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Title: Fractal Analysis of Visual Search Activity for Mass Detection During Mammographic Screening

Purpose: The objective of this study was to assess the complexity of human visual search activity during mammographic screening using fractal analysis and to investigate its relationship with case and reader characteristics. Methods: The study was performed for the task of mammographic screening with simultaneous viewing of four coordinated breast views as typically done in clinical practice. Eye-tracking data and diagnostic decisions collected for 100 mammographic cases (25 normal, 25 benign, 50 malignant) and 10 readers (three board certified radiologists and seven radiology residents), formed the corpus data for this study. The fractal dimension of the readers’ visual scanning patterns was computed with the Minkowski–Bouligand box-counting method and used as a measure of gaze complexity. Individual factor and group-based interaction ANOVA analysis was performed to study the association between fractal dimension, case pathology, breast density, and reader experience level. The consistency of the observed trends depending on gaze data representation was also examined. Results: Case pathology, breast density, reader experience level, and individual reader differences are all independent predictors of the visual scanning pattern complexity when screening for breast cancer. No higher order effects were found to be significant. Conclusions: Fractal characterization of visual search behavior during mammographic screening ismore » dependent on case properties and image reader characteristics.« less
ORCiD logo [1] ; ORCiD logo [1] ;  [2] ;  [2] ;  [3] ; ORCiD logo [1]
  1. Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Health Data Sciences Institute
  2. Univ. of Tennessee Medical Center, Knoxville, TN (United States). Dept. of Radiology
  3. Texas A & M Univ., College Station, TX (United States). Dept. of Computer Science and Engineering
Publication Date:
Grant/Contract Number:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Medical Physics
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 44; Journal Issue: 3; Journal ID: ISSN 0094-2405
American Association of Physicists in Medicine
Research Org:
Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)
Sponsoring Org:
Country of Publication:
United States
OSTI Identifier: