skip to main content
DOE PAGES title logo U.S. Department of Energy
Office of Scientific and Technical Information

Title: Time-varying sodium absorption in the Type Ia supernova 2013gh

Abstract

Context. Temporal variability of narrow absorption lines in high-resolution spectra of Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) is studied to search for circumstellar matter. Time series which resolve the profiles of absorption lines such as Na I D or Ca II H&K are expected to reveal variations due to photoionisation and subsequent recombination of the gases. The presence, composition, and geometry of circumstellar matter may hint at the elusive progenitor system of SNe Ia and could also affect the observed reddening law. Aims. To date, there are few known cases of time-varying Na I D absorption in SNe Ia, all of which occurred during relatively late phases of the supernova (SN) evolution. Photoionisation, however, is predicted to occur during the early phases of SNe Ia, when the supernovae peak in the ultraviolet. We attempt, therefore, to observe early-time absorption-line variations by obtaining high-resolution spectra of SNe before maximum light. Methods. In this paper, we have obtained photometry and high-resolution spectroscopy of SNe Ia 2013gh and iPTF 13dge, to search for absorption-line variations. Furthermore, we study interstellar absorption features in relation to the observed photometric colours of the SNe. Results. Both SNe display deep Na I D and Ca II H&K absorptionmore » features. Furthermore, small but significant variations are detected in a feature of the Na I D profile of SN 2013gh. The variations are consistent with either geometric effects of rapidly moving or patchy gas clouds or photoionisation of Na I gas at R ≈ 1019 cm from the explosion. Conclusions. Our analysis indicates that it is necessary to focus on early phases to detect photoionisation effects of gases in the circumstellar medium of SNe Ia. Different absorbers such as Na I and Ca II can be used to probe for matter at different distances from the SNe. Finally, the nondetection of variations during early phases makes it possible to put limits on the abundance of the species at those distances.« less

Authors:
 [1];  [1];  [1];  [2];  [2];  [3];  [4];  [5];  [4];  [6];  [1];  [7];  [7];  [1];  [8];  [9];  [10];  [1];  [11];  [12] more »; ORCiD logo [13] « less
  1. Stockholm Univ. (Sweden)
  2. Weizmann Inst. of Science, Rehovot (Israel)
  3. Carnegie Inst. of Washington, Washington, DC (United States)
  4. California Inst. of Technology (CalTech), Pasadena, CA (United States)
  5. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC), Greenbelt, MD (United States); Univ. of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States)
  6. Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)
  7. Univ. of California, Santa Barbara, CA (United States); Las Cumbres Observatory Global Telescope Network, Goleta, CA (United States)
  8. Univ. of Turku (Finland); Univ. of Cambridge (United Kingdom)
  9. Humboldt Univ. of Berlin (Germany)
  10. Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)
  11. Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States)
  12. Univ. of California, Santa Cruz, CA (United States)
  13. Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC); LANL Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) Program; National Aeronautic and Space Administration (NASA); USDOE Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) Program
OSTI Identifier:
1393067
Alternate Identifier(s):
OSTI ID: 1407901
Report Number(s):
LA-UR-17-27745
Journal ID: ISSN 0004-6361; ark:/13030/qt8v96d3ch; TRN: US1702105
Grant/Contract Number:  
AC02-05CH11231; AC52-06NA25396
Resource Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Astronomy and Astrophysics
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 592; Journal ID: ISSN 0004-6361
Publisher:
EDP Sciences
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
79 ASTRONOMY AND ASTROPHYSICS; supernovae; SN 2013gh; dust; extinction; circumstellar matter; iPTF 13dge; Astronomy and Astrophysics

Citation Formats

Ferretti, Raphael, Amanullah, R., Goobar, A., Johansson, J., Vreeswijk, P. M., Butler, R. P., Cao, Y., Cenko, S. B., Doran, G., Filippenko, A. V., Freeland, E., Hosseinzadeh, G., Howell, D. A., Lundqvist, P., Mattila, S., Nordin, J., Nugent, P. E., Petrushevska, T., Valenti, S., Vogt, S., and Wozniak, Przemyslaw R. Time-varying sodium absorption in the Type Ia supernova 2013gh. United States: N. p., 2016. Web. doi:10.1051/0004-6361/201628351.
Ferretti, Raphael, Amanullah, R., Goobar, A., Johansson, J., Vreeswijk, P. M., Butler, R. P., Cao, Y., Cenko, S. B., Doran, G., Filippenko, A. V., Freeland, E., Hosseinzadeh, G., Howell, D. A., Lundqvist, P., Mattila, S., Nordin, J., Nugent, P. E., Petrushevska, T., Valenti, S., Vogt, S., & Wozniak, Przemyslaw R. Time-varying sodium absorption in the Type Ia supernova 2013gh. United States. doi:10.1051/0004-6361/201628351.
Ferretti, Raphael, Amanullah, R., Goobar, A., Johansson, J., Vreeswijk, P. M., Butler, R. P., Cao, Y., Cenko, S. B., Doran, G., Filippenko, A. V., Freeland, E., Hosseinzadeh, G., Howell, D. A., Lundqvist, P., Mattila, S., Nordin, J., Nugent, P. E., Petrushevska, T., Valenti, S., Vogt, S., and Wozniak, Przemyslaw R. Mon . "Time-varying sodium absorption in the Type Ia supernova 2013gh". United States. doi:10.1051/0004-6361/201628351. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1393067.
@article{osti_1393067,
title = {Time-varying sodium absorption in the Type Ia supernova 2013gh},
author = {Ferretti, Raphael and Amanullah, R. and Goobar, A. and Johansson, J. and Vreeswijk, P. M. and Butler, R. P. and Cao, Y. and Cenko, S. B. and Doran, G. and Filippenko, A. V. and Freeland, E. and Hosseinzadeh, G. and Howell, D. A. and Lundqvist, P. and Mattila, S. and Nordin, J. and Nugent, P. E. and Petrushevska, T. and Valenti, S. and Vogt, S. and Wozniak, Przemyslaw R.},
abstractNote = {Context. Temporal variability of narrow absorption lines in high-resolution spectra of Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) is studied to search for circumstellar matter. Time series which resolve the profiles of absorption lines such as Na I D or Ca II H&K are expected to reveal variations due to photoionisation and subsequent recombination of the gases. The presence, composition, and geometry of circumstellar matter may hint at the elusive progenitor system of SNe Ia and could also affect the observed reddening law. Aims. To date, there are few known cases of time-varying Na I D absorption in SNe Ia, all of which occurred during relatively late phases of the supernova (SN) evolution. Photoionisation, however, is predicted to occur during the early phases of SNe Ia, when the supernovae peak in the ultraviolet. We attempt, therefore, to observe early-time absorption-line variations by obtaining high-resolution spectra of SNe before maximum light. Methods. In this paper, we have obtained photometry and high-resolution spectroscopy of SNe Ia 2013gh and iPTF 13dge, to search for absorption-line variations. Furthermore, we study interstellar absorption features in relation to the observed photometric colours of the SNe. Results. Both SNe display deep Na I D and Ca II H&K absorption features. Furthermore, small but significant variations are detected in a feature of the Na I D profile of SN 2013gh. The variations are consistent with either geometric effects of rapidly moving or patchy gas clouds or photoionisation of Na I gas at R ≈ 1019 cm from the explosion. Conclusions. Our analysis indicates that it is necessary to focus on early phases to detect photoionisation effects of gases in the circumstellar medium of SNe Ia. Different absorbers such as Na I and Ca II can be used to probe for matter at different distances from the SNe. Finally, the nondetection of variations during early phases makes it possible to put limits on the abundance of the species at those distances.},
doi = {10.1051/0004-6361/201628351},
journal = {Astronomy and Astrophysics},
number = ,
volume = 592,
place = {United States},
year = {2016},
month = {7}
}

Journal Article:
Free Publicly Available Full Text
Publisher's Version of Record

Citation Metrics:
Cited by: 6 works
Citation information provided by
Web of Science

Save / Share:

Works referenced in this record:

Double white dwarfs as progenitors of R Coronae Borealis stars and Type I supernovae
journal, February 1984

  • Webbink, R. F.
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 277
  • DOI: 10.1086/161701

Diversity in extinction laws of Type Ia supernovae measured between 0.2 and 2 μm
journal, September 2015

  • Amanullah, R.; Johansson, J.; Goobar, A.
  • Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Vol. 453, Issue 3
  • DOI: 10.1093/mnras/stv1505

The Swift Ultra-Violet/Optical Telescope
journal, October 2005

  • Roming, Peter W. A.; Kennedy, Thomas E.; Mason, Keith O.
  • Space Science Reviews, Vol. 120, Issue 3-4
  • DOI: 10.1007/s11214-005-5095-4

The IRAS 1.2 Jy Survey: Redshift Data
journal, September 1995

  • Fisher, Karl B.; Huchra, John P.; Strauss, Michael A.
  • The Astrophysical Journal Supplement Series, Vol. 100
  • DOI: 10.1086/192208

Studying the small scale ISM structure with supernovae
journal, May 2010


Radiative Recombination Data for Modeling Dynamic Finite‐Density Plasmas
journal, December 2006

  • Badnell, N. R.
  • The Astrophysical Journal Supplement Series, Vol. 167, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1086/508465

Maps of Dust Infrared Emission for Use in Estimation of Reddening and Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation Foregrounds
journal, June 1998

  • Schlegel, David J.; Finkbeiner, Douglas P.; Davis, Marc
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 500, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1086/305772

SWIFT ULTRAVIOLET OBSERVATIONS OF SUPERNOVA 2014J IN M82: LARGE EXTINCTION FROM INTERSTELLAR DUST
journal, May 2015


PTF 11kx: A Type Ia Supernova with a Symbiotic Nova Progenitor
journal, August 2012


SODIUM ABSORPTION SYSTEMS TOWARD SN Ia 2014J ORIGINATE ON INTERSTELLAR SCALES
journal, January 2016


Herschel limits on far-infrared emission from circumstellar dust around three nearby Type Ia supernovae
journal, February 2013

  • Johansson, J.; Amanullah, R.; Goobar, A.
  • Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society: Letters, Vol. 431, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1093/mnrasl/slt005

A statistical analysis of circumstellar material in Type Ia supernovae
journal, September 2013

  • Maguire, K.; Sullivan, M.; Patat, F.
  • Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Vol. 436, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1093/mnras/stt1586

VARIABLE SODIUM ABSORPTION IN A LOW-EXTINCTION TYPE Ia SUPERNOVA,
journal, August 2009


PERTURBATIONS OF SNe Ia LIGHT CURVES, COLORS, AND SPECTRAL FEATURES BY CIRCUMSTELLAR DUST
journal, June 2011


Diffuse Atomic and Molecular gas in the Interstellar Medium of m82 Toward sn 2014j
journal, January 2015

  • Ritchey, Adam M.; Welty, Daniel E.; Dahlstrom, Julie A.
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 799, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1088/0004-637X/799/2/197

Supernova Cosmology: Legacy and Future
journal, November 2011


The Detection of a Light Echo from the Type Ia Supernova 2006X in M100
journal, April 2008

  • Wang, Xiaofeng; Li, Weidong; Filippenko, Alexei V.
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 677, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1086/529070

Light Echoes from Supernova 2014j in m82
journal, May 2015


Molecfit: A general tool for telluric absorption correction: II. Quantitative evaluation on ESO-VLT/X-Shooterspectra
journal, April 2015


Circumstellar H  from SN 1994D and future Type Ia supernovae: an observational test of progenitor models
journal, December 1996

  • Cumming, R. J.; Lundqvist, P.; Smith, L. J.
  • Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Vol. 283, Issue 4
  • DOI: 10.1093/mnras/283.4.1355

Supernovae of type I as end products of the evolution of binaries with components of moderate initial mass (M not greater than about 9 solar masses)
journal, January 1984

  • Iben, I. , Jr.; Tutukov, A. V.
  • The Astrophysical Journal Supplement Series, Vol. 54
  • DOI: 10.1086/190932

The rise of sn 2014j in the Nearby Galaxy m82
journal, March 2014


THE ABSOLUTE MAGNITUDES OF TYPE Ia SUPERNOVAE IN THE ULTRAVIOLET
journal, September 2010


SN 2012cg: EVIDENCE FOR INTERACTION BETWEEN A NORMAL SN Ia AND A NON-DEGENERATE BINARY COMPANION
journal, March 2016


A Search for Radio Emission from Type Ia Supernovae
journal, July 2006

  • Panagia, Nino; Van Dyk, Schuyler D.; Weiler, Kurt W.
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 646, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1086/504710

SN 2009jf: a slow-evolving stripped-envelope core-collapse supernova★: SN 2009jf
journal, August 2011


Low R V from Circumstellar Dust around Supernovae
journal, September 2008

  • Goobar, Ariel
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 686, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1086/593060

Dusting off the diffuse interstellar bands: DIBs and dust in extragalactic Sloan Digital Sky Survey spectra
journal, December 2014

  • Baron, Dalya; Poznanski, Dovi; Watson, Darach
  • Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Vol. 447, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1093/mnras/stu2448

K ‐Corrections and Spectral Templates of Type Ia Supernovae
journal, July 2007

  • Hsiao, E. Y.; Conley, A.; Howell, D. A.
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 663, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1086/518232

Correcting for the Effects of Interstellar Extinction
journal, January 1999

  • Fitzpatrick, Edward L.
  • Publications of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific, Vol. 111, Issue 755
  • DOI: 10.1086/316293

Circumstellar Material in Type Ia Supernovae via Sodium Absorption Features
journal, August 2011


A SECOND CASE OF VARIABLE Na I D LINES IN A HIGHLY REDDENED TYPE Ia SUPERNOVA
journal, March 2009


Detection of Circumstellar Material in a Normal Type Ia Supernova
journal, August 2007


Diffuse Interstellar Bands in NGC 1448
journal, December 2004


TIDAL TAIL EJECTION AS A SIGNATURE OF TYPE Ia SUPERNOVAE FROM WHITE DWARF MERGERS
journal, June 2013


Atomic Data for Astrophysics. II. New Analytic FITS for Photoionization Cross Sections of Atoms and Ions
journal, July 1996

  • Verner, D. A.; Ferland, G. J.; Korista, K. T.
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 465
  • DOI: 10.1086/177435

ULTRAVIOLET LIGHT CURVES OF SUPERNOVAE WITH THE SWIFT ULTRAVIOLET/OPTICAL TELESCOPE
journal, April 2009


A deep Search for Prompt Radio Emission from Thermonuclear Supernovae with the very Large Array
journal, April 2016

  • Chomiuk, Laura; Soderberg, Alicia M.; Chevalier, Roger A.
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 821, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.3847/0004-637X/821/2/119

CIRCUMSTELLAR ABSORPTION IN DOUBLE DETONATION TYPE Ia SUPERNOVAE
journal, June 2013


Multi-epoch high-spectral-resolution observations of neutral sodium in 14 Type Ia supernovae★
journal, July 2014

  • Sternberg, A.; Gal-Yam, A.; Simon, J. D.
  • Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Vol. 443, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1093/mnras/stu1202

The Swift Gamma‐Ray Burst Mission
journal, August 2004

  • Gehrels, N.; Chincarini, G.; Giommi, P.
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 611, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1086/422091

THE CARNEGIE SUPERNOVA PROJECT: LIGHT-CURVE FITTING WITH SNooPy
journal, December 2010

  • Burns, Christopher R.; Stritzinger, Maximilian; Phillips, M. M.
  • The Astronomical Journal, Vol. 141, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1088/0004-6256/141/1/19

NO X-RAYS FROM THE VERY NEARBY TYPE Ia SN 2014J: CONSTRAINTS ON ITS ENVIRONMENT
journal, July 2014


Measuring Reddening with Sloan Digital sky Survey Stellar Spectra and Recalibrating sfd
journal, August 2011


Time-Varying Potassium in High-Resolution Spectra of the type ia Supernova 2014j
journal, March 2015


Supernova SN 2011fe from an exploding carbon–oxygen white dwarf star
journal, December 2011

  • Nugent, Peter E.; Sullivan, Mark; Cenko, S. Bradley
  • Nature, Vol. 480, Issue 7377
  • DOI: 10.1038/nature10644

Binaries and Supernovae of Type I
journal, December 1973

  • Whelan, John; Iben, Icko, Jr.
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 186
  • DOI: 10.1086/152565

CIRCUMSTELLAR SHELLS IN ABSORPTION IN TYPE Ia SUPERNOVAE
journal, June 2009

  • Borkowski, Kazimierz J.; Blondin, John M.; Reynolds, Stephen P.
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 699, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1088/0004-637X/699/2/L64

Cosmic-Ray and X-Ray Heating of Interstellar Clouds and Protoplanetary Disks
journal, August 2012


An empirical relation between sodium absorption and dust extinction: Sodium and dust
journal, October 2012

  • Poznanski, Dovi; Prochaska, J. Xavier; Bloom, Joshua S.
  • Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Vol. 426, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2966.2012.21796.x

Kinematics of the local universe: VII. New 21-cm line measurements of 2112 galaxies
journal, June 1998

  • Theureau, G.; Bottinelli, L.; Coudreau-Durand, N.
  • Astronomy and Astrophysics Supplement Series, Vol. 130, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1051/aas:1998416

Properties of extragalactic dust inferred from linear polarimetry of Type Ia Supernovae
journal, May 2015


SOUSA: the Swift Optical/Ultraviolet Supernova Archive
journal, July 2014

  • Brown, Peter J.; Breeveld, Alice A.; Holland, Stephen
  • Astrophysics and Space Science, Vol. 354, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1007/s10509-014-2059-8

ON THE SOURCE OF THE DUST EXTINCTION IN TYPE Ia SUPERNOVAE AND THE DISCOVERY OF ANOMALOUSLY STRONG Na I ABSORPTION
journal, November 2013


Extensive HST ultraviolet spectra and multiwavelength observations of SN 2014J in M82 indicate reddening and circumstellar scattering by typical dust
journal, August 2014

  • Foley, Ryan J.; Fox, O. D.; McCully, C.
  • Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Vol. 443, Issue 4
  • DOI: 10.1093/mnras/stu1378

THE PECULIAR EXTINCTION LAW OF SN 2014J MEASURED WITH THE HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE
journal, May 2014


Molecfit: A general tool for telluric absorption correction: I. Method and application to ESO instruments ⋆⋆⋆
journal, April 2015


Time-dependent excitation and ionization modelling of absorption-line variability due to GRB 080310
journal, December 2012


The Lick Observatory Supernova Search with the Katzman Automatic Imaging Telescope
journal, January 2001

  • Filippenko, Alexei V.; Li, W. D.; Treffers, R. R.
  • International Astronomical Union Colloquium, Vol. 183
  • DOI: 10.1017/S0252921100078738

Kinematics of the Local Universe: XIII. 21-cm line measurements of 452 galaxies with the Nançay radiotelescope,
journal, December 2006


The Swift Ultra-Violet/Optical Telescope
conference, February 2004

  • Roming, Peter W. A.; Hunsberger, Sally D.; Mason, Keith O.
  • Optical Science and Technology, SPIE's 48th Annual Meeting, SPIE Proceedings
  • DOI: 10.1117/12.504554

    Works referencing / citing this record:

    SOUSA: the Swift Optical/Ultraviolet Supernova Archive
    journal, July 2014

    • Brown, Peter J.; Breeveld, Alice A.; Holland, Stephen
    • Astrophysics and Space Science, Vol. 354, Issue 1
    • DOI: 10.1007/s10509-014-2059-8

    The Swift Ultra-Violet/Optical Telescope
    journal, October 2005

    • Roming, Peter W. A.; Kennedy, Thomas E.; Mason, Keith O.
    • Space Science Reviews, Vol. 120, Issue 3-4
    • DOI: 10.1007/s11214-005-5095-4

    Supernova SN 2011fe from an exploding carbon–oxygen white dwarf star
    journal, December 2011

    • Nugent, Peter E.; Sullivan, Mark; Cenko, S. Bradley
    • Nature, Vol. 480, Issue 7377
    • DOI: 10.1038/nature10644

    Studying the small scale ISM structure with supernovae
    journal, May 2010


    Time-dependent excitation and ionization modelling of absorption-line variability due to GRB 080310
    journal, December 2012


    Molecfit: A general tool for telluric absorption correction: II. Quantitative evaluation on ESO-VLT/X-Shooterspectra
    journal, April 2015


    Molecfit: A general tool for telluric absorption correction: I. Method and application to ESO instruments ⋆⋆⋆
    journal, April 2015


    Properties of extragalactic dust inferred from linear polarimetry of Type Ia Supernovae
    journal, May 2015


    Diffuse Interstellar Bands in NGC 1448
    journal, December 2004


    Kinematics of the local universe: VII. New 21-cm line measurements of 2112 galaxies
    journal, June 1998

    • Theureau, G.; Bottinelli, L.; Coudreau-Durand, N.
    • Astronomy and Astrophysics Supplement Series, Vol. 130, Issue 2
    • DOI: 10.1051/aas:1998416

    Binaries and Supernovae of Type I
    journal, December 1973

    • Whelan, John; Iben, Icko, Jr.
    • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 186
    • DOI: 10.1086/152565

    Double white dwarfs as progenitors of R Coronae Borealis stars and Type I supernovae
    journal, February 1984

    • Webbink, R. F.
    • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 277
    • DOI: 10.1086/161701

    Atomic Data for Astrophysics. II. New Analytic FITS for Photoionization Cross Sections of Atoms and Ions
    journal, July 1996

    • Verner, D. A.; Ferland, G. J.; Korista, K. T.
    • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 465
    • DOI: 10.1086/177435

    Supernovae of type I as end products of the evolution of binaries with components of moderate initial mass (M not greater than about 9 solar masses)
    journal, January 1984

    • Iben, I. , Jr.; Tutukov, A. V.
    • The Astrophysical Journal Supplement Series, Vol. 54
    • DOI: 10.1086/190932

    The IRAS 1.2 Jy Survey: Redshift Data
    journal, September 1995

    • Fisher, Karl B.; Huchra, John P.; Strauss, Michael A.
    • The Astrophysical Journal Supplement Series, Vol. 100
    • DOI: 10.1086/192208

    Maps of Dust Infrared Emission for Use in Estimation of Reddening and Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation Foregrounds
    journal, June 1998

    • Schlegel, David J.; Finkbeiner, Douglas P.; Davis, Marc
    • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 500, Issue 2
    • DOI: 10.1086/305772

    Correcting for the Effects of Interstellar Extinction
    journal, January 1999

    • Fitzpatrick, Edward L.
    • Publications of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific, Vol. 111, Issue 755
    • DOI: 10.1086/316293

    The Swift Gamma‐Ray Burst Mission
    journal, August 2004

    • Gehrels, N.; Chincarini, G.; Giommi, P.
    • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 611, Issue 2
    • DOI: 10.1086/422091

    A Search for Radio Emission from Type Ia Supernovae
    journal, July 2006

    • Panagia, Nino; Van Dyk, Schuyler D.; Weiler, Kurt W.
    • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 646, Issue 1
    • DOI: 10.1086/504710

    Radiative Recombination Data for Modeling Dynamic Finite‐Density Plasmas
    journal, December 2006

    • Badnell, N. R.
    • The Astrophysical Journal Supplement Series, Vol. 167, Issue 2
    • DOI: 10.1086/508465

    K ‐Corrections and Spectral Templates of Type Ia Supernovae
    journal, July 2007

    • Hsiao, E. Y.; Conley, A.; Howell, D. A.
    • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 663, Issue 2
    • DOI: 10.1086/518232

    The Detection of a Light Echo from the Type Ia Supernova 2006X in M100
    journal, April 2008

    • Wang, Xiaofeng; Li, Weidong; Filippenko, Alexei V.
    • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 677, Issue 2
    • DOI: 10.1086/529070

    Low R V from Circumstellar Dust around Supernovae
    journal, September 2008

    • Goobar, Ariel
    • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 686, Issue 2
    • DOI: 10.1086/593060

    ULTRAVIOLET LIGHT CURVES OF SUPERNOVAE WITH THE SWIFT ULTRAVIOLET/OPTICAL TELESCOPE
    journal, April 2009


    THE CARNEGIE SUPERNOVA PROJECT: LIGHT-CURVE FITTING WITH SNooPy
    journal, December 2010

    • Burns, Christopher R.; Stritzinger, Maximilian; Phillips, M. M.
    • The Astronomical Journal, Vol. 141, Issue 1
    • DOI: 10.1088/0004-6256/141/1/19

    Circumstellar H  from SN 1994D and future Type Ia supernovae: an observational test of progenitor models
    journal, December 1996

    • Cumming, R. J.; Lundqvist, P.; Smith, L. J.
    • Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Vol. 283, Issue 4
    • DOI: 10.1093/mnras/283.4.1355

    A statistical analysis of circumstellar material in Type Ia supernovae
    journal, September 2013

    • Maguire, K.; Sullivan, M.; Patat, F.
    • Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Vol. 436, Issue 1
    • DOI: 10.1093/mnras/stt1586

    Multi-epoch high-spectral-resolution observations of neutral sodium in 14 Type Ia supernovae★
    journal, July 2014

    • Sternberg, A.; Gal-Yam, A.; Simon, J. D.
    • Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Vol. 443, Issue 2
    • DOI: 10.1093/mnras/stu1202

    Extensive HST ultraviolet spectra and multiwavelength observations of SN 2014J in M82 indicate reddening and circumstellar scattering by typical dust
    journal, August 2014

    • Foley, Ryan J.; Fox, O. D.; McCully, C.
    • Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Vol. 443, Issue 4
    • DOI: 10.1093/mnras/stu1378

    Dusting off the diffuse interstellar bands: DIBs and dust in extragalactic Sloan Digital Sky Survey spectra
    journal, December 2014

    • Baron, Dalya; Poznanski, Dovi; Watson, Darach
    • Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Vol. 447, Issue 1
    • DOI: 10.1093/mnras/stu2448

    Diversity in extinction laws of Type Ia supernovae measured between 0.2 and 2 μm
    journal, September 2015

    • Amanullah, R.; Johansson, J.; Goobar, A.
    • Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Vol. 453, Issue 3
    • DOI: 10.1093/mnras/stv1505

    Herschel limits on far-infrared emission from circumstellar dust around three nearby Type Ia supernovae
    journal, February 2013

    • Johansson, J.; Amanullah, R.; Goobar, A.
    • Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society: Letters, Vol. 431, Issue 1
    • DOI: 10.1093/mnrasl/slt005

    SN 2009jf: a slow-evolving stripped-envelope core-collapse supernova★: SN 2009jf
    journal, August 2011


    An empirical relation between sodium absorption and dust extinction: Sodium and dust
    journal, October 2012

    • Poznanski, Dovi; Prochaska, J. Xavier; Bloom, Joshua S.
    • Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Vol. 426, Issue 2
    • DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2966.2012.21796.x

    Detection of Circumstellar Material in a Normal Type Ia Supernova
    journal, August 2007


    Circumstellar Material in Type Ia Supernovae via Sodium Absorption Features
    journal, August 2011


    PTF 11kx: A Type Ia Supernova with a Symbiotic Nova Progenitor
    journal, August 2012


    Supernova Cosmology: Legacy and Future
    journal, November 2011