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This content will become publicly available on September 20, 2018

Title: New radiocarbon dates and the herder occupation at Kasteelberg B, South Africa [NEW RADIOCARBON DATES SHED LIGHT ON THE HERDER OCCUPATION SEQUENCE AT KASTEELBERG B, SOUTH AFRICA]

In this paper, we present that five centuries ago, the first European mariners rounding the Cape of Good Hope encountered Khoekhoe-speaking people who occasionally supplied beef and mutton in return for iron, tobacco, alcohol and other exotic goods. The origin of their livestock, as well as of the Khoekhoen themselves, continues to intrigue academics. We now know the first livestock were introduced from the north and that they reached southern Africa over 2000 years ago (Robbins et al. 2005; Pleurdeau et al. 2012). Y-chromosome E3b1f-M293 (Henn et al. 2008) and lactase persistence allele -14010*C (Macholdt et al. 2014) indicate that some Khoe-speakers are distantly related through the male lineage to pastoralists in East Africa (Barbieri et al. 2014); a conclusion that is supported by linguists who locate the origins of proto-Khoe languages in that part of the continent (e.g., Güldemann 2008). But it remains unclear whether the earliest livestock in southern Africa arrived with immigrant Khoespeakers, or whether the Khoe-speakers arrived later: the first livestock may have been traded down the line or infiltrated among southern African San hunter-gatherers (e.g., Sadr 2015).
Authors:
 [1] ;  [2] ;  [3] ;  [4] ;  [5] ;  [6]
  1. Univ. of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg (South Africa). Geography, Archaeology and Environmental Studies
  2. Univ. of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg (South Africa). Geography, Archaeology and Environmental Studies; Texas State University, San Marcos, TX (United States). Department of Anthropology
  3. Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States). Center for Accelerator Mass Spectrometry
  4. iThemba LABS (South Africa); Univ. of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg (South Africa). School of Physics
  5. Univ. of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg (South Africa). School of Physics
  6. Univ. of Cape Town (South Africa). Department of Archaeology
Publication Date:
Report Number(s):
LLNL-JRNL-708788
Journal ID: ISSN 0003-598X; applab
Grant/Contract Number:
AC52-07NA27344
Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Antiquity
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 91; Journal Issue: 359; Journal ID: ISSN 0003-598X
Research Org:
Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)
Sponsoring Org:
USDOE
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
54 ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES
OSTI Identifier:
1393349