skip to main content
DOE PAGES title logo U.S. Department of Energy
Office of Scientific and Technical Information

Title: Quantifying intermediate-frequency heterogeneities of SOFC electrodes using X-ray computed tomography

Abstract

The electrodes in solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) consist of three phases interconnected in three dimensions. The volume needed to describe quantitatively such microstructures depends on several lengths scales, which are functions of materials properties and fabrication methods. This work focuses on quantifying the volume needed to represent “intermediate frequency” heterogeneities in electrodes of a commercial SOFC using X-ray computed tomography (CT) over two different length scales. Electrode volumes of 150 x 150 x 9 μm 3 were extracted from a synchrotron-based micro-CT data set, with 13 μm 3 voxels. 13.6 x 19.8 x 19.4 μm 3 of the cathode and 26.3 x 24.8 x 15.7 μm 3 of the anode were extracted from laboratory nano-CT data sets, both with 65 3 nm 3 voxels. After comparing the variation across sub-regions for the greyscale values from the micro-CT, and for the phase fractions and triple phase boundary densities from the nano-CT, it was found that the sub-region length scales needed to yield statistically similar average values were an order of magnitude larger than those expected to capture the “high frequency” heterogeneity related to the discrete nature of the three phases in electrodes. In conclusion, the challenge of quantifying such electrodesmore » using available experimental methods is discussed.« less

Authors:
 [1];  [1];  [1];  [2];  [1];  [3];  [1]; ORCiD logo [1]
  1. Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)
  2. Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)
  3. National Energy Technology Lab., Morgantown, WV (United States)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC), Basic Energy Sciences (BES) (SC-22); National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL); National Science Foundation (NSF)
OSTI Identifier:
1392614
Grant/Contract Number:  
AC02-06CH11357
Resource Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Journal of the American Ceramic Society
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 100; Journal Issue: 5; Journal ID: ISSN 0002-7820
Publisher:
American Ceramic Society
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
36 MATERIALS SCIENCE; microstructure; oxides; porous materials; solid oxide fuel cells; X-ray computed tomography

Citation Formats

Epting, William K., Mansley, Zachary, Menasche, David B., Kenesei, Peter, Suter, Robert M., Gerdes, Kirk, Litster, Shawn, and Salvador, Paul A. Quantifying intermediate-frequency heterogeneities of SOFC electrodes using X-ray computed tomography. United States: N. p., 2017. Web. doi:10.1111/jace.14775.
Epting, William K., Mansley, Zachary, Menasche, David B., Kenesei, Peter, Suter, Robert M., Gerdes, Kirk, Litster, Shawn, & Salvador, Paul A. Quantifying intermediate-frequency heterogeneities of SOFC electrodes using X-ray computed tomography. United States. doi:10.1111/jace.14775.
Epting, William K., Mansley, Zachary, Menasche, David B., Kenesei, Peter, Suter, Robert M., Gerdes, Kirk, Litster, Shawn, and Salvador, Paul A. Fri . "Quantifying intermediate-frequency heterogeneities of SOFC electrodes using X-ray computed tomography". United States. doi:10.1111/jace.14775. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1392614.
@article{osti_1392614,
title = {Quantifying intermediate-frequency heterogeneities of SOFC electrodes using X-ray computed tomography},
author = {Epting, William K. and Mansley, Zachary and Menasche, David B. and Kenesei, Peter and Suter, Robert M. and Gerdes, Kirk and Litster, Shawn and Salvador, Paul A.},
abstractNote = {The electrodes in solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) consist of three phases interconnected in three dimensions. The volume needed to describe quantitatively such microstructures depends on several lengths scales, which are functions of materials properties and fabrication methods. This work focuses on quantifying the volume needed to represent “intermediate frequency” heterogeneities in electrodes of a commercial SOFC using X-ray computed tomography (CT) over two different length scales. Electrode volumes of 150 x 150 x 9 μm3 were extracted from a synchrotron-based micro-CT data set, with 13 μm3 voxels. 13.6 x 19.8 x 19.4 μm3 of the cathode and 26.3 x 24.8 x 15.7 μm3 of the anode were extracted from laboratory nano-CT data sets, both with 653 nm3 voxels. After comparing the variation across sub-regions for the greyscale values from the micro-CT, and for the phase fractions and triple phase boundary densities from the nano-CT, it was found that the sub-region length scales needed to yield statistically similar average values were an order of magnitude larger than those expected to capture the “high frequency” heterogeneity related to the discrete nature of the three phases in electrodes. In conclusion, the challenge of quantifying such electrodes using available experimental methods is discussed.},
doi = {10.1111/jace.14775},
journal = {Journal of the American Ceramic Society},
number = 5,
volume = 100,
place = {United States},
year = {2017},
month = {3}
}

Journal Article:
Free Publicly Available Full Text
Publisher's Version of Record

Citation Metrics:
Cited by: 8 works
Citation information provided by
Web of Science

Save / Share:

Works referenced in this record:

Three-dimensional microstructural changes in the Ni–YSZ solid oxide fuel cell anode during operation
journal, May 2012


Flexible multiphysics simulation of porous electrodes: Conformal to 3D reconstructed microstructures
journal, January 2013


Performance Deterioration of Ni–YSZ Anode Induced by Electrochemically Generated Steam in Solid Oxide Fuel Cells
journal, January 2010

  • Matsui, Toshiaki; Kishida, Ryo; Kim, Jin-Young
  • Journal of The Electrochemical Society, Vol. 157, Issue 5
  • DOI: 10.1149/1.3336830

Anode microstructural change upon long-term operation for the cathode-supported tubular-type SOFC
journal, October 2012


Three-Dimensional Reconstruction of Porous LSCF Cathodes
journal, January 2007

  • Gostovic, D.; Smith, J. R.; Kundinger, D. P.
  • Electrochemical and Solid-State Letters, Vol. 10, Issue 12
  • DOI: 10.1149/1.2794672

An aqueous electrolyte, sodium ion functional, large format energy storage device for stationary applications
journal, September 2012


Non invasive, multiscale 3D X-Ray characterization of porous functional composites and membranes, with resolution from MM to sub 50 NM
journal, March 2009


3D phase mapping of solid oxide fuel cell YSZ/Ni cermet at the nanoscale by holographic X-ray nanotomography
journal, December 2013


Review—Electromobility: Batteries or Fuel Cells?
journal, January 2015

  • Gröger, Oliver; Gasteiger, Hubert A.; Suchsland, Jens-Peter
  • Journal of The Electrochemical Society, Vol. 162, Issue 14
  • DOI: 10.1149/2.0211514jes

The effect of phosphine in syngas on Ni–YSZ anode-supported solid oxide fuel cells
journal, September 2009


Microstructural and chemical evolution near anode triple phase boundary in Ni/YSZ solid oxide fuel cells
journal, December 2011


Exergy and economic analyses of advanced IGCC–CCS and IGFC–CCS power plants
journal, July 2013


Nondestructive Nanoscale 3D Elemental Mapping and Analysis of a Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Anode
journal, January 2010

  • Grew, Kyle N.; Chu, Yong S.; Yi, Jaemock
  • Journal of The Electrochemical Society, Vol. 157, Issue 6
  • DOI: 10.1149/1.3355957

Quantitative Characterization of SOFC Nickel-YSZ Anode Microstructure Degradation Based on Focused-Ion-Beam 3D-Reconstruction Technique
journal, January 2012

  • Jiao, Zhenjun; Shikazono, Naoki; Kasagi, Nobuhide
  • Journal of The Electrochemical Society, Vol. 159, Issue 3
  • DOI: 10.1149/2.045203jes

Analysis of triple phase contact in Ni–YSZ microstructures using non-destructive X-ray tomography with synchrotron radiation
journal, August 2010


Long-Term Stability of SOFC Composite Cathode Activated by Electrocatalyst Infiltration
journal, January 2012

  • Lee, Shiwoo; Miller, Nicholas; Gerdes, Kirk
  • Journal of The Electrochemical Society, Vol. 159, Issue 7
  • DOI: 10.1149/2.067207jes

3D Electrode Microstructure Reconstruction and Modelling
conference, January 2009

  • Rüger, Bernd; Joos, Jochen; Weber, André
  • 216th ECS Meeting, ECS Transactions
  • DOI: 10.1149/1.3205650

Pressurized testing of a planar solid oxide fuel cell stack
journal, October 2013


Room-temperature stationary sodium-ion batteries for large-scale electric energy storage
journal, January 2013

  • Pan, Huilin; Hu, Yong-Sheng; Chen, Liquan
  • Energy & Environmental Science, Vol. 6, Issue 8
  • DOI: 10.1039/c3ee40847g

Reduced-Temperature Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Based on YSZ Thin-Film Electrolyte
journal, January 1997

  • de Souza, Selmar
  • Journal of The Electrochemical Society, Vol. 144, Issue 3
  • DOI: 10.1149/1.1837484

Investigation of Mn/Co coated T441 alloy as SOFC interconnect by on-cell tests
journal, April 2011

  • Wu, Junwei; Gemmen, Randall S.; Manivannan, Ayyakkannu
  • International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, Vol. 36, Issue 7
  • DOI: 10.1016/j.ijhydene.2010.04.115

Three-dimensional numerical analysis of mixed ionic and electronic conducting cathode reconstructed by focused ion beam scanning electron microscope
journal, March 2011


Quantification of double-layer Ni/YSZ fuel cell anodes from focused ion beam tomography data
journal, January 2014


Three-dimensional reconstruction of a solid-oxide fuel-cell anode
journal, June 2006

  • Wilson, James R.; Kobsiriphat, Worawarit; Mendoza, Roberto
  • Nature Materials, Vol. 5, Issue 7
  • DOI: 10.1038/nmat1668

3D Non-destructive morphological analysis of a solid oxide fuel cell anode using full-field X-ray nano-tomography
journal, November 2012


Impact of pore microstructure evolution on polarization resistance of Ni-Yttria-stabilized zirconia fuel cell anodes
journal, March 2011


Degradation of LaSr2Fe2CrO9−δ solid oxide fuel cell anodes in phosphine-containing fuels
journal, July 2010


Three-dimensional reconstruction and analysis of an entire solid oxide fuel cell by full-field transmission X-ray microscopy
journal, July 2013


Energy-storage technologies and electricity generation
journal, December 2008


Possible use of vanadium redox-flow batteries for energy storage in small grids and stand-alone photovoltaic systems
journal, March 2004


Representative volume: Existence and size determination
journal, November 2007


Quantitative three-dimensional microstructure of a solid oxide fuel cell cathode
journal, May 2009

  • Wilson, James R.; Duong, Anh T.; Gameiro, Marcio
  • Electrochemistry Communications, Vol. 11, Issue 5, p. 1052-1056
  • DOI: 10.1016/j.elecom.2009.03.010

Quantification of SOFC anode microstructure based on dual beam FIB-SEM technique
journal, February 2010


On the accuracy of triple phase boundary lengths calculated from tomographic image data
journal, September 2014


Analysis of impact of sintering time on microstructure of LSM-YSZ composite cathodes by X-ray nanotomography
journal, June 2013


Evaluation of system configurations for solid oxide fuel cell-based micro-combined heat and power generators in residential applications
journal, August 2006


Evaluation of SOFC anode polarization simulation using three-dimensional microstructures reconstructed by FIB tomography
journal, April 2011


Comparison of SOFC cathode microstructure quantified using X-ray nanotomography and focused ion beam–scanning electron microscopy
journal, June 2011

  • Nelson, George J.; Harris, William M.; Lombardo, Jeffrey J.
  • Electrochemistry Communications, Vol. 13, Issue 6
  • DOI: 10.1016/j.elecom.2011.03.016

The Orientation Distributions of Lines, Surfaces, and Interfaces around Three-Phase Boundaries in Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Cathodes
journal, June 2011


Enhancing SOFC cathode performance by surface modification through infiltration
journal, January 2014

  • Ding, Dong; Li, Xiaxi; Lai, Samson Yuxiu
  • Energy & Environmental Science, Vol. 7, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1039/c3ee42926a

    Works referencing / citing this record:

    Crystallographic character of grain boundaries resistant to hydrogen-assisted fracture in Ni-base alloy 725
    journal, August 2018


    Crystallographic character of grain boundaries resistant to hydrogen-assisted fracture in Ni-base alloy 725
    journal, August 2018