skip to main content
DOE PAGES title logo U.S. Department of Energy
Office of Scientific and Technical Information

Title: Ion acceleration and heating by kinetic Alfvén waves associated with magnetic reconnection

Abstract

In a previous study on the generation and signatures of kinetic Alfv en waves (KAWs) associated with magnetic reconnection in a current sheet revealed that KAWs are a common feature during reconnection [Liang et al. J. Geophys. Res.: Space Phys. 121, 6526 (2016)]. In this paper, ion acceleration and heating by the KAWs generated during magnetic reconnection are investigated with a three-dimensional (3-D) hybrid model. It is found that in the outflow region, a fraction of inflow ions are accelerated by the KAWs generated in the leading bulge region of reconnection, and their parallel velocities gradually increase up to slightly super-Alfv enic. As a result of waveparticle interactions, an accelerated ion beam forms in the direction of the anti-parallel magnetic field, in addition to the core ion population, leading to the development of non-Maxwellian velocity distributions, which include a trapped population with parallel velocities consistent with the wave speed. We then heat ions in both parallel and perpendicular directions. In the parallel direction, the heating results from nonlinear Landau resonance of trapped ions. In the perpendicular direction, however, evidence of stochastic heating by the KAWs is found during the acceleration stage, with an increase of magnetic moment μ. The coherence in the T $$\perp$$ ion temperature and the perpendicular electric and magnetic fields of KAWs also provides evidence for perpendicular heating by KAWs. The parallel and perpendicular heating of the accelerated beam occur simultaneously, leading to the development of temperature anisotropy with the perpendicular temperature T $$\perp$$>T $$\parallel$$ temperature. The heating rate agrees with the damping rate of the KAWs, and the heating is dominated by the accelerated ion beam. In the later stage, with the increase of the fraction of the accelerated ions, interaction between the accelerated beam and the core population also contributes to the ion heating, ultimately leading to overlap of the beams and an overall anisotropy with T $$\perp$$>T $$\parallel$$.

Authors:
 [1];  [2];  [3];  [1];  [2]
  1. Dalian Univ. of Technology (China). School of Physics
  2. Auburn Univ., AL (United States). Physics Dept.
  3. Andrews Univ., Berrien Springs, MI (United States). Dept. of Engineering and Computer Science
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Auburn Univ., AL (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC), Basic Energy Sciences (BES) (SC-22); National Science Foundation (NSF)
OSTI Identifier:
1392930
Alternate Identifier(s):
OSTI ID: 1392712
Grant/Contract Number:  
SC0010486; AGS 1405225
Resource Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Physics of Plasmas
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 24; Journal Issue: 10; Journal ID: ISSN 1070-664X
Publisher:
American Institute of Physics (AIP)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
70 PLASMA PHYSICS AND FUSION TECHNOLOGY; magnetic reconnection; kinetic Alfven waves; ion acceleration; ion heating; nonlinear wave-particle interaction

Citation Formats

Liang, Ji, Lin, Yu, Johnson, Jay R., Wang, Zheng-Xiong, and Wang, Xueyi. Ion acceleration and heating by kinetic Alfvén waves associated with magnetic reconnection. United States: N. p., 2017. Web. doi:10.1063/1.4991978.
Liang, Ji, Lin, Yu, Johnson, Jay R., Wang, Zheng-Xiong, & Wang, Xueyi. Ion acceleration and heating by kinetic Alfvén waves associated with magnetic reconnection. United States. doi:10.1063/1.4991978.
Liang, Ji, Lin, Yu, Johnson, Jay R., Wang, Zheng-Xiong, and Wang, Xueyi. Tue . "Ion acceleration and heating by kinetic Alfvén waves associated with magnetic reconnection". United States. doi:10.1063/1.4991978. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1392930.
@article{osti_1392930,
title = {Ion acceleration and heating by kinetic Alfvén waves associated with magnetic reconnection},
author = {Liang, Ji and Lin, Yu and Johnson, Jay R. and Wang, Zheng-Xiong and Wang, Xueyi},
abstractNote = {In a previous study on the generation and signatures of kinetic Alfv en waves (KAWs) associated with magnetic reconnection in a current sheet revealed that KAWs are a common feature during reconnection [Liang et al. J. Geophys. Res.: Space Phys. 121, 6526 (2016)]. In this paper, ion acceleration and heating by the KAWs generated during magnetic reconnection are investigated with a three-dimensional (3-D) hybrid model. It is found that in the outflow region, a fraction of inflow ions are accelerated by the KAWs generated in the leading bulge region of reconnection, and their parallel velocities gradually increase up to slightly super-Alfv enic. As a result of waveparticle interactions, an accelerated ion beam forms in the direction of the anti-parallel magnetic field, in addition to the core ion population, leading to the development of non-Maxwellian velocity distributions, which include a trapped population with parallel velocities consistent with the wave speed. We then heat ions in both parallel and perpendicular directions. In the parallel direction, the heating results from nonlinear Landau resonance of trapped ions. In the perpendicular direction, however, evidence of stochastic heating by the KAWs is found during the acceleration stage, with an increase of magnetic moment μ. The coherence in the T$\perp$ ion temperature and the perpendicular electric and magnetic fields of KAWs also provides evidence for perpendicular heating by KAWs. The parallel and perpendicular heating of the accelerated beam occur simultaneously, leading to the development of temperature anisotropy with the perpendicular temperature T$\perp$>T$\parallel$ temperature. The heating rate agrees with the damping rate of the KAWs, and the heating is dominated by the accelerated ion beam. In the later stage, with the increase of the fraction of the accelerated ions, interaction between the accelerated beam and the core population also contributes to the ion heating, ultimately leading to overlap of the beams and an overall anisotropy with T$\perp$>T$\parallel$.},
doi = {10.1063/1.4991978},
journal = {Physics of Plasmas},
number = 10,
volume = 24,
place = {United States},
year = {2017},
month = {9}
}

Journal Article:
Free Publicly Available Full Text
Publisher's Version of Record

Citation Metrics:
Cited by: 1 work
Citation information provided by
Web of Science

Save / Share:

Works referenced in this record:

Observation of Ion Acceleration and Heating during Collisionless Magnetic Reconnection in a Laboratory Plasma
journal, May 2013


Perpendicular ion Heating by Low-Frequency AlfvÉN-Wave Turbulence in the Solar wind
journal, August 2010


Kinetic Alfvén waves and plasma transport at the magnetopause
journal, June 1997

  • Johnson, Jay R.; Cheng, C. Z.
  • Geophysical Research Letters, Vol. 24, Issue 11
  • DOI: 10.1029/97GL01333

Observation of fast stochastic ion heating by drift waves
journal, September 1987


Stochastic ion heating at the magnetopause due to kinetic Alfvén waves
journal, December 2001

  • Johnson, Jay R.; Cheng, C. Z.
  • Geophysical Research Letters, Vol. 28, Issue 23
  • DOI: 10.1029/2001GL013509

Drift-Kinetic Alfvén Waves Observed near a Reconnection X Line in the Earth’s Magnetopause
journal, August 2005


Proton acceleration in antiparallel collisionless magnetic reconnection: Kinetic mechanisms behind the fluid dynamics: PROTON DYNAMICS IN MAGNETIC RECONNECTION
journal, September 2011

  • Aunai, N.; Belmont, G.; Smets, R.
  • Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics, Vol. 116, Issue A9
  • DOI: 10.1029/2011JA016688

Ion heating resulting from pickup in magnetic reconnection exhausts: ION PICKUP
journal, May 2009

  • Drake, J. F.; Swisdak, M.; Phan, T. D.
  • Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics, Vol. 114, Issue A5
  • DOI: 10.1029/2008JA013701

A two-dimensional hybrid simulation of the magnetotail reconnection layer
journal, September 1996

  • Lin, Y.; Swift, D. W.
  • Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics, Vol. 101, Issue A9
  • DOI: 10.1029/96JA01457

Control of neo-classical double tearing modes by differential poloidal rotation in reversed magnetic shear tokamak plasmas
journal, February 2017


Heating of the plasma sheet by broadband electromagnetic waves
journal, December 2014

  • Chaston, C. C.; Bonnell, J. W.; Salem, C.
  • Geophysical Research Letters, Vol. 41, Issue 23
  • DOI: 10.1002/2014GL062116

Use of a Hybrid Code for Global-Scale Plasma Simulation
journal, June 1996


Resonant plasma heating below the cyclotron frequency
journal, May 2002

  • White, Roscoe; Chen, Liu; Lin, Zhihong
  • Physics of Plasmas, Vol. 9, Issue 5
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.1445180

Three-Dimensional Mode Conversion Associated with Kinetic Alfvén Waves
journal, September 2012


Energy budgets in collisionless magnetic reconnection: Ion heating and bulk acceleration
journal, December 2011

  • Aunai, N.; Belmont, G.; Smets, R.
  • Physics of Plasmas, Vol. 18, Issue 12
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.3664320

Spectroscopic Constraints on Models of Ion Cyclotron Resonance Heating in the Polar Solar Corona and High‐Speed Solar Wind
journal, June 1999

  • Cranmer, Steven R.; Field, George B.; Kohl, John L.
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 518, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1086/307330

Observed constraint on proton-proton relative velocities in the solar wind
journal, January 2000

  • Goldstein, Bruce E.; Neugebauer, Marcia; Zhang, L. Dennis
  • Geophysical Research Letters, Vol. 27, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1029/1999GL003637

Electromagnetic ion beam instabilities
journal, January 1984

  • Gary, S. Peter; Smith, Charles W.; Lee, Martin A.
  • Physics of Fluids, Vol. 27, Issue 7
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.864797

Perpendicular ion heating by velocity-shear-driven waves
journal, May 1997

  • Walker, D. N.; Amatucci, W. E.; Ganguli, G.
  • Geophysical Research Letters, Vol. 24, Issue 10
  • DOI: 10.1029/97GL01102

On resonant heating below the cyclotron frequency
journal, November 2001

  • Chen, Liu; Lin, Zhihong; White, Roscoe
  • Physics of Plasmas, Vol. 8, Issue 11
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.1406939

Generation of nonlinear Alfvén and magnetosonic waves by beam–plasma interaction
journal, September 2003


Use of a hybrid code to model the Earth's magnetosphere
journal, February 1995

  • Swift, Daniel W.
  • Geophysical Research Letters, Vol. 22, Issue 3
  • DOI: 10.1029/94GL03082

Kinetic Alfvén waves in three-dimensional magnetic reconnection: HYBRID SIMULATION ON KAWS IN 3-D
journal, July 2016

  • Liang, Ji; Lin, Yu; Johnson, Jay R.
  • Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics, Vol. 121, Issue 7
  • DOI: 10.1002/2016JA022505

Ion heating by waves with frequencies below the ion gyrofrequency
journal, November 1986


Physical processes of driven magnetic reconnection in collisionless plasmas: Zero guide field case
journal, October 2015

  • Cheng, C. Z.; Inoue, S.; Ono, Y.
  • Physics of Plasmas, Vol. 22, Issue 10
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.4932337

Cross-Field Heating of Coronal Ions by Low-Frequency Kinetic Alfvn Waves
journal, March 2004

  • Voitenko, Yuriy; Goossens, Marcel
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 605, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1086/420927

Kinetic Alfvén Wave Turbulence and Transport through a Reconnection Diffusion Region
journal, January 2009


Energy transport by kinetic-scale electromagnetic waves in fast plasma sheet flows: TAIL ENERGY TRANSPORT
journal, September 2012

  • Chaston, C. C.; Bonnell, J. W.; Clausen, L.
  • Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics, Vol. 117, Issue A9
  • DOI: 10.1029/2012JA017863

Geospace Environment Modeling (GEM) magnetic reconnection challenge: MHD and Hall MHD-constant and current dependent resistivity models
journal, March 2001

  • Otto, A.
  • Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics, Vol. 106, Issue A3
  • DOI: 10.1029/1999JA001005

Ion gyroradius effects on particle trapping in kinetic Alfvén waves along auroral field lines: PARTICLE TRAPPING IN KAWS
journal, November 2016

  • Damiano, P. A.; Johnson, J. R.; Chaston, C. C.
  • Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics, Vol. 121, Issue 11
  • DOI: 10.1002/2016JA022566

Magnetic reconnection
journal, March 2010


A Kinetic AlfvÉN wave and the Proton Distribution Function in the fast Solar wind
journal, August 2010


Anisotropic and mass-dependent energization of heavy ions by kinetic Alfvén waves
journal, May 2006


Electromagnetic ion/ion cyclotron instability: Theory and simulations
journal, January 1992

  • Winske, D.; Omidi, N.
  • Journal of Geophysical Research, Vol. 97, Issue A10
  • DOI: 10.1029/92JA00902

Ion Acceleration and Direct Ion Heating in Three-Component Magnetic Reconnection
journal, April 1996


Super-Alfvénic Propagation of Substorm Reconnection Signatures and Poynting Flux
journal, August 2011