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Title: Planck intermediate results: XXXV. Probing the role of the magnetic field in the formation of structure in molecular clouds

Within ten nearby (d < 450 pc) Gould belt molecular clouds we evaluate in this paper statistically the relative orientation between the magnetic field projected on the plane of sky, inferred from the polarized thermal emission of Galactic dust observed by Planck at 353 GHz, and the gas column density structures, quantified by the gradient of the column density, N H. The selected regions, covering several degrees in size, are analysed at an effective angular resolution of 10' FWHM, thus sampling physical scales from 0.4 to 40 pc in the nearest cloud. The column densities in the selected regions range from N H≈ 10 21 to10 23 cm -2, and hence they correspond to the bulk of the molecular clouds. The relative orientation is evaluated pixel by pixel and analysed in bins of column density using the novel statistical tool called “histogram of relative orientations”. Throughout this study, we assume that the polarized emission observed by Planck at 353 GHz is representative of the projected morphology of the magnetic field in each region, i.e., we assume a constant dust grain alignment efficiency, independent of the local environment. Within most clouds we find that the relative orientation changes progressively with increasingmore » N H, from mostly parallel or having no preferred orientation to mostly perpendicular. In simulations of magnetohydrodynamic turbulence in molecular clouds this trend in relative orientation is a signature of Alfvénic or sub-Alfvénic turbulence, implying that the magnetic field is significant for the gas dynamics at the scales probed by Planck. Finally, we compare the deduced magnetic field strength with estimates we obtain from other methods and discuss the implications of the Planck observations for the general picture of molecular cloud formation and evolution.« less
Authors:
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Publication Date:
Grant/Contract Number:
AC02-05CH11231
Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Astronomy and Astrophysics
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 586; Journal ID: ISSN 0004-6361
Publisher:
EDP Sciences
Research Org:
Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)
Sponsoring Org:
USDOE Office of Science (SC)
Contributing Orgs:
Planck Collaboration
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
79 ASTRONOMY AND ASTROPHYSICS; ISM; magnetic fields; clouds; dust; extinction; submillimeter; infrared
OSTI Identifier:
1393022

Ade, P. A. R., Aghanim, N., Alves, M. I. R., Arnaud, M., Arzoumanian, D., Ashdown, M., Aumont, J., Baccigalupi, C., Banday, A. J., Barreiro, R. B., Bartolo, N., Battaner, E., Benabed, K., Benoît, A., Benoit-Lévy, A., Bernard, J. -P., Bersanelli, M., Bielewicz, P., Bock, J. J., Bonavera, L., Bond, J. R., Borrill, J., Bouchet, F. R., Boulanger, F., Bracco, A., Burigana, C., Calabrese, E., Cardoso, J. -F., Catalano, A., Chiang, H. C., Christensen, P. R., Colombo, L. P. L., Combet, C., Couchot, F., Crill, B. P., Curto, A., Cuttaia, F., Danese, L., Davies, R. D., Davis, R. J., de Bernardis, P., de Rosa, A., de Zotti, G., Delabrouille, J., Dickinson, C., Diego, J. M., Dole, H., Donzelli, S., Doré, O., Douspis, M., Ducout, A., Dupac, X., Efstathiou, G., Elsner, F., Enßlin, T. A., Eriksen, H. K., Falceta-Gonçalves, D., Falgarone, E., Ferrière, K., Finelli, F., Forni, O., Frailis, M., Fraisse, A. A., Franceschi, E., Frejsel, A., Galeotta, S., Galli, S., Ganga, K., Ghosh, T., Giard, M., Gjerløw, E., González-Nuevo, J., Górski, K. M., Gregorio, A., Gruppuso, A., Gudmundsson, J. E., Guillet, V., Harrison, D. L., Helou, G., Hennebelle, P., Henrot-Versillé, S., Hernández-Monteagudo, C., Herranz, D., Hildebrandt, S. R., Hivon, E., Holmes, W. A., Hornstrup, A., Huffenberger, K. M., Hurier, G., Jaffe, A. H., Jaffe, T. R., Jones, W. C., Juvela, M., Keihänen, E., Keskitalo, R., Kisner, T. S., Knoche, J., Kunz, M., Kurki-Suonio, H., Lagache, G., Lamarre, J. -M., Lasenby, A., Lattanzi, M., Lawrence, C. R., Leonardi, R., Levrier, F., Liguori, M., Lilje, P. B., Linden-Vørnle, M., López-Caniego, M., Lubin, P. M., Macías-Pérez, J. F., Maino, D., Mandolesi, N., Mangilli, A., Maris, M., Martin, P. G., Martínez-González, E., Masi, S., Matarrese, S., Melchiorri, A., Mendes, L., Mennella, A., Migliaccio, M., Miville-Deschênes, M. -A., Moneti, A., Montier, L., Morgante, G., Mortlock, D., Munshi, D., Murphy, J. A., Naselsky, P., Nati, F., Netterfield, C. B., Noviello, F., Novikov, D., Novikov, I., Oppermann, N., Oxborrow, C. A., Pagano, L., Pajot, F., Paladini, R., Paoletti, D., Pasian, F., Perotto, L., Pettorino, V., Piacentini, F., Piat, M., Pierpaoli, E., Pietrobon, D., Plaszczynski, S., Pointecouteau, E., Polenta, G., Ponthieu, N., Pratt, G. W., Prunet, S., Puget, J. -L., Rachen, J. P., Reinecke, M., Remazeilles, M., Renault, C., Renzi, A., Ristorcelli, I., Rocha, G., Rossetti, M., Roudier, G., Rubiño-Martín, J. A., Rusholme, B., Sandri, M., Santos, D., Savelainen, M., Savini, G., Scott, D., Soler, J. D., Stolyarov, V., Sudiwala, R., Sutton, D., Suur-Uski, A. -S., Sygnet, J. -F., Tauber, J. A., Terenzi, L., Toffolatti, L., Tomasi, M., Tristram, M., Tucci, M., Umana, G., Valenziano, L., Valiviita, J., Van Tent, B., Vielva, P., Villa, F., Wade, L. A., Wandelt, B. D., Wehus, I. K., Ysard, N., Yvon, D., and Zonca, A.. Planck intermediate results: XXXV. Probing the role of the magnetic field in the formation of structure in molecular clouds. United States: N. p., Web. doi:10.1051/0004-6361/201525896.
Ade, P. A. R., Aghanim, N., Alves, M. I. R., Arnaud, M., Arzoumanian, D., Ashdown, M., Aumont, J., Baccigalupi, C., Banday, A. J., Barreiro, R. B., Bartolo, N., Battaner, E., Benabed, K., Benoît, A., Benoit-Lévy, A., Bernard, J. -P., Bersanelli, M., Bielewicz, P., Bock, J. J., Bonavera, L., Bond, J. R., Borrill, J., Bouchet, F. R., Boulanger, F., Bracco, A., Burigana, C., Calabrese, E., Cardoso, J. -F., Catalano, A., Chiang, H. C., Christensen, P. R., Colombo, L. P. L., Combet, C., Couchot, F., Crill, B. P., Curto, A., Cuttaia, F., Danese, L., Davies, R. D., Davis, R. J., de Bernardis, P., de Rosa, A., de Zotti, G., Delabrouille, J., Dickinson, C., Diego, J. M., Dole, H., Donzelli, S., Doré, O., Douspis, M., Ducout, A., Dupac, X., Efstathiou, G., Elsner, F., Enßlin, T. A., Eriksen, H. K., Falceta-Gonçalves, D., Falgarone, E., Ferrière, K., Finelli, F., Forni, O., Frailis, M., Fraisse, A. A., Franceschi, E., Frejsel, A., Galeotta, S., Galli, S., Ganga, K., Ghosh, T., Giard, M., Gjerløw, E., González-Nuevo, J., Górski, K. M., Gregorio, A., Gruppuso, A., Gudmundsson, J. E., Guillet, V., Harrison, D. L., Helou, G., Hennebelle, P., Henrot-Versillé, S., Hernández-Monteagudo, C., Herranz, D., Hildebrandt, S. R., Hivon, E., Holmes, W. A., Hornstrup, A., Huffenberger, K. M., Hurier, G., Jaffe, A. H., Jaffe, T. R., Jones, W. C., Juvela, M., Keihänen, E., Keskitalo, R., Kisner, T. S., Knoche, J., Kunz, M., Kurki-Suonio, H., Lagache, G., Lamarre, J. -M., Lasenby, A., Lattanzi, M., Lawrence, C. R., Leonardi, R., Levrier, F., Liguori, M., Lilje, P. B., Linden-Vørnle, M., López-Caniego, M., Lubin, P. M., Macías-Pérez, J. F., Maino, D., Mandolesi, N., Mangilli, A., Maris, M., Martin, P. G., Martínez-González, E., Masi, S., Matarrese, S., Melchiorri, A., Mendes, L., Mennella, A., Migliaccio, M., Miville-Deschênes, M. -A., Moneti, A., Montier, L., Morgante, G., Mortlock, D., Munshi, D., Murphy, J. A., Naselsky, P., Nati, F., Netterfield, C. B., Noviello, F., Novikov, D., Novikov, I., Oppermann, N., Oxborrow, C. A., Pagano, L., Pajot, F., Paladini, R., Paoletti, D., Pasian, F., Perotto, L., Pettorino, V., Piacentini, F., Piat, M., Pierpaoli, E., Pietrobon, D., Plaszczynski, S., Pointecouteau, E., Polenta, G., Ponthieu, N., Pratt, G. W., Prunet, S., Puget, J. -L., Rachen, J. P., Reinecke, M., Remazeilles, M., Renault, C., Renzi, A., Ristorcelli, I., Rocha, G., Rossetti, M., Roudier, G., Rubiño-Martín, J. A., Rusholme, B., Sandri, M., Santos, D., Savelainen, M., Savini, G., Scott, D., Soler, J. D., Stolyarov, V., Sudiwala, R., Sutton, D., Suur-Uski, A. -S., Sygnet, J. -F., Tauber, J. A., Terenzi, L., Toffolatti, L., Tomasi, M., Tristram, M., Tucci, M., Umana, G., Valenziano, L., Valiviita, J., Van Tent, B., Vielva, P., Villa, F., Wade, L. A., Wandelt, B. D., Wehus, I. K., Ysard, N., Yvon, D., & Zonca, A.. Planck intermediate results: XXXV. Probing the role of the magnetic field in the formation of structure in molecular clouds. United States. doi:10.1051/0004-6361/201525896.
Ade, P. A. R., Aghanim, N., Alves, M. I. R., Arnaud, M., Arzoumanian, D., Ashdown, M., Aumont, J., Baccigalupi, C., Banday, A. J., Barreiro, R. B., Bartolo, N., Battaner, E., Benabed, K., Benoît, A., Benoit-Lévy, A., Bernard, J. -P., Bersanelli, M., Bielewicz, P., Bock, J. J., Bonavera, L., Bond, J. R., Borrill, J., Bouchet, F. R., Boulanger, F., Bracco, A., Burigana, C., Calabrese, E., Cardoso, J. -F., Catalano, A., Chiang, H. C., Christensen, P. R., Colombo, L. P. L., Combet, C., Couchot, F., Crill, B. P., Curto, A., Cuttaia, F., Danese, L., Davies, R. D., Davis, R. J., de Bernardis, P., de Rosa, A., de Zotti, G., Delabrouille, J., Dickinson, C., Diego, J. M., Dole, H., Donzelli, S., Doré, O., Douspis, M., Ducout, A., Dupac, X., Efstathiou, G., Elsner, F., Enßlin, T. A., Eriksen, H. K., Falceta-Gonçalves, D., Falgarone, E., Ferrière, K., Finelli, F., Forni, O., Frailis, M., Fraisse, A. A., Franceschi, E., Frejsel, A., Galeotta, S., Galli, S., Ganga, K., Ghosh, T., Giard, M., Gjerløw, E., González-Nuevo, J., Górski, K. M., Gregorio, A., Gruppuso, A., Gudmundsson, J. E., Guillet, V., Harrison, D. L., Helou, G., Hennebelle, P., Henrot-Versillé, S., Hernández-Monteagudo, C., Herranz, D., Hildebrandt, S. R., Hivon, E., Holmes, W. A., Hornstrup, A., Huffenberger, K. M., Hurier, G., Jaffe, A. H., Jaffe, T. R., Jones, W. C., Juvela, M., Keihänen, E., Keskitalo, R., Kisner, T. S., Knoche, J., Kunz, M., Kurki-Suonio, H., Lagache, G., Lamarre, J. -M., Lasenby, A., Lattanzi, M., Lawrence, C. R., Leonardi, R., Levrier, F., Liguori, M., Lilje, P. B., Linden-Vørnle, M., López-Caniego, M., Lubin, P. M., Macías-Pérez, J. F., Maino, D., Mandolesi, N., Mangilli, A., Maris, M., Martin, P. G., Martínez-González, E., Masi, S., Matarrese, S., Melchiorri, A., Mendes, L., Mennella, A., Migliaccio, M., Miville-Deschênes, M. -A., Moneti, A., Montier, L., Morgante, G., Mortlock, D., Munshi, D., Murphy, J. A., Naselsky, P., Nati, F., Netterfield, C. B., Noviello, F., Novikov, D., Novikov, I., Oppermann, N., Oxborrow, C. A., Pagano, L., Pajot, F., Paladini, R., Paoletti, D., Pasian, F., Perotto, L., Pettorino, V., Piacentini, F., Piat, M., Pierpaoli, E., Pietrobon, D., Plaszczynski, S., Pointecouteau, E., Polenta, G., Ponthieu, N., Pratt, G. W., Prunet, S., Puget, J. -L., Rachen, J. P., Reinecke, M., Remazeilles, M., Renault, C., Renzi, A., Ristorcelli, I., Rocha, G., Rossetti, M., Roudier, G., Rubiño-Martín, J. A., Rusholme, B., Sandri, M., Santos, D., Savelainen, M., Savini, G., Scott, D., Soler, J. D., Stolyarov, V., Sudiwala, R., Sutton, D., Suur-Uski, A. -S., Sygnet, J. -F., Tauber, J. A., Terenzi, L., Toffolatti, L., Tomasi, M., Tristram, M., Tucci, M., Umana, G., Valenziano, L., Valiviita, J., Van Tent, B., Vielva, P., Villa, F., Wade, L. A., Wandelt, B. D., Wehus, I. K., Ysard, N., Yvon, D., and Zonca, A.. 2016. "Planck intermediate results: XXXV. Probing the role of the magnetic field in the formation of structure in molecular clouds". United States. doi:10.1051/0004-6361/201525896. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1393022.
@article{osti_1393022,
title = {Planck intermediate results: XXXV. Probing the role of the magnetic field in the formation of structure in molecular clouds},
author = {Ade, P. A. R. and Aghanim, N. and Alves, M. I. R. and Arnaud, M. and Arzoumanian, D. and Ashdown, M. and Aumont, J. and Baccigalupi, C. and Banday, A. J. and Barreiro, R. B. and Bartolo, N. and Battaner, E. and Benabed, K. and Benoît, A. and Benoit-Lévy, A. and Bernard, J. -P. and Bersanelli, M. and Bielewicz, P. and Bock, J. J. and Bonavera, L. and Bond, J. R. and Borrill, J. and Bouchet, F. R. and Boulanger, F. and Bracco, A. and Burigana, C. and Calabrese, E. and Cardoso, J. -F. and Catalano, A. and Chiang, H. C. and Christensen, P. R. and Colombo, L. P. L. and Combet, C. and Couchot, F. and Crill, B. P. and Curto, A. and Cuttaia, F. and Danese, L. and Davies, R. D. and Davis, R. J. and de Bernardis, P. and de Rosa, A. and de Zotti, G. and Delabrouille, J. and Dickinson, C. and Diego, J. M. and Dole, H. and Donzelli, S. and Doré, O. and Douspis, M. and Ducout, A. and Dupac, X. and Efstathiou, G. and Elsner, F. and Enßlin, T. A. and Eriksen, H. K. and Falceta-Gonçalves, D. and Falgarone, E. and Ferrière, K. and Finelli, F. and Forni, O. and Frailis, M. and Fraisse, A. A. and Franceschi, E. and Frejsel, A. and Galeotta, S. and Galli, S. and Ganga, K. and Ghosh, T. and Giard, M. and Gjerløw, E. and González-Nuevo, J. and Górski, K. M. and Gregorio, A. and Gruppuso, A. and Gudmundsson, J. E. and Guillet, V. and Harrison, D. L. and Helou, G. and Hennebelle, P. and Henrot-Versillé, S. and Hernández-Monteagudo, C. and Herranz, D. and Hildebrandt, S. R. and Hivon, E. and Holmes, W. A. and Hornstrup, A. and Huffenberger, K. M. and Hurier, G. and Jaffe, A. H. and Jaffe, T. R. and Jones, W. C. and Juvela, M. and Keihänen, E. and Keskitalo, R. and Kisner, T. S. and Knoche, J. and Kunz, M. and Kurki-Suonio, H. and Lagache, G. and Lamarre, J. -M. and Lasenby, A. and Lattanzi, M. and Lawrence, C. R. and Leonardi, R. and Levrier, F. and Liguori, M. and Lilje, P. B. and Linden-Vørnle, M. and López-Caniego, M. and Lubin, P. M. and Macías-Pérez, J. F. and Maino, D. and Mandolesi, N. and Mangilli, A. and Maris, M. and Martin, P. G. and Martínez-González, E. and Masi, S. and Matarrese, S. and Melchiorri, A. and Mendes, L. and Mennella, A. and Migliaccio, M. and Miville-Deschênes, M. -A. and Moneti, A. and Montier, L. and Morgante, G. and Mortlock, D. and Munshi, D. and Murphy, J. A. and Naselsky, P. and Nati, F. and Netterfield, C. B. and Noviello, F. and Novikov, D. and Novikov, I. and Oppermann, N. and Oxborrow, C. A. and Pagano, L. and Pajot, F. and Paladini, R. and Paoletti, D. and Pasian, F. and Perotto, L. and Pettorino, V. and Piacentini, F. and Piat, M. and Pierpaoli, E. and Pietrobon, D. and Plaszczynski, S. and Pointecouteau, E. and Polenta, G. and Ponthieu, N. and Pratt, G. W. and Prunet, S. and Puget, J. -L. and Rachen, J. P. and Reinecke, M. and Remazeilles, M. and Renault, C. and Renzi, A. and Ristorcelli, I. and Rocha, G. and Rossetti, M. and Roudier, G. and Rubiño-Martín, J. A. and Rusholme, B. and Sandri, M. and Santos, D. and Savelainen, M. and Savini, G. and Scott, D. and Soler, J. D. and Stolyarov, V. and Sudiwala, R. and Sutton, D. and Suur-Uski, A. -S. and Sygnet, J. -F. and Tauber, J. A. and Terenzi, L. and Toffolatti, L. and Tomasi, M. and Tristram, M. and Tucci, M. and Umana, G. and Valenziano, L. and Valiviita, J. and Van Tent, B. and Vielva, P. and Villa, F. and Wade, L. A. and Wandelt, B. D. and Wehus, I. K. and Ysard, N. and Yvon, D. and Zonca, A.},
abstractNote = {Within ten nearby (d < 450 pc) Gould belt molecular clouds we evaluate in this paper statistically the relative orientation between the magnetic field projected on the plane of sky, inferred from the polarized thermal emission of Galactic dust observed by Planck at 353 GHz, and the gas column density structures, quantified by the gradient of the column density, NH. The selected regions, covering several degrees in size, are analysed at an effective angular resolution of 10' FWHM, thus sampling physical scales from 0.4 to 40 pc in the nearest cloud. The column densities in the selected regions range from NH≈ 1021 to1023 cm-2, and hence they correspond to the bulk of the molecular clouds. The relative orientation is evaluated pixel by pixel and analysed in bins of column density using the novel statistical tool called “histogram of relative orientations”. Throughout this study, we assume that the polarized emission observed by Planck at 353 GHz is representative of the projected morphology of the magnetic field in each region, i.e., we assume a constant dust grain alignment efficiency, independent of the local environment. Within most clouds we find that the relative orientation changes progressively with increasing NH, from mostly parallel or having no preferred orientation to mostly perpendicular. In simulations of magnetohydrodynamic turbulence in molecular clouds this trend in relative orientation is a signature of Alfvénic or sub-Alfvénic turbulence, implying that the magnetic field is significant for the gas dynamics at the scales probed by Planck. Finally, we compare the deduced magnetic field strength with estimates we obtain from other methods and discuss the implications of the Planck observations for the general picture of molecular cloud formation and evolution.},
doi = {10.1051/0004-6361/201525896},
journal = {Astronomy and Astrophysics},
number = ,
volume = 586,
place = {United States},
year = {2016},
month = {2}
}