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Title: Impact of hydrogen refueling configurations and market parameters on the refueling cost of hydrogen

The cost of hydrogen in early fuel cell electric vehicle (FCEV) markets is dominated by the cost of refueling stations, mainly due to the high cost of refueling equipment, small station capacities, lack of economies of scale, and low utilization of the installed refueling capacity. Using the hydrogen delivery scenario analysis model (HDSAM), this study estimates the impacts of these factors on the refueling cost for different refueling technologies and configurations, and quantifies the potential reduction in future hydrogen refueling cost compared to today’s cost in the United States. The current hydrogen refueling station levelized cost, for a 200 kg/day dispensing capacity, is in the range of 6–8 dollars/kg H 2 when supplied with gaseous hydrogen, and 8–9 dollars/kg H 2 for stations supplied with liquid hydrogen. After adding the cost of hydrogen production, packaging, and transportation to the station’s levelized cost, the current cost of hydrogen at dispensers for FCEVs in California is in the range of 13–15 dollars/kg H 2. The refueling station capacity utilization strongly influences the hydrogen refueling cost. The underutilization of station capacity in early FCEV markets, such as in California, results in a levelized station cost that is approximately 40% higher than it wouldmore » be in a scenario where the station had been fully utilized since it began operating. In future mature hydrogen FCEV markets, with a large demand for hydrogen, the refueling station’s levelized cost can be reduced to 2 dollars/kg H 2 as a result of improved capacity utilization and reduced equipment cost via learning and economies of scale.« less
 [1] ;  [1] ;  [2] ;  [2]
  1. Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Energy Systems Division
  2. Dept. of Energy (DOE), Washington DC (United States). Fuel Cell Technologies Office (FCTO)
Publication Date:
Grant/Contract Number:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
International Journal of Hydrogen Energy
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 42; Journal Issue: 34; Journal ID: ISSN 0360-3199
Research Org:
Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)
Sponsoring Org:
USDOE Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Fuel Cell Technologies Office (EE-3F)
Country of Publication:
United States
33 ADVANCED PROPULSION SYSTEMS; Cost contribution; Hydrogen refueling station; Refueling costs; Refueling station; Design configuration; Levelized cost; Capacity utilization; Techno-economic analysis; HDSAM
OSTI Identifier: