentration compared to the semi-infinite cloud case. For example, for Kr-85 the warehouse dose rate coefficient is 7% higher than the office dose rate coefficient while it is 71% higher for Xe-133.},
doi = {10.1007/s00411-017-0705-6},
journal = {Radiation and Environmental Biophysics},
number = 4,
volume = 56,
place = {United States},
year = {2017},
month = {8}
}

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Works referenced in this record:

Organ doses from environmental exposures calculated using voxel phantoms of adults and children
journal, September 2012


Air-ground Interface Effect on Gamma-ray Submersion Dose
journal, January 1981


Effective dose rate coefficients for exposure to contaminated soil
journal, May 2017

  • Veinot, K. G.; Eckerman, K. F.; Bellamy, M. B.
  • Radiation and Environmental Biophysics, Vol. 56, Issue 3
  • DOI: 10.1007/s00411-017-0692-7