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Title: Common Envelope Ejection for a Luminous Red Nova in M101

We present the results of optical, near-infrared, and mid-infrared observations of M101 OT2015-1 (PSN J14021678+5426205), a luminous red transient in the Pinwheel galaxy (M101), spanning a total of 16 years. The light curve showed two distinct peaks with absolute magnitudes M r ≤ -12.4 and M r ~ -12, on 2014 November 11 and 2015 February 17, respectively. The spectral energy distributions during the second maximum show a cool outburst temperature of ≈3700 K and low expansion velocities (≈-300 km s -1) for the H I, Ca II, Ba II, and K I lines. From archival data spanning 15-8 years before the outburst, we find a single source consistent with the optically discovered transient, which we attribute to being the progenitor; it has properties consistent with being an F-type yellow supergiant with L ~8.7×10 4 L , T eff ≈ 7000 K, and an estimated mass of M1 = 18 ± 1 M . This star has likely just finished the H-burning phase in the core, started expanding, and is now crossing the Hertzsprung gap. Based on the combination of observed properties, we argue that the progenitor is a binary system, with the more evolved system overfilling the Rochemore » lobe. Comparison with binary evolution mode ls suggests that the outburst was an extremely rare phenomenon, likely associated with the ejection of the common envelope of a massive star. Finally, the initial mass of the primary fills the gap between the merger candidates V838 Mon (5-10 M ) and NGC 4490-OT (30M ).« less
Authors:
 [1] ; ORCiD logo [2] ; ORCiD logo [2] ; ORCiD logo [3] ; ORCiD logo [3] ; ORCiD logo [4] ;  [5] ;  [6] ; ORCiD logo [7] ; ORCiD logo [8] ;  [7] ;  [9] ; ORCiD logo [3] ;  [2] ;  [10] ; ORCiD logo [3] ; ORCiD logo [10] ;  [11] ; ORCiD logo [3] ;  [12] more »; ORCiD logo [13] ;  [6] ;  [6] ;  [14] ;  [2] ;  [8] ;  [8] ;  [15] ;  [6] ;  [6] ;  [11] ;  [16] ; ORCiD logo [6] « less
  1. California Inst. of Technology (CalTech), Pasadena, CA (United States). Cahill Center for Astrophysics; Univ. of Cambridge (United Kingdom). Inst. of Astronomy
  2. Queen's Univ., Belfast, Northern Ireland (United Kingdom). Astrophysics Research Centre, School of Mathematics and Physics
  3. California Inst. of Technology (CalTech), Pasadena, CA (United States). Cahill Center for Astrophysics
  4. California Inst. of Technology (CalTech), Pasadena, CA (United States). Spitzer Science Center
  5. California Inst. of Technology (CalTech), Pasadena, CA (United States). Jet Propulsion Lab.
  6. Istituto Nazionale di Astrofisica (INAF), Padova (Italy). Osservatorio Astronomico di Padova
  7. Univ. of Cambridge (United Kingdom). Inst. of Astronomy
  8. Stockholm Univ. (Sweden). Oskar Klein Center, Dept. of Astronomy
  9. Univ. of Turku (Finland). Tuorla Observatory, Dept. of Physics and Astronomy
  10. Univ. of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI (United States). Inst. for Astronomy
  11. Weizmann Inst. of Science, Rehovot (Israel). Dept. of Particle Physics and Astrophysics
  12. Univ. of Cambridge (United Kingdom). Inst. of Astronomy; Univ. of Turku (Finland). Tuorla Observatory, Dept. of Physics and Astronomy
  13. Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)
  14. Univ. of Turku (Finland). Tuorla Observatory, Dept. of Physics and Astronomy; Nordic Optical Telescope, Santa Cruz de La Palma (Spain)
  15. Queen's Univ., Belfast, Northern Ireland (United Kingdom). Astrophysics Research Centre, School of Mathematics and Physics; Istituto Nazionale di Astrofisica (INAF), Padova (Italy). Osservatorio Astronomico di Padova
  16. Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)
Publication Date:
Report Number(s):
LA-UR-17-27776
Journal ID: ISSN 1538-4357; ark:/13030/qt1n93t4xz
Grant/Contract Number:
AC02-05CH11231; 264895; 320360; 1545949; AC52-06NA25396
Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
The Astrophysical Journal (Online)
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Name: The Astrophysical Journal (Online); Journal Volume: 834; Journal Issue: 2; Journal ID: ISSN 1538-4357
Publisher:
Institute of Physics (IOP)
Research Org:
Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)
Sponsoring Org:
USDOE Office of Science (SC); European Union (EU); National Science Foundation (NSF); National Research Council (NRC) of Canada; USDOE Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) Program
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
79 ASTRONOMY AND ASTROPHYSICS; binaries close; novae, cataclysmic variables; stars individual (M101 OT2015-1, PSN J14021678 +5426205); stars massive; stars winds, outflows; Astronomy and Astrophysics
OSTI Identifier:
1393606
Alternate Identifier(s):
OSTI ID: 1407902

Blagorodnova, N., Kotak, R., Polshaw, J., Kasliwal, M. M., Cao, Y., Cody, A. M., Doran, G. B., Elias-Rosa, N., Fraser, M., Fremling, C., Gonzalez-Fernandez, C., Harmanen, J., Jencson, J., Kankare, E., Kudritzki, R. -P., Kulkarni, S. R., Magnier, E., Manulis, I., Masci, F. J., Mattila, S., Nugent, P., Ochner, P., Pastorello, A., Reynolds, T., Smith, K., Sollerman, J., Taddia, F., Terreran, G., Tomasella, L., Turatto, M., Vreeswijk, P. M., Wozniak, P., and Zaggia, S.. Common Envelope Ejection for a Luminous Red Nova in M101. United States: N. p., Web. doi:10.3847/1538-4357/834/2/107.
Blagorodnova, N., Kotak, R., Polshaw, J., Kasliwal, M. M., Cao, Y., Cody, A. M., Doran, G. B., Elias-Rosa, N., Fraser, M., Fremling, C., Gonzalez-Fernandez, C., Harmanen, J., Jencson, J., Kankare, E., Kudritzki, R. -P., Kulkarni, S. R., Magnier, E., Manulis, I., Masci, F. J., Mattila, S., Nugent, P., Ochner, P., Pastorello, A., Reynolds, T., Smith, K., Sollerman, J., Taddia, F., Terreran, G., Tomasella, L., Turatto, M., Vreeswijk, P. M., Wozniak, P., & Zaggia, S.. Common Envelope Ejection for a Luminous Red Nova in M101. United States. doi:10.3847/1538-4357/834/2/107.
Blagorodnova, N., Kotak, R., Polshaw, J., Kasliwal, M. M., Cao, Y., Cody, A. M., Doran, G. B., Elias-Rosa, N., Fraser, M., Fremling, C., Gonzalez-Fernandez, C., Harmanen, J., Jencson, J., Kankare, E., Kudritzki, R. -P., Kulkarni, S. R., Magnier, E., Manulis, I., Masci, F. J., Mattila, S., Nugent, P., Ochner, P., Pastorello, A., Reynolds, T., Smith, K., Sollerman, J., Taddia, F., Terreran, G., Tomasella, L., Turatto, M., Vreeswijk, P. M., Wozniak, P., and Zaggia, S.. 2017. "Common Envelope Ejection for a Luminous Red Nova in M101". United States. doi:10.3847/1538-4357/834/2/107. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1393606.
@article{osti_1393606,
title = {Common Envelope Ejection for a Luminous Red Nova in M101},
author = {Blagorodnova, N. and Kotak, R. and Polshaw, J. and Kasliwal, M. M. and Cao, Y. and Cody, A. M. and Doran, G. B. and Elias-Rosa, N. and Fraser, M. and Fremling, C. and Gonzalez-Fernandez, C. and Harmanen, J. and Jencson, J. and Kankare, E. and Kudritzki, R. -P. and Kulkarni, S. R. and Magnier, E. and Manulis, I. and Masci, F. J. and Mattila, S. and Nugent, P. and Ochner, P. and Pastorello, A. and Reynolds, T. and Smith, K. and Sollerman, J. and Taddia, F. and Terreran, G. and Tomasella, L. and Turatto, M. and Vreeswijk, P. M. and Wozniak, P. and Zaggia, S.},
abstractNote = {We present the results of optical, near-infrared, and mid-infrared observations of M101 OT2015-1 (PSN J14021678+5426205), a luminous red transient in the Pinwheel galaxy (M101), spanning a total of 16 years. The light curve showed two distinct peaks with absolute magnitudes Mr ≤ -12.4 and Mr ~ -12, on 2014 November 11 and 2015 February 17, respectively. The spectral energy distributions during the second maximum show a cool outburst temperature of ≈3700 K and low expansion velocities (≈-300 km s-1) for the H I, Ca II, Ba II, and K I lines. From archival data spanning 15-8 years before the outburst, we find a single source consistent with the optically discovered transient, which we attribute to being the progenitor; it has properties consistent with being an F-type yellow supergiant with L ~8.7×104 L⊙, Teff ≈ 7000 K, and an estimated mass of M1 = 18 ± 1 M⊙ . This star has likely just finished the H-burning phase in the core, started expanding, and is now crossing the Hertzsprung gap. Based on the combination of observed properties, we argue that the progenitor is a binary system, with the more evolved system overfilling the Roche lobe. Comparison with binary evolution mode ls suggests that the outburst was an extremely rare phenomenon, likely associated with the ejection of the common envelope of a massive star. Finally, the initial mass of the primary fills the gap between the merger candidates V838 Mon (5-10 M⊙) and NGC 4490-OT (30M⊙).},
doi = {10.3847/1538-4357/834/2/107},
journal = {The Astrophysical Journal (Online)},
number = 2,
volume = 834,
place = {United States},
year = {2017},
month = {1}
}