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Title: Planck intermediate results: XXVII. High-redshift infrared galaxy overdensity candidates and lensed sources discovered by Planck and confirmed by Herschel -SPIRE

Abstract

We have used the Planck all-sky submillimetre and millimetre maps to search for rare sources distinguished by extreme brightness, a few hundred millijanskies, and their potential for being situated at high redshift. These “cold” Planck sources, selected using the High Frequency Instrument (HFI) directly from the maps and from the Planck Catalogue of Compact Sources (PCCS), all satisfy the criterion of having their rest-frame far-infrared peak redshifted to the frequency range 353–857 GHz. This colour-selection favours galaxies in the redshift range z = 2–4, which we consider as cold peaks in the cosmic infrared background. With a 4'.5 beam at the four highest frequencies, our sample is expected to include overdensities of galaxies in groups or clusters, lensed galaxies, and chance line-of-sight projections. In this paper, we perform a dedicated Herschel-SPIRE follow-up of 234 such Planck targets, finding a significant excess of red 350 and 500μm sources, in comparison to reference SPIRE fields. About 94% of the SPIRE sources in the Planck fields are consistent with being overdensities of galaxies peaking at 350μm, with 3% peaking at 500μm, and none peaking at 250μm. About 3% are candidate lensed systems, all 12 of which have secure spectroscopic confirmations, placing them atmore » redshifts z> 2.2. Only four targets are Galactic cirrus, yielding a success rate in our search strategy for identifying extragalactic sources within the Planck beam of better than 98%. The galaxy overdensities are detected with high significance, half of the sample showing statistical significance above 10σ. The SPIRE photometric redshifts of galaxies in overdensities suggest a peak at z ≃ 2, assuming a single common dust temperature for the sources of T d = 35 K. Under this assumption, we derive an infrared (IR) luminosity for each SPIRE source of about 4 × 10 12L , yielding star formation rates of typically 700 M yr -1. If the observed overdensities are actual gravitationally-bound structures, the total IR luminosity of all their SPIRE-detected sources peaks at 4 × 10 13L , leading to total star formation rates of perhaps 7 × 10 3M yr -1 per overdensity. Taken together, these sources show the signatures of high-z (z> 2) protoclusters of intensively star-forming galaxies. Finally, all these observations confirm the uniqueness of our sample compared to reference samples and demonstrate the ability of the all-skyPlanck-HFI cold sources to select populations of cosmological and astrophysical interest for structure formation studies.« less

Authors:
; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; more »; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; « less
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC)
Contributing Org.:
Planck Collaboration
OSTI Identifier:
1392971
Grant/Contract Number:  
AC02-05CH11231
Resource Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Astronomy and Astrophysics
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 582; Journal ID: ISSN 0004-6361
Publisher:
EDP Sciences
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
79 ASTRONOMY AND ASTROPHYSICS; high-redshift galaxies; galaxy clusters; evolution of galaxies; star formation; cosmology observations; large-scale structure of Universe

Citation Formats

Aghanim, N., Altieri, B., Arnaud, M., Ashdown, M., Aumont, J., Baccigalupi, C., Banday, A. J., Barreiro, R. B., Bartolo, N., Battaner, E., Beelen, A., Benabed, K., Benoit-Lévy, A., Bernard, J. -P., Bersanelli, M., Bethermin, M., Bielewicz, P., Bonavera, L., Bond, J. R., Borrill, J., Bouchet, F. R., Boulanger, F., Burigana, C., Calabrese, E., Canameras, R., Cardoso, J. -F., Catalano, A., Chamballu, A., Chary, R. -R., Chiang, H. C., Christensen, P. R., Clements, D. L., Colombi, S., Couchot, F., Crill, B. P., Curto, A., Danese, L., Dassas, K., Davies, R. D., Davis, R. J., de Bernardis, P., de Rosa, A., de Zotti, G., Delabrouille, J., Diego, J. M., Dole, H., Donzelli, S., Doré, O., Douspis, M., Ducout, A., Dupac, X., Efstathiou, G., Elsner, F., Enßlin, T. A., Falgarone, E., Flores-Cacho, I., Forni, O., Frailis, M., Fraisse, A. A., Franceschi, E., Frejsel, A., Frye, B., Galeotta, S., Galli, S., Ganga, K., Giard, M., Gjerløw, E., González-Nuevo, J., Górski, K. M., Gregorio, A., Gruppuso, A., Guéry, D., Hansen, F. K., Hanson, D., Harrison, D. L., Helou, G., Hernández-Monteagudo, C., Hildebrandt, S. R., Hivon, E., Hobson, M., Holmes, W. A., Hovest, W., Huffenberger, K. M., Hurier, G., Jaffe, A. H., Jaffe, T. R., Keihänen, E., Keskitalo, R., Kisner, T. S., Kneissl, R., Knoche, J., Kunz, M., Kurki-Suonio, H., Lagache, G., Lamarre, J. -M., Lasenby, A., Lattanzi, M., Lawrence, C. R., Le Floc’h, E., Leonardi, R., Levrier, F., Liguori, M., Lilje, P. B., Linden-Vørnle, M., López-Caniego, M., Lubin, P. M., Macías-Pérez, J. F., MacKenzie, T., Maffei, B., Mandolesi, N., Maris, M., Martin, P. G., Martinache, C., Martínez-González, E., Masi, S., Matarrese, S., Mazzotta, P., Melchiorri, A., Mennella, A., Migliaccio, M., Moneti, A., Montier, L., Morgante, G., Mortlock, D., Munshi, D., Murphy, J. A., Natoli, P., Negrello, M., Nesvadba, N. P. H., Novikov, D., Novikov, I., Omont, A., Pagano, L., Pajot, F., Pasian, F., Perdereau, O., Perotto, L., Perrotta, F., Pettorino, V., Piacentini, F., Piat, M., Plaszczynski, S., Pointecouteau, E., Polenta, G., Popa, L., Pratt, G. W., Prunet, S., Puget, J. -L., Rachen, J. P., Reach, W. T., Reinecke, M., Remazeilles, M., Renault, C., Ristorcelli, I., Rocha, G., Roudier, G., Rusholme, B., Sandri, M., Santos, D., Savini, G., Scott, D., Spencer, L. D., Stolyarov, V., Sunyaev, R., Sutton, D., Sygnet, J. -F., Tauber, J. A., Terenzi, L., Toffolatti, L., Tomasi, M., Tristram, M., Tucci, M., Umana, G., Valenziano, L., Valiviita, J., Valtchanov, I., Van Tent, B., Vieira, J. D., Vielva, P., Wade, L. A., Wandelt, B. D., Wehus, I. K., Welikala, N., Zacchei, A., and Zonca, A. Planck intermediate results: XXVII. High-redshift infrared galaxy overdensity candidates and lensed sources discovered by Planck and confirmed by Herschel -SPIRE. United States: N. p., 2015. Web. doi:10.1051/0004-6361/201424790.
Aghanim, N., Altieri, B., Arnaud, M., Ashdown, M., Aumont, J., Baccigalupi, C., Banday, A. J., Barreiro, R. B., Bartolo, N., Battaner, E., Beelen, A., Benabed, K., Benoit-Lévy, A., Bernard, J. -P., Bersanelli, M., Bethermin, M., Bielewicz, P., Bonavera, L., Bond, J. R., Borrill, J., Bouchet, F. R., Boulanger, F., Burigana, C., Calabrese, E., Canameras, R., Cardoso, J. -F., Catalano, A., Chamballu, A., Chary, R. -R., Chiang, H. C., Christensen, P. R., Clements, D. L., Colombi, S., Couchot, F., Crill, B. P., Curto, A., Danese, L., Dassas, K., Davies, R. D., Davis, R. J., de Bernardis, P., de Rosa, A., de Zotti, G., Delabrouille, J., Diego, J. M., Dole, H., Donzelli, S., Doré, O., Douspis, M., Ducout, A., Dupac, X., Efstathiou, G., Elsner, F., Enßlin, T. A., Falgarone, E., Flores-Cacho, I., Forni, O., Frailis, M., Fraisse, A. A., Franceschi, E., Frejsel, A., Frye, B., Galeotta, S., Galli, S., Ganga, K., Giard, M., Gjerløw, E., González-Nuevo, J., Górski, K. M., Gregorio, A., Gruppuso, A., Guéry, D., Hansen, F. K., Hanson, D., Harrison, D. L., Helou, G., Hernández-Monteagudo, C., Hildebrandt, S. R., Hivon, E., Hobson, M., Holmes, W. A., Hovest, W., Huffenberger, K. M., Hurier, G., Jaffe, A. H., Jaffe, T. R., Keihänen, E., Keskitalo, R., Kisner, T. S., Kneissl, R., Knoche, J., Kunz, M., Kurki-Suonio, H., Lagache, G., Lamarre, J. -M., Lasenby, A., Lattanzi, M., Lawrence, C. R., Le Floc’h, E., Leonardi, R., Levrier, F., Liguori, M., Lilje, P. B., Linden-Vørnle, M., López-Caniego, M., Lubin, P. M., Macías-Pérez, J. F., MacKenzie, T., Maffei, B., Mandolesi, N., Maris, M., Martin, P. G., Martinache, C., Martínez-González, E., Masi, S., Matarrese, S., Mazzotta, P., Melchiorri, A., Mennella, A., Migliaccio, M., Moneti, A., Montier, L., Morgante, G., Mortlock, D., Munshi, D., Murphy, J. A., Natoli, P., Negrello, M., Nesvadba, N. P. H., Novikov, D., Novikov, I., Omont, A., Pagano, L., Pajot, F., Pasian, F., Perdereau, O., Perotto, L., Perrotta, F., Pettorino, V., Piacentini, F., Piat, M., Plaszczynski, S., Pointecouteau, E., Polenta, G., Popa, L., Pratt, G. W., Prunet, S., Puget, J. -L., Rachen, J. P., Reach, W. T., Reinecke, M., Remazeilles, M., Renault, C., Ristorcelli, I., Rocha, G., Roudier, G., Rusholme, B., Sandri, M., Santos, D., Savini, G., Scott, D., Spencer, L. D., Stolyarov, V., Sunyaev, R., Sutton, D., Sygnet, J. -F., Tauber, J. A., Terenzi, L., Toffolatti, L., Tomasi, M., Tristram, M., Tucci, M., Umana, G., Valenziano, L., Valiviita, J., Valtchanov, I., Van Tent, B., Vieira, J. D., Vielva, P., Wade, L. A., Wandelt, B. D., Wehus, I. K., Welikala, N., Zacchei, A., & Zonca, A. Planck intermediate results: XXVII. High-redshift infrared galaxy overdensity candidates and lensed sources discovered by Planck and confirmed by Herschel -SPIRE. United States. doi:10.1051/0004-6361/201424790.
Aghanim, N., Altieri, B., Arnaud, M., Ashdown, M., Aumont, J., Baccigalupi, C., Banday, A. J., Barreiro, R. B., Bartolo, N., Battaner, E., Beelen, A., Benabed, K., Benoit-Lévy, A., Bernard, J. -P., Bersanelli, M., Bethermin, M., Bielewicz, P., Bonavera, L., Bond, J. R., Borrill, J., Bouchet, F. R., Boulanger, F., Burigana, C., Calabrese, E., Canameras, R., Cardoso, J. -F., Catalano, A., Chamballu, A., Chary, R. -R., Chiang, H. C., Christensen, P. R., Clements, D. L., Colombi, S., Couchot, F., Crill, B. P., Curto, A., Danese, L., Dassas, K., Davies, R. D., Davis, R. J., de Bernardis, P., de Rosa, A., de Zotti, G., Delabrouille, J., Diego, J. M., Dole, H., Donzelli, S., Doré, O., Douspis, M., Ducout, A., Dupac, X., Efstathiou, G., Elsner, F., Enßlin, T. A., Falgarone, E., Flores-Cacho, I., Forni, O., Frailis, M., Fraisse, A. A., Franceschi, E., Frejsel, A., Frye, B., Galeotta, S., Galli, S., Ganga, K., Giard, M., Gjerløw, E., González-Nuevo, J., Górski, K. M., Gregorio, A., Gruppuso, A., Guéry, D., Hansen, F. K., Hanson, D., Harrison, D. L., Helou, G., Hernández-Monteagudo, C., Hildebrandt, S. R., Hivon, E., Hobson, M., Holmes, W. A., Hovest, W., Huffenberger, K. M., Hurier, G., Jaffe, A. H., Jaffe, T. R., Keihänen, E., Keskitalo, R., Kisner, T. S., Kneissl, R., Knoche, J., Kunz, M., Kurki-Suonio, H., Lagache, G., Lamarre, J. -M., Lasenby, A., Lattanzi, M., Lawrence, C. R., Le Floc’h, E., Leonardi, R., Levrier, F., Liguori, M., Lilje, P. B., Linden-Vørnle, M., López-Caniego, M., Lubin, P. M., Macías-Pérez, J. F., MacKenzie, T., Maffei, B., Mandolesi, N., Maris, M., Martin, P. G., Martinache, C., Martínez-González, E., Masi, S., Matarrese, S., Mazzotta, P., Melchiorri, A., Mennella, A., Migliaccio, M., Moneti, A., Montier, L., Morgante, G., Mortlock, D., Munshi, D., Murphy, J. A., Natoli, P., Negrello, M., Nesvadba, N. P. H., Novikov, D., Novikov, I., Omont, A., Pagano, L., Pajot, F., Pasian, F., Perdereau, O., Perotto, L., Perrotta, F., Pettorino, V., Piacentini, F., Piat, M., Plaszczynski, S., Pointecouteau, E., Polenta, G., Popa, L., Pratt, G. W., Prunet, S., Puget, J. -L., Rachen, J. P., Reach, W. T., Reinecke, M., Remazeilles, M., Renault, C., Ristorcelli, I., Rocha, G., Roudier, G., Rusholme, B., Sandri, M., Santos, D., Savini, G., Scott, D., Spencer, L. D., Stolyarov, V., Sunyaev, R., Sutton, D., Sygnet, J. -F., Tauber, J. A., Terenzi, L., Toffolatti, L., Tomasi, M., Tristram, M., Tucci, M., Umana, G., Valenziano, L., Valiviita, J., Valtchanov, I., Van Tent, B., Vieira, J. D., Vielva, P., Wade, L. A., Wandelt, B. D., Wehus, I. K., Welikala, N., Zacchei, A., and Zonca, A. Wed . "Planck intermediate results: XXVII. High-redshift infrared galaxy overdensity candidates and lensed sources discovered by Planck and confirmed by Herschel -SPIRE". United States. doi:10.1051/0004-6361/201424790. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1392971.
@article{osti_1392971,
title = {Planck intermediate results: XXVII. High-redshift infrared galaxy overdensity candidates and lensed sources discovered by Planck and confirmed by Herschel -SPIRE},
author = {Aghanim, N. and Altieri, B. and Arnaud, M. and Ashdown, M. and Aumont, J. and Baccigalupi, C. and Banday, A. J. and Barreiro, R. B. and Bartolo, N. and Battaner, E. and Beelen, A. and Benabed, K. and Benoit-Lévy, A. and Bernard, J. -P. and Bersanelli, M. and Bethermin, M. and Bielewicz, P. and Bonavera, L. and Bond, J. R. and Borrill, J. and Bouchet, F. R. and Boulanger, F. and Burigana, C. and Calabrese, E. and Canameras, R. and Cardoso, J. -F. and Catalano, A. and Chamballu, A. and Chary, R. -R. and Chiang, H. C. and Christensen, P. R. and Clements, D. L. and Colombi, S. and Couchot, F. and Crill, B. P. and Curto, A. and Danese, L. and Dassas, K. and Davies, R. D. and Davis, R. J. and de Bernardis, P. and de Rosa, A. and de Zotti, G. and Delabrouille, J. and Diego, J. M. and Dole, H. and Donzelli, S. and Doré, O. and Douspis, M. and Ducout, A. and Dupac, X. and Efstathiou, G. and Elsner, F. and Enßlin, T. A. and Falgarone, E. and Flores-Cacho, I. and Forni, O. and Frailis, M. and Fraisse, A. A. and Franceschi, E. and Frejsel, A. and Frye, B. and Galeotta, S. and Galli, S. and Ganga, K. and Giard, M. and Gjerløw, E. and González-Nuevo, J. and Górski, K. M. and Gregorio, A. and Gruppuso, A. and Guéry, D. and Hansen, F. K. and Hanson, D. and Harrison, D. L. and Helou, G. and Hernández-Monteagudo, C. and Hildebrandt, S. R. and Hivon, E. and Hobson, M. and Holmes, W. A. and Hovest, W. and Huffenberger, K. M. and Hurier, G. and Jaffe, A. H. and Jaffe, T. R. and Keihänen, E. and Keskitalo, R. and Kisner, T. S. and Kneissl, R. and Knoche, J. and Kunz, M. and Kurki-Suonio, H. and Lagache, G. and Lamarre, J. -M. and Lasenby, A. and Lattanzi, M. and Lawrence, C. R. and Le Floc’h, E. and Leonardi, R. and Levrier, F. and Liguori, M. and Lilje, P. B. and Linden-Vørnle, M. and López-Caniego, M. and Lubin, P. M. and Macías-Pérez, J. F. and MacKenzie, T. and Maffei, B. and Mandolesi, N. and Maris, M. and Martin, P. G. and Martinache, C. and Martínez-González, E. and Masi, S. and Matarrese, S. and Mazzotta, P. and Melchiorri, A. and Mennella, A. and Migliaccio, M. and Moneti, A. and Montier, L. and Morgante, G. and Mortlock, D. and Munshi, D. and Murphy, J. A. and Natoli, P. and Negrello, M. and Nesvadba, N. P. H. and Novikov, D. and Novikov, I. and Omont, A. and Pagano, L. and Pajot, F. and Pasian, F. and Perdereau, O. and Perotto, L. and Perrotta, F. and Pettorino, V. and Piacentini, F. and Piat, M. and Plaszczynski, S. and Pointecouteau, E. and Polenta, G. and Popa, L. and Pratt, G. W. and Prunet, S. and Puget, J. -L. and Rachen, J. P. and Reach, W. T. and Reinecke, M. and Remazeilles, M. and Renault, C. and Ristorcelli, I. and Rocha, G. and Roudier, G. and Rusholme, B. and Sandri, M. and Santos, D. and Savini, G. and Scott, D. and Spencer, L. D. and Stolyarov, V. and Sunyaev, R. and Sutton, D. and Sygnet, J. -F. and Tauber, J. A. and Terenzi, L. and Toffolatti, L. and Tomasi, M. and Tristram, M. and Tucci, M. and Umana, G. and Valenziano, L. and Valiviita, J. and Valtchanov, I. and Van Tent, B. and Vieira, J. D. and Vielva, P. and Wade, L. A. and Wandelt, B. D. and Wehus, I. K. and Welikala, N. and Zacchei, A. and Zonca, A.},
abstractNote = {We have used the Planck all-sky submillimetre and millimetre maps to search for rare sources distinguished by extreme brightness, a few hundred millijanskies, and their potential for being situated at high redshift. These “cold” Planck sources, selected using the High Frequency Instrument (HFI) directly from the maps and from the Planck Catalogue of Compact Sources (PCCS), all satisfy the criterion of having their rest-frame far-infrared peak redshifted to the frequency range 353–857 GHz. This colour-selection favours galaxies in the redshift range z = 2–4, which we consider as cold peaks in the cosmic infrared background. With a 4'.5 beam at the four highest frequencies, our sample is expected to include overdensities of galaxies in groups or clusters, lensed galaxies, and chance line-of-sight projections. In this paper, we perform a dedicated Herschel-SPIRE follow-up of 234 such Planck targets, finding a significant excess of red 350 and 500μm sources, in comparison to reference SPIRE fields. About 94% of the SPIRE sources in the Planck fields are consistent with being overdensities of galaxies peaking at 350μm, with 3% peaking at 500μm, and none peaking at 250μm. About 3% are candidate lensed systems, all 12 of which have secure spectroscopic confirmations, placing them at redshifts z> 2.2. Only four targets are Galactic cirrus, yielding a success rate in our search strategy for identifying extragalactic sources within the Planck beam of better than 98%. The galaxy overdensities are detected with high significance, half of the sample showing statistical significance above 10σ. The SPIRE photometric redshifts of galaxies in overdensities suggest a peak at z ≃ 2, assuming a single common dust temperature for the sources of Td = 35 K. Under this assumption, we derive an infrared (IR) luminosity for each SPIRE source of about 4 × 1012L⊙, yielding star formation rates of typically 700 M⊙ yr-1. If the observed overdensities are actual gravitationally-bound structures, the total IR luminosity of all their SPIRE-detected sources peaks at 4 × 1013L⊙, leading to total star formation rates of perhaps 7 × 103M⊙ yr-1 per overdensity. Taken together, these sources show the signatures of high-z (z> 2) protoclusters of intensively star-forming galaxies. Finally, all these observations confirm the uniqueness of our sample compared to reference samples and demonstrate the ability of the all-skyPlanck-HFI cold sources to select populations of cosmological and astrophysical interest for structure formation studies.},
doi = {10.1051/0004-6361/201424790},
journal = {Astronomy and Astrophysics},
number = ,
volume = 582,
place = {United States},
year = {2015},
month = {9}
}

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    Works referencing / citing this record:

    Planck intermediate results : XXXIX. The
    journal, December 2016