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Title: Evidence for exocellular Arsenic in Fronds of Pteris vittata

The arsenic (As) hyperaccumulating fern species Pteris vittata (PV) is capable of accumulating large quantities of As in its aboveground tissues. Transformation to AsIII and vacuolar sequestration is believed to be the As detoxification mechanism in PV. Here we present evidence for a preponderance of exocellular As in fronds of Pteris vittata despite numerous reports of a tolerance mechanism involving intracellular compartmentalization. Results of an extraction experiment show that 43–71% of the As extruded out of the fronds of PV grown in 0.67, 3.3 and 6.7 mM AsV. SEM-EDX analysis showed that As was localized largely on the lower pinna surface, with smaller amounts on the upper surface, as crystalline deposits. X-ray fluorescence imaging of pinna cross-sections revealed preferential localization of As on the pinna surface in the proximity of veins, with the majority localized near the midrib. Majority of the As in the pinnae is contained in the apoplast rather than vacuoles. Our results provide evidence that exocellular sequestration is potentially a mechanism of As detoxification in PV, particularly at higher As concentrations, raising concern about its use for phytoremediation.
ORCiD logo [1] ;  [2] ;  [3] ;  [4] ;  [5] ; ORCiD logo [6] ;  [7] ;  [1] ; ORCiD logo [8]
  1. Michigan Technological University, Houghton, MI (United States). Department of Biological Sciences
  2. Nazareth College of Rochester, NY (United States). Department of Biology
  3. Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Photon Sciences Division
  4. Parsons, Somerset, NJ (United States)
  5. Rutgers Univ., Newark, NJ (United States). Department of Earth & Environmental Sciences
  6. Western Kentucky University, Bowling Green, KY (United States). Department of Biology
  7. Montclair State University, Montclair, NJ (United States). Department of Earth and Environmental Studies
  8. Stevens Institute of Technology, Hoboken, NJ (United States). Department of Civil, Environmental and Ocean Engineering
Publication Date:
Report Number(s):
Journal ID: ISSN 2045-2322
Grant/Contract Number:
SC0012704; AC02-98CH10886; AC02-06CH11357
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Scientific Reports
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 7; Journal Issue: 1; Journal ID: ISSN 2045-2322
Nature Publishing Group
Research Org:
Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)
Sponsoring Org:
USDOE Office of Science (SC), Basic Energy Sciences (BES) (SC-22)
Country of Publication:
United States
OSTI Identifier: