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Title: Modulating laser intensity profile ellipticity for microstructural control during metal additive manufacturing

Additively manufactured (AM) metals are often highly textured, containing large columnar grains that initiate epitaxially under steep temperature gradients and rapid solidification conditions. These unique microstructures partially account for the massive property disparity existing between AM and conventionally processed alloys. Although equiaxed grains are desirable for isotropic mechanical behavior, the columnar-to-equiaxed transition remains difficult to predict for conventional solidification processes, and much more so for AM. In this study, the effects of laser intensity profile ellipticity on melt track macrostructures and microstructures were studied in 316L stainless steel. Experimental results were supported by temperature gradients and melt velocities simulated using the ALE3D multi-physics code. As a general trend, columnar grains preferentially formed with increasing laser power and scan speed for all beam profiles. However, when conduction mode laser heating occurs, scan parameters that result in coarse columnar microstructures using Gaussian profiles produce equiaxed or mixed equiaxed-columnar microstructures using elliptical profiles. Furthermore, by modulating spatial laser intensity profiles on the fly, site-specific microstructures and properties can be directly engineered into additively manufactured parts.
ORCiD logo [1] ;  [2] ;  [2] ;  [2] ;  [3] ;  [2] ;  [2]
  1. Univ. of the Pacific, Stockton, CA (United States); Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)
  2. Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)
  3. Univ. of the Pacific, Stockton, CA (United States)
Publication Date:
Report Number(s):
Journal ID: ISSN 1359-6454
Grant/Contract Number:
Published Article
Journal Name:
Acta Materialia
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 128; Journal Issue: C; Journal ID: ISSN 1359-6454
Research Org:
Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)
Sponsoring Org:
Country of Publication:
United States
36 MATERIALS SCIENCE; 42 ENGINEERING; additive manufacturing; laser powder-bed fusion; microstructure control; laser modulation; beam shaping
OSTI Identifier:
Alternate Identifier(s):
OSTI ID: 1357374